Porto Seguro is a city located in the far south of Bahia, Brazil. The city has an estimated population of 145,431, covers 2,287 square kilometres, has a population density of 52.7 residents per square kilometer. The area that includes Porto Seguro and neighboring Santa Cruz Cabrália and Prado holds a distinctive place in Brazilian history: in 1500 it was the first landing point of Portuguese navigators, principally Pedro Álvares Cabral; the crime rate is considered high, as is the case in all Bahia State The weather is always hot and humid in the summer, though reaching 40°C, mild in the winter, averaging 25°C with a minimum of 19°C. During July and November the probability of rain is greater. Porto Seguro is divided into five districts Porto Seguro, it contains the 894 hectares Rio dos Frades Wildlife Refuge, created in 2007 to protect the mouth of the Frades River. The municipality contains part of the Corumbau Marine Extractive Reserve, a protected offshore fishing area of 89,597 hectares.
The city is now considered one of the most important destinations of Brazil, receiving tourists from Brazil, Argentina and Chile. The city and surrounding area have some luxury hotels and hundreds of smaller hotels, as well as an airport well connected with the major Brazilian cities. Apart from tourism, other important activities are agriculture, reforestation with eucalyptus trees and trade and services; the city offers one of the most famous Carnival parties in Bahia. “Electric Trios”, dancing “blocos” and “cordões” drag thousands of tourists along the "Passarela do Álcool" Passageway and to beach bars. Historical Downtown Area The historical site in the Cidade Alta area is a National Heritage Monument put under government trust by federal decree since 1973, it was one of the first towns in Brazil and played an important role during the first years of European colonization. It includes three churches and around 40 buildings, restored by the state government for the 500th anniversary celebration of Brazilian discovery.
Monte Pascoal National Park Created in 1961 to preserve the place where Brazil was discovered by Portuguese warriors. It includes swamp areas, salt marshes, river marshes, a coastline around the rocky, round hill, considered the first point of land to be seen by the Portuguese traveler Pedro Álvares Cabral’s crew, it extends over an area of 144.8 square kilometres, including the Pataxó tribe’s indigenous protection land. Besides its historical importance, it offers protection to one of the last stretches of Atlantic forest in the Northeastern area of Brazil; the area is aimed at preserving valuable woods such as Brazil wood, still hosts many species of animals threatened by extinction, including the collared sloth and black bear. Recife de Fora Sea Park It was the first city-owned park in Brazil. During low tide, visitors can view a wide range of coral reefs and many sea species. Glória Hillock These are ruins of what many consider to be the São Francisco Church, where Ynaiá, an Indian woman who died for the love of a crewmember of Portuguese navigator Gonçalo Coelho's fleet, was buried.
The São Francisco Church is said to be the first one built in Brazil in baroque style in 1504, whose ruins date to 1730. The Nossa Senhora da Penha Matrix Church Located on Pero de Campos Tourinho Square, in Cidade Alta, it was built at the end of the 18th century, it comprises a nave, a main chapel, a sacristy, a bell tower. Jaqueira Indigenous Protection Reservation A huge jackfruit tree trunk, tumbled down by nature itself, represents the return to one’s origins and acts as a historical and cultural reference to honor the ancestral fathers and mothers of Pataxó families who moved into this 8.27 square kilometres Indian protection area. Their huts, spread around original Atlantic Forest woods, retain the original formats, giving visitors the impression of being back 500 years in time to pre-Columbian Brazil; the Discovery Outdoors Museum An outdoors, natural museum, whose “art galleries” are its beaches and natural trails and whose “collection” is a set of geographical formations and traditional villages, disposed as art works in permanent exhibition, engraved in ancient media, which are spread along the 130 square kilometres length of Bahia’s historical southern coastline.
