Hertfordshire is one of the home counties in the south east of England. It is bordered by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Essex to the east, Greater London to the south, Buckinghamshire to the west. For government statistical purposes, it is placed in the East of England region. In 2013, the county had a population of 1,140,700 in an area of 634 square miles; the four towns that have between 50,000 and 100,000 residents are Hemel Hempstead, Watford and St Albans. Hertford, once the main market town for the medieval agricultural county, derives its name from a hart and a ford, used as the components of the county's coat of arms and flag. Elevations are high for the region in the west; these reach over 800 feet in the western projection around Tring, in the Chilterns. The county's borders are the watersheds of the Colne and Lea. Hertfordshire's undeveloped land is agricultural and much is protected by green belt; the county's landmarks span many centuries, ranging from the Six Hills in the new town of Stevenage built by local inhabitants during the Roman period, to Leavesden Film Studios.
The volume of intact medieval and Tudor buildings surpasses London, in places in well-preserved conservation areas in St Albans which includes some remains of Verulamium, the town where in the 3rd century an early recorded British martyrdom took place. Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill, his martyr's cross of a yellow saltire on a blue field is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire. Hertfordshire is well-served with railways, providing good access to London; the largest sector of the economy of the county is in services. Hertfordshire was the area assigned to a fortress constructed at Hertford under the rule of Edward the Elder in 913. Hertford is derived from meaning deer crossing; the name Hertfordshire is first recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 1011. Deer feature in many county emblems. There is evidence of humans living in Hertfordshire from the Mesolithic period, it was first farmed during the Neolithic period and permanent habitation appeared at the beginning of the Bronze Age.
This was followed by tribes settling in the area during the Iron Age. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in AD 43, the aboriginal Catuvellauni submitted and adapted to the Roman life. Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill, his martyr's cross of a yellow saltire on a blue field is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire as the yellow field to the stag or Hart representing the county. He is the Patron Saint of Hertfordshire. With the departure of the Roman Legions in the early 5th century, the now unprotected territory was invaded and colonised by the Anglo-Saxons. By the 6th century the majority of the modern county was part of the East Saxon kingdom; this short lived kingdom collapsed in the 9th century, ceding the territory of Hertfordshire to the control of the West Anglians of Mercia. The region became an English shire in the 10th century, on the merger of the West Saxon and Mercian kingdoms. A century William of Normandy received the surrender of the surviving senior English Lords and Clergy at Berkhamsted, resulting in a new Anglicised title of William the Conqueror before embarking on an uncontested entry into London and his coronation at Westminster.
Hertfordshire was used for some of the new Norman castles at Bishop's Stortford, at King's Langley, a staging post between London and the royal residence of Berkhamsted. The Domesday Book recorded the county as having nine hundreds. Tring and Danais became one—Dacorum—from Danis Corum or Danish rule harking back to a Viking not Saxon past; the other seven were Braughing, Cashio, Hertford and Odsey. The first shooting-down of a zeppelin over Great Britain during WW1 happened in Cuffley; as London grew, Hertfordshire became conveniently close to the English capital. However, the greatest boost to Hertfordshire came during the Industrial Revolution, after which the population rose dramatically. In 1903, Letchworth became the world's first garden city and Stevenage became the first town to redevelop under the New Towns Act 1946. From the 1920s until the late 1980s, the town of Borehamwood was home to one of the major British film studio complexes, including the MGM-British Studios. Many well-known films were made here including the first three Star Wars movies.
The studios used the name of Elstree. American director Stanley Kubrick not only used to shoot in those studios but lived in the area until his death. Big Brother UK and Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? have been filmed there. EastEnders is filmed at Elstree. Hertfordshire has seen development at Warner Bros. Studios, Leavesden. On 17 October 2000, the Hatfield rail crash killed four people with over 70 injured; the crash exposed the shortcomings of Railtrack, which saw speed restrictions and major track replacement. On 10 May 2002, the second of the Potters Bar rail accidents occurred killing seven people.
Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (film)
Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire is a 2005 fantasy film directed by Mike Newell and distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures, it is based on J. K. Rowling's 2000 novel of the same name; the film, the fourth instalment in the Harry Potter film series, was written by Steve Kloves and produced by David Heyman. The story follows Harry's fourth year at Hogwarts as he is chosen by the Goblet of Fire to compete in the Triwizard Tournament; the film is the first of the series to receive a PG-13 certificate in the US, a 12A in the UK, stars Daniel Radcliffe as Harry Potter alongside Rupert Grint and Emma Watson as Harry's best friends Ron Weasley and Hermione Granger. It is the sequel to Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and is followed by Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. Filming began in early 2004; the Hogwarts scenes were shot at the Leavesden Film Studios. Five days after its release, the film had grossed over US$102 million at the North American box office, the third-highest first-weekend tally for a Harry Potter film behind Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 1 and Part 2.
Goblet of Fire enjoyed an immensely successful run at the box office, earning $897 million worldwide, which made it the highest-grossing film of 2005 and the eighth-highest-grossing film of all-time at that time and the sixth-highest-grossing film in the Harry Potter series. The film was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Art Direction, won the BAFTA Award for Best Production Design. Goblet of Fire was the second film in the series to be released in IMAX; the film is one of the best reviewed instalments within the series, being praised for the higher level of maturity and sophistication of its characters, tone and the performances of the lead actors. Harry awakens from a nightmare wherein a man named Frank Bryce is killed after overhearing Lord Voldemort conspiring with Peter Pettigrew and another man. While Harry attends the Quidditch World Cup match between Ireland and Bulgaria with the Weasleys and Hermione, Death Eaters terrorise the camp, the man who appeared in Harry's dream summons the Dark Mark.
At Hogwarts, Albus Dumbledore introduces ex-Auror Alastor "Mad-Eye" Moody as the new Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher. He announces that the school will host an event known as the Triwizard Tournament, in which three magical schools compete across three dangerous challenges; the Goblet of Fire selects "champions" to take part in the competition: Cedric Diggory of Hufflepuff representing Hogwarts, Viktor Krum representing the Durmstrang Institute from Eastern Europe, Fleur Delacour representing Beauxbatons Academy of Magic from France. The Goblet unexpectedly selects Harry as a fourth champion. Dumbledore is unable to pull the underage Harry out of the tournament, as Ministry official Barty Crouch Sr. insists that the champions are bound by a contract after being selected. For the first task, each champion must retrieve a golden egg guarded by the dragon. Harry succeeds in retrieving the egg. Shortly after, a formal dance event known as the Yule Ball takes place; the second task involves the champions diving underwater to rescue their mates.
Harry finishes third, but is promoted to second behind Cedric due to his "moral fibre", after saving Fleur's sister Gabrielle as well as Ron. Afterwards, Harry discovers the corpse of Crouch Sr. in the forest. While waiting for Dumbledore in his office, Harry discovers a Pensieve, which holds Dumbledore's memories. Harry witnesses a trial in which Igor Karkaroff confesses to the Ministry of Magic names of other Death Eaters after Voldemort's defeat; when he names Severus Snape as one, Dumbledore vouches for Snape's innocence. After Karkaroff names Barty Crouch Jr. a devastated Crouch Sr. imprisons his son in Azkaban. Exiting the Pensieve, Harry realizes. For the final task, the champions must reach the Triwizard Cup, located in a hedge maze. After Fleur and Viktor are incapacitated and Cedric reach the cup together; the two claim a draw and together grab the cup, which turns out to be a Portkey and transports them to a graveyard where Pettigrew and Voldemort are waiting. Pettigrew kills Cedric with the Killing Curse and performs a ritual that rejuvenates Voldemort, who summons the Death Eaters.
Voldemort challenges him to a duel to prove he is the better wizard. A vulnerable Harry tries the Expelliarmus charm to block Voldemort's attempted Killing Curse; the beams from their wands entwine and Voldemort's wand disgorges the last spells. The spirits of the people he murdered are seen in the graveyard: first Cedric Frank Bryce Bertha Jorkins, Harry's parents; this distracts Voldemort and his Death Eaters, allowing Harry to use the Portkey and escape with Cedric's body. Harry tells Dumbledore that Voldemort killed Cedric. Moody takes Harry back to his office to interrogate him about Voldemort, but inadvertently blows his cover by asking Harry whether there were "others in the graveyard", despite Harry not mentioning a graveyard. Moody reveals that he submitted Harry's name to the Goblet of Fire and manipulated Harry throughout the tournament to ensure he would win. Moody attempts to attack Harry, but Dumbledore and Minerva McGonagall intervene and subdue him; the teachers force Moody to drink Veritaserum, he reveals that the real Moody is imprisoned in a magical trunk as his Polyjuice Potion wears off.
