Oban is a resort town within the Argyll and Bute council area of Scotland. Despite its small size, it is the largest town between Fort William. During the tourist season, the town can play host to up to 25,000 people. Oban occupies a setting in the Firth of Lorn; the bay is a near perfect horseshoe, protected by the island of Kerrera. To the north, is the long low island of Lismore, the mountains of Morvern and Ardgour; the site where Oban now stands has been used by humans since at least mesolithic times, as evidenced by archaeological remains of cave dwellers found in the town. Just outside the town stands Dunollie Castle, on a site that overlooks the main entrance to the bay and has been fortified since the Bronze age. Prior to the 19th century, the town itself supported few households, sustaining only minor fishing, trading and quarrying industries, a few hardy tourists; the Renfrew trading company established a storehouse there in about 1714 as a local outlet for its merchandise, but a Custom-house was not deemed necessary until 1736 when "Oban being reckoned a proper place for clearing out vessels for the herring fishery".
The modern town of Oban grew up around the distillery, founded there in 1794. The town was raised to a burgh of barony in 1811 by royal charter. Sir Walter Scott visited the area in 1814, the year in which he published his poem The Lord of the Isles; the town was made a Parliamentary Burgh in 1833. A rail link - the Callander and Oban Railway - was authorised in 1864 but took years to reach the town; the final stretch of track to Oban opened on 30 June 1880. This brought further prosperity, giving new energy to tourism. At this time work on the ill-fated Oban Hydro was commenced but abandoned, left to fall into disrepair, after 1882 when Dr Orr, the schemes originator, realised he had grossly underestimated its cost. Work on McCaig's Tower, a prominent local landmark, started in 1895, it was paid for by John Stewart McCaig and was constructed, in hard times, to give work for local stone masons. However, its construction ceased in 1902 on the death of its benefactor. During World War II, Oban was used by Merchant and Royal Navy ships and was an important base in the Battle of the Atlantic.
The Royal Navy had a signal station near Ganavan, an anti-submarine indicator loop station, which detected any surface or submarine vessels between Oban and Lismore. There was a controlled minefield in the Sound of Kerrera, operated from a building near the caravan site at Gallanach. There was a Royal Air Force flying boat base at Ganavan and on Kerrera, an airfield at North Connel built by the Royal Air Force. A Sector Operations Room was built near the airfield. Oban was important during the Cold War because the first Transatlantic Telephone Cable came ashore at Gallanach Bay; this carried the Hot Line between the USSR presidents. At North Connel, next to the airfield/airport was the NRC of the Royal Observer Corps. Since the 1950s, the principal industry has remained tourism, though the town is an important ferry port, acting as the hub for Caledonian MacBrayne ferries to many of the islands of the Inner and Outer Hebrides; as with the rest of the British Isles, Oban experiences a maritime climate with cool summers and mild winters.
The nearest official Met Office weather station for which online records are available is at Dunstaffnage, about 2.7 miles north-north-east of Oban town centre. Rainfall is high, but thanks to the Gulf Stream, the temperature falls below 0 °C; the local culture is Gaelic. In 2011, 8.2% of the town's population over age 3 could speak Gaelic and 11.3% had some facility in the language. Oban is considered the home of the Royal National Mòd, since it was first held there in 1892, with ten competitors on a Saturday afternoon; the town hosted the centenary Mod in 1992 and in 2003 the 100th Mod, the two events attracting thousands of competitors and visitors. The Mod is held in Oban every 6–8 years, has last been held in October 2015. An annual Highland Games, known as the Argyllshire Gathering, is held in the town; the Corran Halls theatre acts as a venue for community events and touring entertainers, touring companies such as Scottish Opera. The town has a two-screen cinema, which closed in early 2010.