Porto Seguro Airport was opened in 1982. Its passenger terminal was simple and small. In 1997, the airport was reopened, having received a new passenger terminal, new aircraft parking lot, extension of runway to operate large aircraft. In 2010 the airport had some major renovations preparing the city to host several of the International football teams who had a training camp in Porto Seguro for the World Cup 2014. Saiba Tudo Acesse: Porto Seguro - Bahia
Paubrasilia echinata is a species of flowering plant in the legume family, is endemic to the Atlantic Forest. It is a Brazilian timber tree known as Pernambuco wood or Brazilwood and is the nation tree of Brazil; this plant has a dense, orange-red heartwood that takes a high shine, it is the premier wood used for making bows for stringed instruments. The wood yields a red dye called brazilin, which oxidizes to brazilein; the name pau-brasil was applied to certain species of the genus Caesalpinia in the medieval period, was given its original scientific binomial name Caesalpinia echinata in 1785 by Lamarck.. More recent taxonomic studies have suggested that it merits recognition as a separate genus, it was thus suggested to be renamed Paubrasilia echinata in 2016; the name of Brazil is shortened from Terra do Brasil "land of brazilwood". When Portuguese explorers found these trees on the coast of South America, they recognised it as a relative of those Asian species of Caesalpinia that were used in Europe for dye, or Portuguese pau-brasil, or as Sappanwood.
The South American trees soon became the better source of red dye. Brazilwood trees were such a large part of the exports and economy of the land that the country which sprang up in that part of the world took its name from them and is now called Brazil. Botanically, several tree species are involved, all in the family Fabaceae; the term "brazilwood" is most used to refer to the species Paubrasilia echinata, but it is applied to other species, such as Caesalpinia sappan and Haematoxylum brasiletto. The tree is known by other names, as ibirapitanga, Tupi for "red wood". In the bow-making business it is usual to refer to some species other than Paubrasilia echinata as "Brazilwood"; the prized Paubrasilia echinata is called "Pernambuco wood" in this particular context. The brazilwood tree may reach up to 15 metres in height, the dark brown bark flakes in large patches, revealing the lustrous blood-red heartwood underneath; the leaves are pinnate and each consists of between 9 and 19 small, leathery leaflets, which are broadly oblong in shape.
The flower stalk, or inflorescence, is branched and contains between 15 and 40 yellow perfumed flowers, which may be pollinated by bees. The petals are yellow with a blood-red blotch; the fruits are oval-shaped woody seedpods, measuring up to 7.3 centimetres long and 2.6 centimetres across. The branches and fruit are covered with small thorns. There are some important differences between geographically distinct populations and it is thought that separate subspecies of the pau brasil may exist; this tree may have some medicinal properties and has been used as an astringent and antidiuretic by local people. Starting in the 16th centuries, brazilwood became valued in Europe and quite difficult to get. A related wood Sappanwood coming from Asia was traded in powder form and used as a red dye in the manufacture of luxury textiles, such as velvet, in high demand during the Renaissance; when Portuguese navigators discovered present-day Brazil, on April 22, 1500, they saw that brazilwood was abundant along the coast and in its hinterland, along the rivers.
In a few years, a hectic and profitable operation for felling and shipping all the brazilwood logs they could get was established, as a crown-granted Portuguese monopoly. The rich commerce which soon followed stimulated other nations to try to harvest and smuggle brazilwood contraband out of Brazil, corsairs to attack loaded Portuguese ships in order to steal their cargo. For example, the unsuccessful attempt in 1555 of a French expedition led by Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon, vice-admiral of Brittany and corsair under the King, to establish a colony in present-day Rio de Janeiro was motivated in part by the bounty generated by economic exploitation of brazilwood. In addition, this plant is cited in Flora Brasiliensis by Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius. Restoration of the species in the wild is hampered by the fact that it is a climax community species, which will develop well only when planted amongst secondary forest vegetation. Although many saplings have been distributed or sold during recent decades, that has led to the tree being planted in places outside its natural range, with somewhat poor results, such as happens with brazilwood trees used for urban landscaping in the city of São Paulo, whose development and flowering is hampered by the colder environment.