He is returned to Azkaban. Dumbledore
Bovingdon is a large village in Hertfordshire, four miles southwest of Hemel Hempstead, it is a civil parish within the local authority area of Dacorum. It forms the largest part of the ward of Bovingdon and Chipperfield, which had a population of 4,600 at the 2001 census, increasing to 9,000 at the 2011 Census; the name is first mentioned in deeds from 1200 as Bovyndon. It could originate from Old English Bufan dune meaning "above the down" or from Bofa's down, the down belonging to Bofa. There are two churches in the village: the Anglican Church; the Baptist church changed to Baptist. The Baptist church has a weekly morning service at 10:30 a.m. with a Sunday school. St Lawrence's Church was built in 1845 by Talbot Bury; the churchyard includes an avenue of clipped yew trees. Both churches organise a live nativity play every Christmas; the village is sometimes confused with Bovington Camp in Dorset. Halfpenny Green Airfield in Shropshire was renamed from Bobbington, the name of the local village, during World War II after a B-17 tried to land there when the crew became lost.
The village is medieval in origin but it has expanded since the 1940s. It now has a large commuter population; the old parts of the village are around the High Street and the Green. What used to be the Bobsleigh Inn on Box Lane, just east of the village, is a large house with some parts dating to the sixteenth century, it used to be a restaurant. It was the Bovingdon Country Club until 1964 when Tony Nash, the son of the owner, was part of the gold medal winning British two-man bobsleigh team at the Winter Olympics at Innsbruck in Austria, it was renamed the Bobsleigh Inn in his honour. During World War 2 many celebrities stayed at the Country Club while entertaining troops at the airfield, including Bob Hope, James Stewart and Glenn Miller. Next to Bovingdon is the disused former World War II, Eighth Air Force and post-war Royal Air Force airfield, RAF Bovingdon; the airfield was built in 1942. Between 1943 and 1946 it became a B-17 operational training base for units such as 92nd Bomber Group, B-17 Flying Fortress Combat Crew Replacement Centre, 11th CCRC, 8th USAAF HQ Squadron.
The RAF resumed control until 1951 the USAF took over again until 1962 flying B-26 Marauders, B-29 Superfortresses, B-50 Superfortresses. General Dwight D. Eisenhower's personal aircraft was said to be located here, as Bovingdon was the closest Eighth Air Force airfield to London. Flying ceased in 1969, though some flying scenes for the film Hanover Street were shot there in 1978; the airfield served as airport for Hemel Hempstead during most of the postwar period. Several films have been made there including The War Lover, 633 Squadron, Hanover Street, an episode of The Persuaders!, The Man with the Golden Gun, Mosquito Squadron, the Live Aid recreation in the film Bohemian Rhapsody. The airfield site houses a VOR navigational beacon, code BNN; the airspace above the airfield and nearby Chesham is known as the Bovingdon stack and is a holding area for aircraft approaching Heathrow Airport, 20 miles to the south. At busy times on a clear day a dozen planes circle. Part of the airfield was used to build The Mount Prison during the 1980s.
The remainder of the site is used for a Saturday market and there is a permanent circuit for banger racing although there has not been any regular racing since 2008. The airfield is a site for paintballing. Of the three original runways, the North East/South West runway is still complete, used for parking on market days; the North West/South East runway is gone. The East/West runway is still complete, the Eastern end of, used for the weekend Market, the Western end used to be used by the Farmers aircraft; the control tower still exists, but is in a poor state. A lot of the taxiways, the 2nd World War Bomb Dump trackways are gone, a victim of hardcore reclamation, a common end of a large number of disused airfields in the UK. Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb". Goldie – drum-and-bass DJ. Frances de la Tour – actress David Seaman – Footballer Tony Nash – Olympic bobsleigh champion 1964.