Thanks to a local community initiative supported by a number of famous names, it reopened in August 2012 as the Phoenix Cinema. Oban has itself been used as a backdrop to several films, including Ring of Bright Water and Morvern Callar; the Oban War and Peace Museum advances the education of present and future generations by collecting, maintaining and exhibiting items of historical and cultural interest relating to the Oban area in peacetime and during the war years. A museum operates within Oban Distillery, just behind the main seafront; the distillation of whisky in Oban predates the town: whisky has been produced on the site since 1794. The Hope MacDougall collection is a unique record of the working and domestic lives of people in Scotland. Music is central to Gaelic culture, there is lively interest in the town. In the 2010 pipe band season, the local Oban High School Pipe Band, led by Angus MacColl, was successful in winning the World Pipe Band Championships in Glasgow, the Cowal Games competition, an
St Columba's Cathedral
The Cathedral Church of St Columba in Oban is the seat of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Argyll and the Isles and mother church of the Diocese of Argyll and the Isles. The cathedral is located on the sea front at the northern end of Oban; the cathedral was designed in the Neo-Gothic style by the architect Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, the foundation stone being laid in 1932 and the building completed in 1959. The work was funded by money raised by the diocese in the USA, Canada and Ireland, it is constructed from blue Inverawe granite. In the Middle Ages the cathedral of the diocese of Argyll was north of Oban on the island of Lismore. Dedicated to St Moluag, Lismore Cathedral is now a Church of Scotland parish church. St. Columba's Cathedral Website
Matthew Freud is head of Freud Communications, an international public relations firm in the United Kingdom. Freud is the writer and politician Sir Clement Freud, his sister is television interviewer Emma Freud. His great-grandfather is Sigmund Freud and he is doubly related to the "father" of public relations, Edward Bernays, whose father was Sigmund Freud's brother-in-law and whose mother was Sigmund Freud's sister, he is the nephew of the late artist Lucian Freud and of the late writer Lady Caroline Blackwood, his cousins include fashion designer Bella Freud, novelists Susie Boyt and Esther Freud. He was educated at Westminster School and was excluded in his third year, whereupon he attended Pimlico Comprehensive. Freud founded Freud Communications. Adam Curtis in his documentary Century of the Self describes Matthew Freud as a star in the "new culture of public relations and marketing in politics and journalism" that rose in the Clinton-Blair years. PRWeek says that Freud is "the most influential PR professional in the UK".
Freud, his sister Emma and brother-in-law Richard Curtis, sit on the board of Trustees for Comic Relief. In May 2005, in partnership with Piers Morgan, he acquired ownership of the Press Gazette and the British Press Awards, in a deal worth £1million. Many major newspapers boycotted the event citing an apparent conflict of interest as one of the reasons. Freud's first wife was Caroline Hutton, with whom he had two sons: George Rupert Freud and Jonah Henry Freud. Caroline subsequently married the 9th Earl Spencer, brother of Princess of Wales, his second wife was Elisabeth Murdoch, second daughter of media magnate Rupert Murdoch, head of News Corporation. When the couple began dating, she was pregnant with a second child by her first husband and business partner, Elkin Pianim; the couple married 18 August 2001 at Blenheim Palace, divorced in 2014. They have two children, Charlotte Emma Freud, born 17 November 2000, Samson Murdoch Freud, born 13 January 2007. During the divorce, it emerged that Freud had fathered a child with a mutual friend two years born in 2012.
In November 2012, Freud was banned from driving for six months and fined £830 after police caught him driving at 117 miles per hour in a borrowed Ferrari on the M5 motorway. His son was asleep in the front of the car at the time of the offence. Exeter Magistrates' Court was told that he had incurred nine penalty points on his driving licence in the previous three years – two fixed penalties for speeding and one for using a mobile phone while driving, he is a friend of several members of the Conservative party, including George Osborne and David Cameron. Freud has invited Cameron to many events and is part of the so-called'Notting Hill Set' of influential Conservative-linked figures. During their marriage and Freud owned Burford Priory in Oxfordshire, hence were considered members of the Chipping Norton set. Freud family Freud Communications official website. "Matthew Freud collected news and commentary". The Guardian.. Matthew Freud collected commentary at The Independent. Matthew Freud collected commentary at The London Evening Standard.