Excessive harvesting led to a steep decrease in the number of brazilwood trees in the 18th century, causing the collapse of this economic activity. Presently, the species is nearly extirpated in most of its original range. Brazilwood is listed as an endangered species by the IUCN, it is cited in the official list of endangered flora of Brazil; the trade of brazilwood is to be banned in the immediate future, creating a major problem in the bow-making industry which values this wood. The International Pernambuco Conservation Initiative, whose members are the bowmakers who rely on pernambuco for their livelihoods, is working to replant the trees. IPCI advocates the use of other woods for violin bows to raise money to plant pernambuco seedlings; the shortage of pernambuco has helped the carbon fiber and composite bow industry t
Not to be confused with nearby Harfleur. Honfleur is a commune in the Calvados department in northwestern France, it is located on the southern bank of the estuary of the Seine across from le Havre and close to the exit of the Pont de Normandie. Its inhabitants are called Honfleurais, it is known for its old port, characterized by its houses with slate-covered frontages, painted many times by artists, including in particular Gustave Courbet, Eugène Boudin, Claude Monet and Johan Jongkind, forming the école de Honfleur which contributed to the appearance of the Impressionist movement. The Sainte-Catherine church, which has a bell tower separate from the principal building, is the largest church made out of wood in France; the first written record of Honfleur is a reference by Richard III, Duke of Normandy, in 1027. By the middle of the 12th century, the city represented a significant transit point for goods from Rouen to England. Located on the estuary of one of the principal rivers of France with a safe harbour and rich hinterland, Honfleur profited from its strategic position from the start of the Hundred Years' War.
The town's defences were strengthened by Charles V in order to protect the estuary of the Seine from attacks from the English. This was supported by the nearby port of Harfleur. However, Honfleur was taken and occupied by the English in 1357 and from 1419 to 1450; when under French control, raiding parties set out from the port to ransack the English coasts, including destroying the town of Sandwich, in Kent, England, in the 1450s. At the end of the Hundred Years' War, Honfleur benefited from the boom in maritime trade until the end of the 18th century. Trade was disturbed during the wars of religion in the 16th century; the port saw the departure of a number of explorers, in particular in 1503 of Binot Paulmierde Gonneville to the coasts of Brazil. In 1506, local man Jean Denis departed for the mouth of the Saint Lawrence. An expedition in 1608, organised by Samuel de Champlain, founded the city of Quebec in modern-day Canada. After 1608, Honfleur thrived on trade with Canada, the West Indies, the African coasts and the Azores.
As a result, the town became one of the five principal ports for the slave trade in France. During this time the rapid growth of the town saw the demolition of its fortifications on the orders of Colbert; the wars of the French revolution and the First Empire, in particular the continental blockade, caused the ruin of Honfleur. It only recovered during the 19th century with the trading of wood from northern Europe. Trade was however limited by the silting up of the entrance to the port and development of the modern port at Le Havre; the port however still functions today. Honfleur was liberated together by the British army - 19th Platoon of the 12th Devon's, 6th Air Landing Brigade, the Belgian army on 25 August 1944 and the Canadian army without any combat. Mentioned as Hunefleth in 1025. Traditional pronunciation: with the h aspirated, like in'loch', it is lost nowadays. The marker -fleur -fleu, widespread in Normandy, which means'stream, river running into the sea', was still in use in the 13th century as written in a document le fleu de Lestre, meaning the Lestre river.