David Tremlett – Artist In 1971 the poisoner Graham Frederick Young committed two murders while working for a local photographic company, John Hadland. Brown, Sarah C. M. Bovingdon – A History of a Hertfordshire Village, 2002, pub by Bovingdon Parish Council, Alpine Press, ISBN 0-9542368-0-7 Bovingdon history group Bovingdon and District Horticultural society St Lawrence Parish Church Bovingdon Baptist Church
Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 1
Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 1 is a 2010 fantasy film directed by David Yates and distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures, it is the first of two cinematic parts based on J. K. Rowling's 2007 novel of the same name and features an ensemble cast; the film, the seventh and penultimate instalment in the Harry Potter film series, was written by Steve Kloves and produced by David Heyman, David Barron, Rowling. The film stars Daniel Radcliffe as Harry Potter, with Rupert Grint and Emma Watson reprising roles as Harry's best friends Ron Weasley and Hermione Granger, it is the sequel to Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince and is followed by the concluding entry, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2. The story follows Harry Potter, tasked by Dumbledore with finding and destroying Lord Voldemort's secret to immortality – the Horcruxes. Filming began on 19 February 2009 and was completed on 12 June 2010. Part 1 was released in 2D cinemas and IMAX formats worldwide on 19 November 2010.
In the film's worldwide opening weekend, Part 1 grossed $330 million, the third-highest in the series, the highest opening of 2010, as well as the eighth-highest of all time. With a worldwide gross of $960 million, Part 1 is the third highest-grossing film of 2010, behind Toy Story 3 and Alice in Wonderland, the third-highest-grossing Harry Potter film in terms of worldwide totals, behind Deathly Hallows – Part 2 and Philosopher's Stone; the film at one point became the tenth highest-grossing film of all time, is the 42nd as of July 2018. Additionally, it received two nominations at the 83rd Academy Awards: Best Art Direction and Best Visual Effects; the Minister of Magic Rufus Scrimgeour addresses the wizarding media, stating that the Ministry remains strong despite Lord Voldemort gaining power and the Death Eaters committing mass killings of Muggles and infiltrating the Ministry. Meanwhile, Harry Potter, Ron Weasley, Hermione Granger resolve to complete the mission Albus Dumbledore gave Harry by hunting down and destroying Voldemort's Horcruxes.
Severus Snape informs Voldemort of Harry's impending departure from Privet Drive. Voldemort commandeers Lucius Malfoy's wand, due to his own wand sharing the same core as Harry's and therefore being unable to kill him; the Order of the Phoenix escort Harry to safety using Polyjuice Potion. During their flight, they are ambushed by Death Eaters who kill Mad-Eye Moody and Hedwig, injure George Weasley, incapacitate Rubeus Hagrid. Arriving at The Burrow, Harry has a vision of the wand-maker Gregorovitch being tortured by Voldemort; the next day, Scrimgeour arrives with Dumbledore's will. Ron receives Dumbledore's Deluminator, Hermione receives a copy of The Tales of Beedle the Bard, Harry receives the first Golden Snitch that he caught in a Quidditch match. Scrimgeour reveals that Harry was bequeathed the Sword of Gryffindor, which has gone missing; the Death Eaters replace him with Pius Thicknesse. The Ministry begins persecuting Muggle-born witches and wizards. Death Eaters attack during Bill Weasley and Fleur Delacour's wedding.
Kingsley Shacklebolt's patronus charm forewarns the wedding party, most escape. Harry and Ron disapparate to London, but are attacked in a diner by Death Eaters; the trio seek refuge at Grimmauld Place. They discover that the "R. A. B." from the fake Horcrux locket is Regulus Arcturus Black, younger brother of Sirius Black. Kreacher, the Blacks' house elf, tells them that Mundungus Fletcher broke in and stole many items from the house, including the real locket. Kreacher and Dobby apprehend Fletcher, who reveals that the locket is in the possession of Dolores Umbridge. Using Polyjuice Potion, the trio find the locket around Umbridge's neck. Harry stuns Hermione retrieves the locket; the trio escape their pursuers by apparating in the wilderness, but Ron is injured and cannot apparate again until he recovers. After unsuccessful attempts to destroy the Horcrux, the trio take turns wearing it to dilute its power. Harry sees a vision of Voldemort interrogating and killing the wand-maker Gregorovitch, who claims a teenage boy stole the legendary Elder Wand from his shop.
While Ron is wearing the locket, he is overcome by negative feelings and falls out with Harry before abandoning him and Hermione. Hermione deduces that the Sword of Gryffindor can destroy Horcruxes and decides to go with Harry to Godric's Hollow, they visit the house where they were killed. They encounter Bathilda Bagshot. Bathilda lets them into her house before revealing herself as Nagini, possessing Bathilda's reanimated corpse. Hermione and Harry escape into the Forest of Dean, but Hermione accidentally breaks Harry's wand whilst fighting Nagini, she identifies the mysterious thief in Harry's vision as Gellert Grindelwald. Harry sees a Patronus in the form of a doe. Gryffindor's sword lies beneath the pond's ice, which Harry jumps into; the locket around his neck strangles Harry. Harry uses parseltongue to open the Horcrux locket, which Ron decides to destroy. Hermione and Ron reconcile, the trio decide to visit Xenophilius Lovegood to learn more about a symbol left in the book Dumbledore left Hermione.