Matthew Freud collected commentary at The Times of India. Follow-Up: Roger Ailes on Matthew Freud, The New York Times, 13 January 2010. Matthew Freud Is The Most Powerful PR Operator In The UK, Danny Rogers, PRWeek, 18 May 2011
Death of Diana, Princess of Wales
On 31 August 1997, Princess of Wales died in hospital as a result of injuries sustained in a car crash in the Pont de l'Alma road tunnel in Paris, France. Her companion, Dodi Fayed, the driver of the Mercedes S280, Henri Paul, were pronounced dead at the scene. A fourth passenger in the car, bodyguard Trevor Rees-Jones, was injured but survived. Although the media blamed the behaviour of the paparazzi who followed the car, a French judicial investigation in 1999 found that the crash was caused by Henri Paul, who lost control of the Mercedes at high speed while he was intoxicated and under the effects of prescription drugs; as a result, it was confirmed that no criminal charges would be issued against any of the pursuing photographers. Paul was the deputy head of security at the Hôtel Ritz at the time of the crash and had goaded the paparazzi waiting outside the hotel earlier, his inebriation may have been made worse by anti-depressants and traces of an anti-psychotic in his body. The investigation concluded.
After hearing evidence at the British inquest in 2008, a jury returned a verdict of "unlawful killing" by Paul and the paparazzi pursuing the car. Diana's death caused a substantial outpouring of worldwide grief, including numerous floral tributes, her funeral was watched by an estimated 2 billion people; the Royal Family were criticised in the press for their reaction to Diana's death. On Saturday, 30 August 1997, Diana left Sardinia on a private jet and arrived in Paris with Dodi Fayed, the son of Mohamed Al-Fayed, they had stopped there en route to London, having spent the preceding nine days together on board Mohamed Al-Fayed's yacht Jonikal on the French and Italian Riviera. They had intended to stay there for the night. Mohamed Al-Fayed is the owner of the Hôtel Ritz Paris, he owned an apartment in Rue Arsène Houssaye, a short distance from the hotel, just off the Avenue des Champs Elysées. Henri Paul, the deputy head of security at the Ritz Hotel, had been instructed to drive the hired black 1994 Mercedes-Benz S280 in order to elude the paparazzi.
Diana and Fayed departed from the hotel's rear entrance, Rue Cambon at around 00:20 on 31 August CEST, heading for the apartment in Rue Arsène Houssaye. They did this to avoid the nearly 30 photographers waiting in the front of the hotel, they were the rear passengers. It was believed that Dodi were not wearing seat belts. After leaving the Rue Cambon and crossing the Place de la Concorde, they drove along Cours la Reine and Cours Albert 1er – the embankment road along the right bank of the River Seine – into the Place de l'Alma underpass. At 12:23 a.m. Paul lost control of the vehicle at the entrance to the Pont de l'Alma tunnel; the car struck the righthand wall and swerved to the left of the two-lane carriageway before it collided head-on with the 13th pillar that supported the roof. The car was travelling at an estimated speed of 105 km/h, it spun and hit the stone wall of the tunnel backwards coming to a stop. The impact caused substantial damage to the front half of the vehicle, as there was no guard rail between the pillars to prevent this.
Witnesses arriving shortly after the accident reported smoke. Witnesses reported that photographers on motorcycles "swarmed the Mercedes sedan before it entered the tunnel." As the four occupants lay in the wrecked car, the photographers, driving slower and were accordingly some distance behind the Mercedes, reached the scene. The photographers were on motorcycles; some tried to open the doors and help the victims, while some of them took pictures. Airbags were deployed. Police arrived on scene around 10 minutes after the crash at 00:30 and an ambulance was on site five minutes after the police, according to witnesses. France Info radio reported that one photographer was beaten by witnesses who were horrified by the scene. Five of the photographers were taken into custody. Two others were detained and around 20 rolls of film were taken from the photographers. Police impounded their vehicles. Firemen arrived to help remove the victims. Still conscious, Rees-Jones had suffered a head contusion; the front occupants' airbags had functioned normally.