It could come from a word of Old Norse origin flóð, compare Old English flōd, which means'estuary','branch of the sea', combined with flói'river running into the sea' for the meaning. But according to the numerous old mentions of Barfleur, it is more the OE flēot'run of water', that can be found in the English place-names in -fleet, such as Adingfleet, Ousefleet, combined often with a male's name; the element Hon- seems to come from an Anglo-Saxon given name Huna or the Norse Húni, variant form Húnn, found close to Honfleur in Honnaville, homonym of the Honneville at Saint-Georges-du-Mesnil. Such a connection between two close place-names can be noted in the Norman toponymy, they are, in any case, close places: Crémanfleur / Crémanville. The -ville element is always combined with a personal name; the similarity with the name of Bay of Húnaflói in Iceland points to Honfleur being of Norse origin. Honfleur is in the Norman département of Calvados, located on the southern bank of the estuary of the Seine, across from le Havre and close to the exit of the Pont de Normandie.
The town is at the eastern extremity of the 40 km coastline called the Côte Fleurie. The population has hovered between 8,000 and 9,000 since 1793 and, as of 2006, had 8,177 inhabitants who are called Honfleurais according to INSEE Honfleur is the seat of a canton including the communes of Ablon, Barneville-la-Bertran, Cricquebœuf, Équemauville, Genneville, Gonneville-sur-Honfleur, Pennedepie, Quetteville, La Rivière-Saint-Sauveur, Saint-Gatien-des-Bois, Le Theil-en-Auge; these 13 communes form the intercommunality of Pays de Honfleur. In 1973 Honfleur merged with the commune of Vasouy; the INSEE code used to be 14725. The church is dedicated to Saint Catherine of Alexandria as evidenced by a wooden sculpture above the porch of the bell tower which separates the two naves, she is shown holding a sword. The first nave is the oldest part of the building, dating to the second half of the 15th century, constructed right after the Hundred Years War, it was built on the mo
The Tupi people were one of the most numerous peoples indigenous to Brazil, before colonisation. Scholars believe that while they first settled in the Amazon rainforest, from about 2,900 years ago the Tupi started to migrate southward and occupied the Atlantic coast of Southeast Brazil; the Tupi people inhabited all of Brazil's coast when the Portuguese first arrived there. In 1500, their population was estimated at 1 million people, nearly equal to the population of Portugal at the time, they were divided into each tribe numbering from 300 to 2,000 people. Some examples of these tribes are: Tupiniquim, Tupinambá, Tabajara, Caetés, Temiminó, Tamoios; the Tupi were adept agriculturalists. There was not a unified Tupi identity despite the fact. From the 16th century onward, the Tupi, like other natives from the region, were assimilated, enslaved, or killed by diseases such as smallpox or by Portuguese settlers and Bandeirantes, nearly leading to their complete annihilation, with the exception of a few isolated communities.
The remnants of these tribes are today confined to Indian reservations or acculturated to some degree into the dominant society. The Tupi were divided into several tribes which would engage in war with each other. In these wars the Tupi would try to capture their enemies to kill them in cannibalistic rituals; the warriors captured from other Tupi tribes were eaten as it was believed by the Indians that such act would lead to their strength being absorbed and digested, thus in fear of absorbing weakness, they chose only to sacrifice warriors perceived to be strong and brave. For the Tupi warriors when prisoners, it was a great honor to die valiantly during battle or to display courage during the festivities leading to his sacrifice; the Tupi have been documented to eat the remains of dead relatives as a form of honoring them. The practice of cannibalism among the Tupi was made famous in Europe by Hans Staden, a German soldier and mercenary, traveling to Brazil to steal riches, captured by the Tupi in 1552.
In his account published in 1557, he tells that the Tupi carried him to their village where it was claimed he was to be devoured at the next festivity. There, he won the friendship of a powerful chief, whom he cured of a disease, his life was spared. Cannibalistic rituals among Tupi and other tribes in Brazil decreased after European contact and religious intervention; when Cabeza de Vaca, a Spanish conquistador, arrived in Santa Catarina in 1541, for instance, he attempted to ban cannibalistic practices in the name of the King of Spain. Because our understanding of Tupi cannibalism relies on primary source accounts of European writers, the existence of cannibalism has been disputed by some in academic circles. William Arens seeks to discredit Staden's and other writers' accounts of cannibalism in his book The Man-Eating Myth: Anthropology & Anthropophagy, where he claims that when concerning the Tupinambá, "rather than dealing with an instance of serial documentation of cannibalism, we are more confronting only one source of dubious testimony, incorporated verbatim into the written reports of others claiming to be eyewitnesses".