Lovegood explains to them that the symbol represents the Deathly Hallows, three magical objects that can make a wizard master of Death. Hermione reads the story of the Hallows, after which the trio awkwardly attempt to leave but are stopped by Lovegood, he reveals that Luna Lovegood has been kidnapped and summons the Death Eaters, intending to hand over Harry in exchange for her. Harry and Hermione dis
Edward Franklin Albee III was an American playwright known for works such as The Zoo Story, The Sandbox, Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, A Delicate Balance. Three of his plays won the Pulitzer Prize for Drama, two of his other works won the Tony Award for Best Play, his works are considered as frank examinations of the modern condition. His early works reflect a mastery and Americanization of the Theatre of the Absurd that found its peak in works by European playwrights such as Samuel Beckett, Eugène Ionesco, Jean Genet, his middle period comprised plays that explored the psychology of maturing and sexual relationships. Younger American playwrights, such as Paula Vogel, credit Albee's daring mix of theatricality and biting dialogue with helping to reinvent the post-war American theatre in the early 1960s. In his life, Albee continued to experiment in works such as The Goat, or Who Is Sylvia?. Edward Albee was born in 1928, he was placed for adoption two weeks and taken to Larchmont, New York, where he grew up.
Albee's adoptive father, Reed A. Albee, the wealthy son of vaudeville magnate Edward Franklin Albee II, owned several theaters, his adoptive mother, Reed's third wife, was a socialite. He would base the main character of his 1991 play Three Tall Women on his mother, with whom he had a conflicted relationship. Albee attended the Clinton High School the Lawrenceville School in New Jersey, from which he was expelled, he was sent to Valley Forge Military Academy in Wayne, where he was dismissed in less than a year. He enrolled at The Choate School in Wallingford, graduating in 1946, his formal education continued at Trinity College in Hartford, where he was expelled in 1947 for skipping classes and refusing to attend compulsory chapel. Albee left home for good. In a interview, he said: "I never felt comfortable with the adoptive parents. I don't think. I didn't know how to be a son, either." In a 1994 interview, he stated that he left home at the age of 18 because " had to get out of that stultifying, suffocating environment."
In a 2008 interview, he told interviewer Charlie Rose that he was "thrown out" because his parents wanted him to become a "corporate thug" and did not approve of his aspirations to become a writer. Albee moved into New York's Greenwich Village, where he supported himself with odd jobs while learning to write plays. In his early plays, Albee's work had various representations of the LGBTQIA community challenging the image of a heterosexual marriage. Despite challenging society's views about the gay community, he did not view himself as an LGBT advocate. Albee's work criticized the American dream, his first play, The Zoo Story, written in three weeks, was first staged in Berlin in 1959 before premiering Off-Broadway in 1960. His next play, The Death of Bessie Smith premiered in Berlin before arriving in New York. Albee's most iconic play, Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, opened on Broadway at the Billy Rose Theatre on October 13, 1962, closed on May 16, 1964, after five previews and 664 performances.
The controversial play won the Tony Award for Best Play in 1963 and was selected for the 1963 Pulitzer Prize by the award's drama jury, but was overruled by the advisory committee, which elected not to give a drama award at all. The two members of the jury, John Mason Brown and John Gassner, subsequently resigned in protest. An Academy Award-winning film adaptation of the controversial play was released in 1966 starring Elizabeth Taylor, Richard Burton, George Segal, Sandy Dennis. In 2013, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". According to The New York Times, Albee was "widely considered to be the foremost American playwright of his generation."The less than diligent student dedicated much of his time to promoting American university theatre. Most he served as distinguished professor at the University of Houston, where he taught an exclusive playwriting course, his plays are published by Inc..