The occupants were not wearing seat belts. Diana, sitting in the right rear passenger seat, was still conscious. Critically injured, Diana was reported to murmur "Oh my God," and after the photographers and other helpers were pushed away by police, "Leave me alone." In June 2007, the Channel 4 documentary Diana: The Witnesses in the Tunnel claimed that the first person to touch Diana was Dr. Maillez, who chanced upon the scene, he reported that Diana was in shock. Diana was removed from the car at 1:00 am, she went into cardiac arrest and following external cardiopulmonary resuscitation, her heart started beating again. She was moved to the SAMU ambulance at 1:18 am, left the scene at 1:41 am and arrived at the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital at 2:06 am. Fayed was shortly afterwards pronounced dead. Paul was declared dead on removal from the wreckage. Both were taken to the Paris mortuary, not to a hospital. Paul was found to have a blood alcohol level of 0.175 grams per 100 mL of blood – about 3.5 times the legal limit in France.
Despite attempts to save her, Diana's internal injuries were too extensive: her hear
Maurice Roche, 4th Baron Fermoy
Edmund Maurice Burke Roche, 4th Baron Fermoy was a British Conservative Party politician, an Irish peer and the maternal grandfather of Diana, Princess of Wales. Roche was born on 15 May 1885 in Chelsea, the elder of twin sons of the Hon. James Roche and his American wife, Frances Ellen Work, he was educated at Harvard University and graduated in 1909. He returned to England on succeeding to his father's Irish peerage in 1920, he was a naturalized American citizen but resumed British nationality following his succession to the title. He rented Park House, Norfolk from the royal family. At the 1924 general election, he contested and won the local parliamentary constituency, King's Lynn, holding the seat until he stood down at the 1935 general election, he was elected the town's mayor in 1931. On 17 September 1931, Lord Fermoy married Ruth Sylvia Gill, the youngest daughter of Col. William Gill, at St. Devenick’s, Bieldside and they had three children: Hon. Mary Cynthia, married Hon. Sir Anthony Berry, Denis Geoghegan, Michael Gunningham Hon. Frances Ruth, married John Spencer, Viscount Althorp, Peter Shand Kydd Hon. Edmund James Burke the 5th Baron Fermoy, married Lavinia PitmanLord Fermoy joined the Royal Air Force in 1939 at the start of World War II but when the incumbent Member of Parliament for King’s Lynn was killed on active service in 1943, he resigned his commission and stood for re-election.
He retired from politics. Lord Fermoy died three weeks later, he was succeeded by his only son. His life was the subject of the book Lilac Days, by Gavan Naden and Maxine Riddington, where it was claimed he had a 30-year affair with an American, Edith Travis. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Lord Fermoy
The Independent is a British online newspaper. Established in 1986 as a politically independent national morning newspaper published in London, it was controlled by Tony O'Reilly's Independent News & Media from 1997 until it was sold to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev in 2010; the last printed edition of The Independent was published on Saturday 26 March 2016, leaving only its digital editions. Nicknamed the Indy, it began as a broadsheet, but changed to tabloid format in 2003; until September 2011, the paper described itself on the banner at the top of every newspaper as "free from party political bias, free from proprietorial influence". It tends to take a pro-market stance on economic issues; the daily edition was named National Newspaper of the Year at the 2004 British Press Awards. In June 2015, it had an average daily circulation of just below 58,000, 85 per cent down from its 1990 peak, while the Sunday edition had a circulation of just over 97,000. Launched in 1986, the first issue of The Independent was published on 7 October in broadsheet format.
