Kentish Town is an area of northwest London, England in the London Borough of Camden north of Camden Town. The name of Kentish Town is derived from Ken-ditch or Caen-ditch, meaning the "bed of a waterway" and is otherwise unrelated to Kent. In researching the meaning of Ken-ditch, it has been noted that ken is the Celtic word for both "green" and "river", while ditch refers to the River Fleet, now a subterranean river. However, another theory is the name. Kentish Town was a small settlement on the River Fleet, it is first recorded during the reign of King John as kentisston. By 1456 Kentish Town was a thriving hamlet. In this period a chapel of ease was built for its inhabitants; the early 19th century brought modernisation, causing much of the area's rural qualities, the River Fleet and the 18th-century buildings to vanish, although pockets still remain, for example Little Green Street. Between the availability of public transport to it from London, its urbanisation, it was a popular resort. Large amounts of land were purchased to build the railway.
Kentish Town was a prime site for development as the Kentish Town Road was a major route from London northwards. Karl Marx was a famous resident, living at 46 Grafton Terrace from 1856. 1877 saw the beginning of mission work in the area as it was poor. The mission first held their services outside but as their funding increased they built a mission house and vicarage. One mission house of the area was Lyndhurst Hall which remained in use before being taken over by the Council; the Council wished it to sell it for residential use, the hall was demolished in 2006. During the 19th century and early 20th century the area of Kentish Town became the home of several piano and organ manufacturers, was described by The Piano Journal in 1901 as "...that healthful suburb dear to the heart of the piano maker". A network of streets in the East of Kentish Town has streets named after places or persons connected with Christ Church, Oxford viz: Oseney, Gaisford, Islip, Frideswide, Peckwater & Hammond. All these streets lay behind the Oxford Arms.
Some of the freehold of these streets is still in the name of Christ Church Oxford. A network of streets in the north of Kentish Town was part of a large estate owned by St John's College, Cambridge. Lady Margaret Road is named after foundress of St John's College. Burghley Road is named after Chancellor to Elizabeth I and benefactor of St John's. College Lane, Evangelist Road and Lady Somerset Road are street names linked to the estate of St John's College. In 1912 the Church of St. Silas the Martyr was erected and consecrated, by December of that year it became a parish in its own right, it can still be seen today along with the church of St Luke with St Paul and the Church of St. Barnabas; the present Church of England parish church is All Saints, Lupton Street. In his poem Parliament Hill Fields, Sir John Betjeman refers to "the curious Anglo-Norman parish church of Kentish Town"; this refers to the former parish Church of St John Kentish Town. Kentish Town Road contains one of London's many disused Tube stations.
South Kentish Town tube station was closed in June 1924 after strike action at the Lots Road power station meant the lift could not be used. It never reopened as a station, although it was used as an air raid shelter during World War II; the distinctive building is now occupied underground by a massage shop and on ground level by a'Cash Converters' pawn shop at the corner of Kentish Town Road and Castle Road. There have been proposals to rebuild the station. Kentish Town was to see further modernisation in the post-World War II period. However, the residential parts of Kentish Town, dating back to the mid-19th century have survived. Kentish Town is part of the Holborn and St Pancras seat, held by Labour Party MP Keir Starmer as of May 2015. Although considered traditional Labour heartland, the area has maintained a strong centrist vote. Kentish Town was an early base for the Social Democratic Party and in recent years the middle class population has returned large votes for the Green and Liberal Democrat parties.
In May 2006 the Liberal Democrats won two of the three Council seats in Kentish Town, strengthening this hold by taking the final seat in a by-election in November of the same year. In the Council elections in May 2010, Labour regained all three Council seats. In the 2011 census, 53% of the population was White British and 15% were White Other. In 2002 the comedy and drama film About a Boy was filmed in Lady Margaret Road, located at the top of Kentish Town, Oseney Crescent. Many of the filming locations used in the 2006 film Venus, starring Peter O'Toole, Leslie Phillips, Jodie Whittaker were in Kentish Town. In 1959 Lady Somerset Road and Oakford Road were used for the filming of Sapphire, a film exploring racial tension in London, directed by Basil Dearden; the Assembly House pub was the location for the 1971 film Villain starring Richard Burton. The 1993 comedy Bad Behaviour, featuring Stephen Rea and Sinéad Cusack, was set in Kentish Town and includes scenes set in several local streets and the Owl Bookshop.