A member of the Dramatists Guild Council, Albee received three Pulitzer Prizes for drama—for A Delicate Balance and Three Tall Women. Albee was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1972. In 1985, Albee was inducted into the American Theatre Hall of Fame. In 1999, Albee received the PEN/Laura Pels International Foundation for Theater Award as a Master American Dramatist, he received a Special Tony Award for Lifetime Achievement. In 2009, Albee received honorary degree from the Bulgarian National Academy of Theater and Film Arts, a member of the Global Alliance of Theater Schools. In 2008, in celebration of Albee's 80th birthday, a number of his plays were mounted in distinguished Off-Broadway venues, including the historic Cherry Lane Theatre where the playwright directed two of his early one-acts, The American Dream and The Sandbox. Albee established the Edward F. Albee Foundation, Inc. in 1967, from royalties from his play Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?. The foundation funds the William Flanagan Memorial Creative Persons Center in Montauk, New York, as a residence for writers and visual artists.
Peter Stephen Paul Brook, CH, CBE is an English theatre and film director, based in France since the early 1970s. He has won multiple Tony and Emmy Awards, a Laurence Olivier Award, the Praemium Imperiale, the Prix Italia, he has been called "our greatest living theatre director". With the Royal Shakespeare Company, Brook directed the first English language production of Marat/Sade in 1964, it transferred to Broadway in 1965 and won the Tony Award for Best Play, Brook was named Best Director. Brook was born in the Turnham Green area of Chiswick, the second son of Simon Brook and his wife Ida, both Jewish immigrants from Latvia; the family home was at Turnham Green. His elder brother was psychotherapist Alexis Brook, his first cousin was chief director of the Moscow Satire Theatre. Brook was educated at Westminster School, Gresham's School, Magdalen College, Oxford. Brook directed Dr Faustus, his first production, in 1943 at the Torch Theatre in London, followed at the Chanticleer Theatre in 1945 with a revival of The Infernal Machine.
In 1947, he went to Stratford-upon-Avon as assistant director on Romeo and Juliet and Love's Labour's Lost. From 1947 to 1950, he was Director of Productions at the Royal Opera House in London, his work there included a controversial staging of Strauss's Salome with sets by Salvador Dalí, an effective re-staging of Puccini's La bohème using sets dating from 1899. A proliferation of stage and screen work as producer and director followed. Dark of the Moon by Howard Richardson, at the Ambassadors Theatre, was a much early admired production. In 1970, with Micheline Rozan, Brook founded the International Centre for Theatre Research, a multinational company of actors, dancers and others which travelled in the Middle East and Africa in the early 1970s, it has been based in Paris at the Bouffes du Nord theatre since 1974. He announced in 2008 that he would resign as artistic director of Bouffes du Nord, beginning that year a three-year handover to Olivier Mantei and Olivier Poubelle. Brook has been influenced by the work of his ideas for his Theatre of Cruelty.
In England, Peter Brook and Charles Marowitz undertook The Theatre of Cruelty Season at the Royal Shakespeare Company, aiming to explore ways in which Artaud's ideas could be used to find new forms of expression and retrain the performer. The result was a showing of'works in progress' made up of improvisations and sketches, one of, the premier of Artaud's The Spurt of Blood. – Lee Jamieson, Antonin Artaud: From Theory to Practice, Greenwich Exchange, 2007 His greatest influence, was Joan Littlewood. Brook described her as "the most galvanising director in mid-20th century Britain". Brook's work is inspired by the theories of experimental theatre of Jerzy Grotowski, Bertolt Brecht, Chris Covics and Vsevolod Meyerhold and by the works of G. I. Gurdjieff, Edward Gordon Craig, Matila Ghyka. Brook has collaborated with a range of directors and actors during his career, notable examples include actors Paul Scofield and Glenda Jackson. Brook first encountered Wakhévitch in London when he saw the production of Jean Cocteau's ballet Le Jeune Homme et la Mort which Wakhévitch designed.