It was produced by Newspaper Publishing plc and created by Andreas Whittam Smith, Stephen Glover and Matthew Symonds. All three partners were former journalists at The Daily Telegraph who had left the paper towards the end of Lord Hartwell's ownership. Marcus Sieff was the first chairman of Newspaper Publishing, Whittam Smith took control of the paper; the paper was created at a time of a fundamental change in British newspaper publishing. Rupert Murdoch was challenging long-accepted practices of the print unions and defeated them in the Wapping dispute. Production costs could be reduced which, it was said at the time, created openings for more competition; as a result of controversy around Murdoch's move to Wapping, the plant was having to function under siege from sacked print workers picketing outside. The Independent attracted some of the staff from the two Murdoch broadsheets who had chosen not to move to his company's new headquarters. Launched with the advertising slogan "It is. Are you?", challenging both The Guardian for centre-left readers and The Times as the newspaper of record, The Independent reached a circulation of over 400,000 by 1989.
Competing in a moribund market, The Independent sparked a general freshening of newspaper design as well as, within a few years, a price war in the market sector. When The Independent launched The Independent on Sunday in 1990, sales were less than anticipated due to the launch of the Sunday Correspondent four months prior, although this direct rival closed at the end of November 1990; some aspects of production merged with the main paper, although the Sunday paper retained a distinct editorial staff. In the 1990s, The Independent was faced with price cutting by the Murdoch titles, started an advertising campaign accusing The Times and The Daily Telegraph of reflecting the views of their proprietors, Rupert Murdoch and Conrad Black, it featured spoofs of the other papers' mastheads with the words The Rupert Murdoch or The Conrad Black, with The Independent below the main title. Newspaper Publishing had financial problems. A number of other media companies were interested in the paper. Tony O'Reilly's media group and Mirror Group Newspapers had bought a stake of about a third each by mid-1994.
In March 1995, Newspaper Publishing was restructured with a rights issue, splitting the shareholding into O'Reilly's Independent News & Media, MGN, Prisa. In April 1996, there was another refinancing, in March 1998, O'Reilly bought the other shares of the company for £30 million, assumed the company's debt. Brendan Hopkins headed Independent News, Andrew Marr was appointed editor of The Independent, Rosie Boycott became editor of The Independent on Sunday. Marr introduced a dramatic if short-lived redesign which won critical favour but was a commercial failure as a result of a limited promotional budget. Marr admitted his changes had been a mistake in My Trade. Boycott left in April 1998 to join the Daily Express, Marr left in May 1998 becoming the BBC's political editor. Simon Kelner was appointed as the editor. By this time the circulation had fallen below 200,000. Independent News spent to increase circulation, the paper went through several redesigns. While circulation increased, it did not approach the level, achieved in 1989, or restore profitability.
Job cuts and financial controls reduced the quality of the product. Ivan Fallon, on the board since 1995 and a key figure at The Sunday Times, replaced Hopkins as head of Independent News & Media in July 2002. By mid-2004, the newspaper was losing £5 million per year. A gradual improvement meant. In November 2008, following further staff cuts, production was moved to Northcliffe House, in Kensington High Street, the headquarters of Associated Newspapers; the two newspaper groups' editorial and commercial operations remained separate, but they shared services including security, information technology and payroll. On 25 March 2010, Independent News & Media sold the newspaper to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev for a nominal £1 fee and £9.25m over the next 10 months, choosing this option over closing The Independent and The Independent on Sunday, which would have cost £28m and £40m due to long-term contracts. In 2009, Lebedev had bought a controlling stake in the London Evening Standard. Two weeks editor Roger Alton resigned.
In July 2011, The Independent's columnist Johann Hari was stripped of the Orwell Prize he had won in 2008 after claims, to which Hari admitted, of plagiarism and inaccuracy. In January 2012, Chris Blackhurst
George VI was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death on 6 February 1952. He was the first Head of the Commonwealth. Known publicly as Albert until his accession, "Bertie" among his family and close friends, George VI was born in the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria, was named after his great-grandfather Albert, Prince Consort; as the second son of King George V, he was not expected to inherit the throne and spent his early life in the shadow of his elder brother, Edward. He attended naval college as a teenager, served in the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force during the First World War. In 1920, he was made Duke of York, he married Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon in 1923 and they had two daughters and Margaret. In the mid-1920s, he had speech therapy for a stammer, which he never overcame. George's elder brother ascended the throne as Edward VIII upon the death of their father in 1936; however that year Edward revealed his desire to marry divorced American socialite Wallis Simpson.