Many indigenous peoples were important for the formation of the Brazilian people, but the main group was the Tupi. When the Portuguese explorers arrived in Brazil in the 16th century, the Tupi were the first Amerindian group to have contact with them. Soon, a process of miscegenation between Portuguese settlers and indigenous women started; the Portuguese colonists brought women, making the Indian women the "breeding matrix of the Brazilian people". When the first Europeans arrived, the phenomenon of "cunhadismo" began to spread by the colony. Cunhadismo was an old Indian tradition of incorporating strangers to their community; the Indians offered the Portuguese an Indian girl as wife. Once he agreed, he formed a bond of kinship with all the Indians of the tribe. Polygyny, a common practice among South American Indians, was adopted by European settlers; this way, a single European man could have dozens of Indian wives. Cunhadismo was used as recruitment of labour; the Portuguese could have many temericós and thus a huge number of Indian relatives who were induced to work for him to cut pau-brasil and take it to the ships on the coast.
In the process, a large mixed-race population was formed. Without the practice of cunhadismo, the Portuguese colonization was impractical; the number of Portuguese men in Brazil was small and Portuguese women were fewer in number. The proliferation of mixed-race people in the wombs of Indian women provided for the occupation of the territory and the consolidation of the Portuguese presence in the region. Although the Tupi population disappeared because of European diseases to which they had no resistance or because of slavery, a large population of maternal Tupi ancestry occupied much of Brazilian territory, taking the ancient traditions to several points of the country. Darcy Ribeiro wrote that the features of the first Brazilians were much more Tupi than Portuguese, the language that they spoke was a Tupi-based language, named Nheengatu or Língua Geral, a lingua franca in Brazil until the 18th century; the region of São Paulo was the biggest in the proliferation of Mamelucos, who in the 17th century under the name of Bandeirantes, spread throughout the Brazilian territory, from the Amazon rainforest to the extreme South.
They were responsible for t
The Royal Entry known by various names, including Triumphal Entry, Joyous Entry, consisted of the ceremonies and festivities accompanying a formal entry by a ruler or his representative into a city in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Period in Europe. The entry centred on a procession carrying the entering prince into the city, where he was greeted and paid appropriate homage by the civic authorities. A feast and other celebrations would follow; the Entry began as a gesture of loyalty and fealty by a city to the ruler, with its origins in the adventus celebrated for Roman emperors, which were formal entries far more frequent than triumphs. The first visit by a new ruler was the occasion, or the first visit with a new spouse. For the capital they merged with the Coronation festivities, for provincial cities they replaced it, sometimes as part of a Royal Progress, or tour of major cities in a realm. From the late Middle Ages entries became the occasion for lavish displays of pageantry and propaganda.
The devising of the iconography, aside from conventional patterns into which it settled, was managed with scrupulous care on the part of the welcoming city by municipal leaders in collaboration with the chapter of the cathedral, the university, or hired specialists. The greatest artists and composers of the period were involved in the creation of temporary decorations, of which little record now survives, at least from the early period; the contemporary account from Galbert of Bruges of the unadorned "Joyous Advent" of a newly installed Count of Flanders into "his" city of Bruges, in April 1127, shows that in the initial stage, undisguised by fawning and triumphalist imagery that came to disguise it, an Entry was similar to a parley, a formal truce between the rival powers of territorial magnate and walled city, in which reiteration of the city's "liberties" in the medieval sense, its rights and prerogatives, were set out in clear terms and legitimated by the presence of saintly relics: "On April 5... at twilight, the king with the newly elected Count William, marquis of Flanders, came into our town at Bruges.