The 1947 Ealing Studios film It Always Rains on Sunday had scenes shot in Clarence Way during 1944 or 46 showing Holy Trinity Church with just the
Lindley Murray, was an American Quaker who moved to England and became a writer and grammarian. Lindley Murray was born at Harper Tavern, Pennsylvania, on 27 March 1745, his father, Robert Murray, a member of an old Quaker family, was one of the leading New York merchants. Murray was the eldest of twelve children, all of whom he survived, although he was puny and delicate in childhood; when six years old, he was sent to school in Philadelphia, but soon left to accompany his parents to North Carolina, where they lived until 1753. They moved to New York, where Murray was sent to a good school, but proved a'heedless boy'. Contrary to his inclinations, he was placed. In spite of endeavors to foster in him the commercial spirit, the lad's interests were concentrated in science and literature. Collecting his books, he escaped to Burlington, New Jersey, entered a boarding-school, started to study French, his retreat was discovered, he was brought back to New York, allowed a private tutor. His father still desired him to apply himself to commerce, but he stated arguments in favor of a literary profession so ably in writing that his father's lawyer advised him to let the lad study law.
Four years Murray was called to the bar, practiced as counsel and attorney in the province of New York. At the age of twenty-two he married, in 1770 came to England, whither his father had preceded him, but Lindley returned in 1771 to New York. Here his practice became both large and lucrative, in spite of his conscientious care to'discourage litigation, to recommend a peaceable settlement of differences.' On the outbreak of hostilities in America, Murray went with his wife to Long Island, where four years were spent in fishing and shooting. On the declaration of independence he returned to New York, was so successful that he retired in 1783 to a beautiful place on the Hudson; as Murray's health was failing, he decided to try the English climate. In 1784, he left America and never returned; the remainder of his life was spent in literary pursuits near York. For the last sixteen years of his life, Murray's physical condition the result of Post-Polio Syndrome, confined him to his house. Charles Monaghan's 1998 biography, The Murrays of Murray Hill, long considered a standard work, has been succeeded by Fens-de Zeeuw's authoritative work on Murray's life and language use, in which several earlier misconceptions are set straight.
His library became noted for its philological treasures. He studied botany, his garden was said to exceed in variety the Royal Gardens at Kew; the summer house in which his grammars were composed still remains. Murray's first published work, The Power of Religion on the Mind, York, 1787, 20th edition 1842, was twice translated into French. To the 8th edition was added'Extracts from the Writings of divers Eminent Men representing the Evils of Stage Plays, &c.' Published separately 1789 and 1799. His attention was drawn to the want of suitable lesson-books for a Friends' school for girls in York, in 1795 he published his English Grammar; the manuscript petition from the teachers requesting him to prepare it has been preserved. The work became popular. See History of English grammars. In 1816, an edition corrected by the author was issued in 2 vols. 8vo. An'Abridgment' of this version by Murray, issued two years went through more than 120 editions of ten thousand each, it was printed at the New England Institution for the Blind in embossed characters, Boston, 1835, translated into Marathi, Bombay, 1837.
English Exercises followed, with A Key, both works were in large demand. Murray's English Reader and Introduction, issued 1799, 1800, 1801, were successful, as well as the Lecteur Francais, 1802, Introduction to the Lecteur Francais, 1807. An English Spelling Book, 1804, reached forty-four editions, was translated into Spanish. Of a First Book for Children the 150th thousand, with portrait and woodcuts, was issued in 1859; the sales of the Grammar, Exercises and Lecteur Francais brought Murray in each case £700, he devoted the whole sum to philanthropic objects. The copyright of his religious works. By his will, a sum of money for the purchase and distribution of religious literature was vested in trustees in America; when the Retreat for the Insane was founded at York by William Tuke in 1792, Murray did his utmost to second Tuke's efforts to introduce a humane system of treatment. He was a recorded minister of the York monthly meeting for eleven years, when'his voice failed and he asked permission to resign.