British prime minister Stanley Baldwin advised Edward that for political and religious reasons he could not marry a divorced woman and remain king. Edward abdicated to marry Simpson, George ascended the throne as the third monarch of the House of Windsor. During George's reign, the break-up of the British Empire and its transition into the Commonwealth of Nations accelerated; the parliament of the Irish Free State removed direct mention of the monarch from the country's constitution on the day of his accession. The following year, a new Irish constitution changed the name of the state to Ireland and established the office of President. From 1939, the Empire and Commonwealth – except Ireland – was at war with Nazi Germany. War with Italy and Japan followed in 1941, respectively. Though Britain and its allies were victorious in 1945, the United States and the Soviet Union rose as pre-eminent world powers and the British Empire declined. After the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, George remained king of both countries, but relinquished the title of Emperor of India in June 1948.
Ireland formally declared itself a republic and left the Commonwealth in 1949, India became a republic within the Commonwealth the following year. George adopted the new title of Head of the Commonwealth, he was beset by smoking-related health problems in the years of his reign. He was succeeded by his elder daughter, Elizabeth II. George was born at York Cottage, on the Sandringham Estate in Norfolk, during the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria, his father was Prince George, Duke of York, the second and eldest-surviving son of the Prince and Princess of Wales. His mother was the Duchess of York, the eldest child and only daughter of the Duke and Duchess of Teck, his birthday, 14 December 1895, was the 34th anniversary of the death of his great-grandfather, Prince Consort. Uncertain of how the Prince Consort's widow, Queen Victoria, would take the news of the birth, the Prince of Wales wrote to the Duke of York that the Queen had been "rather distressed". Two days he wrote again: "I think it would gratify her if you yourself proposed the name Albert to her".
Queen Victoria was mollified by the proposal to name the new baby Albert, wrote to the Duchess of York: "I am all impatience to see the new one, born on such a sad day but rather more dear to me as he will be called by that dear name, a byword for all, great and good". He was baptised "Albert Frederick Arthur George" at St. Mary Magdalene's Church near Sandringham three months later. Within the family, he was known informally as "Bertie", his maternal grandmother, the Duchess of Teck, did not like the first name the baby had been given, she wrote prophetically that she hoped the last name "may supplant the less favoured one". Albert was fourth in line to the throne at birth, after his grandfather and elder brother, Edward, he suffered from ill health and was described as "easily frightened and somewhat prone to tears". His parents were removed from their children's day-to-day upbringing, as was the norm in aristocratic families of that era, he had a stammer. Although left-handed, he was forced to write with his right hand, as was common practice at the time.
He suffered from chronic stomach problems as well as knock knees, for which he was forced to wear painful corrective splints. Queen Victoria died on 22 January 1901, the Prince of Wales succeeded her as King Edward VII. Prince Albert moved up to third in line after his father and elder brother. From 1909, Albert attended Osborne, as a naval cadet. In 1911 he came bottom of the class in the final examination, but despite this he progressed to the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth; when his grandfather, Edward VII, died in 1910, Albert's father became King George V. Edward became Prince of Wales, with Albert second in line to the throne. Albert spent the first six months of 1913 on the training ship HMS Cumberland in the West Indies and on the east coast of Canada, he was rated as a midshipman aboard HMS Collingwood on 15 September 1913, spent three months in the Mediterranean. His fellow officers gave him the nickname "Mr. Johnson"; the First World War broke out a year after his commission. Three weeks after the outbreak of war he was medically evacuated from the ship to Aberdeen where his appendix was removed by Sir John Marnoch.
He was mentioned in despatches for his action as a turret officer aboard Collingwood i