The canons of Saint Donatian had come forth to meet them, bearing relics of the saints and welcoming the king and new count joyfully in a solemn procession worthy of a king. On April 6... the king and count assembled with their knights and ours, with the citizens and many Flemings in the usual field where reliquaries and relics of the saints had been collected. And when silence had been called for, the charter of the liberty of the church and of the privileges of Saint Donatian was read aloud before all... There was read the little charter of agreement between the count and our citizens... Binding themselves to accept this condition, the king and count took an oath on the relics of saints in the hearing of the clergy and people"; the procession of a new Pope to Rome was known as a possesso. A ruler with a new spouse would receive an Entry; the entry of Queen Isabeau of Bavaria into Paris in 1389 was described by the chronicler Froissart. The Entries of Charles IX of France and his Habsburg queen, Elizabeth of Austria, into Paris, March 1571, had been scheduled for Charles alone in 1561, for the entrate were celebrated towards the beginning of a reign, but the French Wars of Religion had made such festivities inappropriate, until the peace that followed the Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye signed in August 1570.
Until the mid-14th century, the occasions were simple. The city authorities waited for the prince and his party outside the city walls, after handing over a ceremonial key with a "loyal address" or speech, stopping to admire tableaux vivants such as those that were performed at the entry into Paris of Queen Isabeau of Bavaria, described in detail by the chronicler Froissart, conducted him through the streets which were transformed with colour, with houses on the route hanging tapestries and embroideries or carpets or bolts of cloth from their windows, with most of the population lining the route. At Valladolid in 1509 the town was so gay, so decked out in wealth and canopies and luxurious carpets, that not Florence or Venice could match it. All the beautiful ladies were delighted to be on display and were worth seeing, everything was so brilliantly arrayed, that I, who am of the town and have never left it, could not recognize it. Heraldic displays were ubiquitous: at Valladolid in 1509, the bulls in the fields outside the city were caparisoned with cloths painted with the royal arms and hung with bells.
Along the route the procession would halt to admire the set-pieces embellished with mottoes and pictured and living allegories, accompanied by declamations and the blare of trumpets and volleys of artillery. The procession would include members of the three Estates, with the nobility and gentry of the surrounding area, the clergy and guilds of the city processing behind the prince. From the mid-14th century the guild members wore special uniform clothes, each guild choosing a bright colour; the prince reciprocated by confirming, sometimes extending, the customary privileges of the city or a local area of which it was the capital. The prince visited the cathedral to be received by the bishop and confirm the privileges of the cathedral chapter also. There a Te Deum would be customary, music written for the occasion would be performed. During the 14th century, as courtly culture, with the court of Burgundy in the lead, began to stage elaborate dramas re-enacting battles or legends as entertainment during fea
Cabo Frio is a Brazilian municipality in Rio de Janeiro state, founded by the Portuguese on November 13, 1615. As of 2017, Cabo Frio's estimated population is 216,030 and its area is 410 km². Cabo Frio is served by Cabo Frio International Airport. Much of the content of this article comes from the corresponding Portuguese-language Wikipedia article. Cabo Frio Town Hall Cabo Frio Legislative Chamber
Pedro Álvares Cabral
Pedro Álvares Cabral was a Portuguese nobleman, military commander and explorer regarded as the European discoverer of Brazil. In 1500 Cabral conducted the first substantial exploration of the northeast coast of South America and claimed it for Portugal. While details of Cabral's early life remain unclear, it is known that he came from a minor noble family and received a good education, he was appointed to head an expedition to India in 1500, following Vasco da Gama's newly-opened route around Africa. The undertaking had the aim of returning with valuable spices and of establishing trade relations in India—bypassing the monopoly on the spice trade in the hands of Arab and Italian merchants. Although the previous expedition of Vasco da Gama to India, on its sea route, had recorded signs of land west of the southern Atlantic Ocean, Cabral led the first known expedition to have touched four continents: Europe, Africa and Asia, his fleet of 13 ships sailed far into the western Atlantic Ocean intentionally, made landfall on what he assumed to be a large island.