For the last 16 years of his life he never left the house. He died on 16 January 1826, aged 80. Murray married, on 22 June 1767, Hannah Dobson, who died 25 September 1834, they had no children. Extracts from the Writings of Divers Eminent Authors, of Different Religious Denominations. 1787 The Power of Religion on the Mind In Retirement, at Death. 1787 English Grammar Adapted to the Different Classes of Learners. With an Appendix, Containing Rules and Observations, for Assisting the More Advanced Students to Write with Perspicuity and Accuracy. By Lindley Murray. 1795. 1824 edition
Female education is a catch-all term of a complex set of issues and debates surrounding education for girls and women. It includes areas of gender equality and access to education, its connection to the alleviation of poverty. Involved are the issues of single-sex education and religious education, in that the division of education along gender lines as well as religious teachings on education have been traditionally dominant and are still relevant in contemporary discussions of educating females as a global consideration. In the field of female education in STEM, it has been shown that girls’ and women under-representation in science, technology and mathematics education is deep rooted. While the feminist movement promoted the importance of the issues attached to female education, the discussion is wide-ranging and by no means narrowly defined, it may include, for AIDS education. Universal education, meaning state-provided primary and secondary education independent of gender is not yet a global norm if it is assumed in most developed countries.
In some Western countries, women have surpassed men at many levels of education. For example, in the United States in 2005/2006, women earned 62% of associate degrees, 58% of bachelor's degrees, 60% of master's degrees, 50% of doctorates. Education for disabled women has improved. In 2011, Giusi Spagnolo became the first woman with Down Syndrome to graduate college in Europe. Improving girls' educational levels has been demonstrated to have clear impacts on the health and economic future of young women, which in turn improves the prospects of their entire community; the infant mortality rate of babies whose mothers have received primary education is half that of children whose mothers are illiterate. In the poorest countries of the world, 50% of girls do not attend secondary school. Yet, research shows that every extra year of school for girls increases their lifetime income by 15%. Improving female education, thus the earning potential of women, improves the standard of living for their own children, as women invest more of their income in their families than men do.
Yet, many barriers to education for girls remain. In some African countries, such as Burkina Faso, girls are unlikely to attend school for such basic reasons as a lack of private latrine facilities for girls. Higher attendance rates of high schools and university education among women in developing countries, have helped them make inroads to professional careers with better-paying salaries and wages. Education increases a woman's level of health awareness. Furthering women's levels of education and advanced training tends to lead to ages of initiation of sexual activity and first intercourse age at first marriage, age at first childbirth, as well as an increased likelihood to remain single, have no children, or have no formal marriage and alternatively, have increasing levels of long-term partnerships, it can lead to higher rates of barrier and chemical contraceptive use, can increase the level of resources available to women who divorce or are in a situation of domestic violence. It has been shown, in addition, to increase women's communication with their partners and their employers, to improve rates of civic participation such as voting or the holding of office.
In Pakistan, a negative relationship was found between the formal level of education a woman attains and the likelihood of violence against that woman. The researcher used a sampling method where participants are referred. Ethical and privacy issues made this the most convenient method. An informant played a major role in gathering information, cross-checked; the sample of victims of violence was made up of married women from ages 18–60 both from rural and urban communities. The study described different forms of physical violence that are present and provided an idea of what women go through across communities. Education in this study was stressed to be a necessity in eliminating violence. A discussion of political and social barriers is needed; the relationship is a lot more complicated than it seems, women can be illiterate but still become empowered. Immigrant Latina Women were part of a qualitative study of 8 to 10 participant groups, at a time, completed an 11-week program centered on self-esteem, domestic violence awareness and healthy relationships.
Immigrant Latina Women are a affected group by domestic violence. Though this program took place outside of a traditional classroom, critical thinking and emotional well-being were stressed, areas that should be acquired while in school. Lastly, though many of the women were illiterate they were still able to come away with a stronger sense of control over their own lives, an important life skill; the Empress Alexandra Russian Muslim School for Girls of Baku was the first secular school for Muslim girls in the world, it was established in Baku, Azerbaijan by Z. Tagiyev, national industrial magnate and philanthropist. Despite what might seem to have been a project worthy of much praise, Zeynalabdin Taghiyev had great difficulty in gaining permission to open the school, he met with vigorous resistance.
In classical mythology, Cupid is the god of desire, erotic love and affection. He is portrayed as the son of the love goddess Venus and the war god Mars, he is known in Latin as Amor. His Greek counterpart is Eros. Although Eros is portrayed as a slender winged youth in Classical Greek art, during the Hellenistic period, he was portrayed as a chubby boy. During this time, his iconography acquired the bow and arrow that represent his source of power: a person, or a deity, shot by Cupid's arrow is filled with uncontrollable desire. In myths, Cupid is a minor character who serves to set the plot in motion, he is a main character only in the tale of Cupid and Psyche, when wounded by his own weapons, he experiences the ordeal of love. Although other extended stories are not told about him, his tradition is rich in poetic themes and visual scenarios, such as "Love conquers all" and the retaliatory punishment or torture of Cupid. In art, Cupid appears in multiples as the Amores, or amorini in the terminology of art history, the equivalent of the Greek erotes.
Cupids are a frequent motif of both Roman art and Western art of the classical tradition. In the 15th century, the iconography of Cupid starts to become indistinguishable from the putto. Cupid continued to be a popular figure in the Middle Ages, when under Christian influence he had a dual nature as Heavenly and Earthly love. In the Renaissance, a renewed interest in classical philosophy endowed him with complex allegorical meanings. In contemporary popular culture, Cupid is shown drawing his bow to inspire romantic love as an icon of Valentine's Day; the Romans reinterpreted myths and concepts pertaining to the Greek Eros for Cupid in their own literature and art, medieval and Renaissance mythographers conflate the two freely. In the Greek tradition, Eros had a contradictory genealogy, he was among the primordial gods. In Hesiod's Theogony, only Chaos and Gaia are older. Before the existence of gender dichotomy, Eros functioned by causing entities to separate from themselves that which they contained.
At the same time, the Eros, pictured as a boy or slim youth was regarded as the child of a divine couple, the identity of whom varied by source. The influential Renaissance mythographer Natale Conti began his chapter on Cupid/Eros by declaring that the Greeks themselves were unsure about his parentage: Heaven and Earth and Aphrodite, Night and Ether, or Strife and Zephyr; the Greek travel writer Pausanias, he notes, contradicts himself by saying at one point that Eros welcomed Aphrodite into the world, at another that Eros was the son of Aphrodite and the youngest of the gods. In Latin literature, Cupid is treated as the son of Venus without reference to a father. Seneca says. Cicero, says that there were three Cupids, as well as three Venuses: the first Cupid was the son of Mercury and Diana, the second of Mercury and the second Venus, the third of Mars and the third Venus; this last Cupid was the equivalent of Anteros, "Counter-Love," one of the Erotes, the gods who embody aspects of love.
The multiple Cupids frolicking in art are the decorative manifestation of these proliferating loves and desires. During the English Renaissance, Christopher Marlowe wrote of "ten thousand Cupids". In the classical tradition, Cupid is most regarded as the son of Venus and Mars, whose love affair represented an allegory of Love and War; the duality between the primordial and the sexually conceived Eros accommodated philosophical concepts of Heavenly and Earthly Love in the Christian era. Cupid is winged because lovers are flighty and to change their minds, boyish because love is irrational, his symbols are the arrow and torch, "because love wounds and inflames the heart." These attributes and their interpretation were established by late antiquity, as summarized by Isidore of Seville in his Etymologiae. Cupid is sometimes depicted blindfolded and described as blind, not so much in the sense of sightless—since the sight of the beloved can be a spur to love—as blinkered and arbitrary; as described by Shakespeare in A Midsummer Night's Dream: In Botticelli's Allegory of Spring known by its Italian title La Primavera, Cupid is shown blindfolded while shooting his arrow, positioned above the central figure of Venus.
In ancient Roman art, cupids may carry or be surrounded by fruits, animals, or attributes of the Seasons or the wine-god Dionysus, symbolizing the earth's generative capacity. Cupid carries two kinds of arrows, or darts, one with a sharp golden point, the other with a blunt tip of lead. A person wounded by the golden arrow is filled with uncontrollable desire, but the one struck by the lead feels aversion and desires only to flee; the use of these arrows is described by the Latin poet Ovid in the first book of his Metamorphoses. When Apollo taunts Cupid as the lesser archer, Cupid shoots him with the golden arrow, but strikes the object of his desire, the nymph Daphne, with the lead. Trapped by Apollo's unwanted advances, Daphne prays to her father, the river god Peneus, who turns her into a laurel, the tree sacred to Apollo, it is the first of several tragic love affairs for Apollo. A variation is found in The Kingis Quair, a 15th-century poem attributed to James I of Scotland, in which Cupid has three arrows: gold, for a gentle "smiting", cured
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+