As the new land was within the Portuguese sphere according to the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, Cabral claimed it for the Portuguese Crown. He explored the coast, realizing that the large land mass was a continent, dispatched a ship to notify King Manuel I of the new territory; the continent was South America, the land he had claimed for Portugal came to be known as Brazil. The fleet reprovisioned and turned eastward to resume the journey to India. A storm in the southern Atlantic caused the loss of several ships, the six remaining ships rendezvoused in the Mozambique Channel before proceeding to Calicut in India. Cabral was successful in negotiating trading rights, but Arab merchants saw Portugal's venture as a threat to their monopoly and stirred up an attack by both Muslims and Hindus on the Portuguese entrepôt; the Portuguese sustained their facilities were destroyed. Cabral took vengeance by looting and burning the Arab fleet and bombarded the city in retaliation for its ruler having failed to explain the unexpected attack.
From Calicut the expedition sailed to the Kingdom of Cochin, another Indian city-state, where Cabral befriended its ruler and loaded his ships with coveted spices before returning to Europe. Despite the loss of human lives and ships, Cabral's voyage was deemed a success upon his return to Portugal; the extraordinary profits resulting from the sale of the spices bolstered the Portuguese Crown's finances and helped lay the foundation of a Portuguese Empire that would stretch from the Americas to the Far East. Cabral was passed over as a result of a quarrel with Manuel I, when a new fleet was assembled to establish a more robust presence in India. Having lost favor with the King, he retired to a private life, his accomplishments slipped into obscurity for more than 300 years. Decades after Brazil's independence from Portugal in the 19th century, Cabral's reputation began to be rehabilitated by Emperor Pedro II of Brazil. Historians have long argued whether Cabral was Brazil's discoverer, whether the discovery was accidental or intentional.
The first question has been settled by the observation that the few, cursory encounters by explorers before him were noticed at the time and contributed nothing to the future development and history of the land which would become Brazil, the sole Portuguese-speaking nation in the Americas. On the second question, no definite consensus has been formed, the intentional discovery hypothesis lacks solid proof. Although he was overshadowed by contemporary explorers, historians consider Cabral to be a major figure of the Age of Discovery. Little is certain regarding Pedro Álvares Cabral's life before, or following, his voyage which led to the discovery of Brazil, he was born in 1467 or 1468—the former year being the most likely—at Belmonte, about 30 kilometres from present-day Covilhã in central Portugal. He was a son of Fernão Álvares Cabral and Isabel Gouveia—one of five boys and six girls in the family. Cabral was christened Pedro Álvares de Gouveia and only supposedly upon his elder brother's death in 1503, did he begin using his father's surname.
The coat of arms of his family was drawn with two purple goats on a field of silver. Purple represented fidelity, the goats were derived from the family name. However, only his elder brother was entitled to make use of the family arms. Family lore said that the Cabrais were descendants of Caranus, the legendary first king of Macedonia. Caranus was, in turn, a supposed 7th-generation scion of the demigod Hercules. Myths aside, the historian James McClymont believes that another family tale might hold clues to the true origin of Cabral's family. According to that tradition, the Cabrais derive from a Castilian clan named the Cabreiras who bore a similar coat of arms; the Cabral family rose to prominence during the 14th century. Álvaro Gil Cabral was one of the few Portuguese nobles to remain loyal to Dom João I, King of Portugal during the war against the King of Castile. As a reward, João I presented Álvaro Gil with the hereditary fiefdom of Belmonte. Raised as a member of the lower nobility, Cabral was sent to the court of King Dom Afonso V in 1479 at around age 12.
He learned to bear arms and fight. He would have been age 17 on 30 June 1484 when he was named moço fidalgo (yo