Brook declared that he "was convinced that this was the designer for whom I had been waiting". A Midsummer Night's Dream with John Kane, Frances de la Tour, Ben Kingsley and Patrick Stewart 1970 Hamlet Prince of Denmark with Paul Scofield, Alec Clunes, Diana Wynyard, Mary Ure, Ernest Thesiger, Richard Johnson, Michael David, Richard Pasco 1955 The Tragedy of Hamlet with Adrian Lester, Jeffery Kissoon, Natasha Parry, Shantala Shivalingappa, Bruce Myers, Rohan Siva, Scott Handy Yoshi Oida 2000|The Tragedy of Hamlet 2002 King John, Paul Shelving the Birmingham Repertory Theatre, 1945 King Lear with Paul Scofield 1962 | King Lear 1971 Love is my sin, sonnets by William Shakespeare, 2009 Measure for Measure with John Gielgud 1950 Mésure pour mésure, Théâtre des Bouffes du Nord, 1978 Mésure pour mésure, 1979 La Tempête by William Shakespeare, adaptation Jean-Claude Carrière, with Sotigui Kouyaté, Théâtre des Bouffes du Nord,1990 Timon d'Athènes, adaptation Jean-Claude Carrière, Théâtre des Bouffes du Nord 1974 Titus Andronicus with Laurence Olivier 1955 and 1958 Warum warum by Peter Brook et Marie-Hélène Estienne after Antonin Artaud, Edward Gordon Craig, Charles Dullin, Vsevolod Meyerhold, Motokiyo Zeami and William Shakespeare, 2010 The Winter's Tale with John Gielgud 1952 In the mid-1970s, with writer Jean-Claude Carrière, began work on adapting the Indian epic poem the Mahābhārata into a stage play, first performed in 1985 and later into a televised mini series.
In a long article in 1985, The New York Times noted "overwhelming critical acclaim", that the play "did nothing less than attempt to transform Hindu myth into universalized art, accessible to any culture". However, many postcololonial scholars have challenged the claim to universalism, accusing the play of orientalism. For instance, Gautam Dasgupta writes that, "Brook's Mahabharata falls short of the essential Indianness of the epic by staging predominantly its major incidents and failing to adequately emphasize its coterminous philosophical precepts."In 2015 Br
Vanessa Redgrave is an English actress of stage and television, a political activist. She is a 2003 American Theatre Hall of Fame inductee, received the 2010 BAFTA Fellowship. Redgrave rose to prominence in 1961 playing Rosalind in the Shakespeare comedy As You Like It with the Royal Shakespeare Company and has since starred in more than 35 productions in London's West End and on Broadway, winning the 1984 Olivier Award for Best Actress in a Revival for The Aspern Papers, the 2003 Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play for the revival of Long Day's Journey into Night, she received Tony nominations for The Year of Magical Thinking and Driving Miss Daisy. On screen, she has starred in scores of films and is a six-time Oscar nominee, winning the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for the title role in the film Julia, her other nominations were for Morgan: A Suitable Case for Treatment, Mary, Queen of Scots, The Bostonians and Howards End. Among her other films are A Man for All Seasons, Camelot, The Devils, Murder on the Orient Express, Prick Up Your Ears, Mission: Impossible, Atonement and The Butler.
Redgrave was proclaimed by Arthur Miller and Tennessee Williams as "the greatest living actress of our times", has won the Oscar, Tony, BAFTA, Cannes, Golden Globe, the Screen Actors Guild awards. A member of the Redgrave family of actors, she is the daughter of Sir Michael Redgrave and Lady Redgrave, the sister of Lynn Redgrave and Corin Redgrave, the mother of actresses Joely Richardson and Natasha Richardson, the aunt of British actress Jemma Redgrave, the mother-in-law of actor Liam Neeson. Redgrave was born on 30 January 1937 in Blackheath, the daughter of actors Sir Michael Redgrave and Rachel Kempson. Laurence Olivier announced her birth to the audience at a performance of Hamlet at the Old Vic, when he said that Laertes had a daughter. In her autobiography, Redgrave recalls the East End and Coventry Blitzes among her earliest memories. Following the East End Blitz, Redgrave relocated with her family to Herefordshire before returning to London in 1943, she was educated at the Alice Ottley School and Queen's Gate School, before "coming out" as a debutante.
Her siblings, Lynn Redgrave and Corin Redgrave, were acclaimed actors. Vanessa Redgrave entered the Central School of Speech and Drama in 1954, she first appeared in the West End, playing opposite her brother, in 1958. In 1959, she appeared at the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre under the direction of Peter Hall as Helena in A Midsummer Night's Dream opposite Charles Laughton as Bottom and Coriolanus opposite Laurence Olivier, Albert Finney and Edith Evans. In 1960, Redgrave had her first starring role in Robert Bolt's The Tiger and the Horse, in which she co-starred with her father. In 1961, she played Rosalind in As You Like It for the Royal Shakespeare Company. In 1962, she played Imogen in William Gaskill's production of Cymbeline for the RSC. In 1966, Redgrave created the role of Jean Brodie in the Donald Albery production of The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie, adapted for the stage by Jay Presson Allen from the novel by Muriel Spark. Redgrave had her first credited film role, in which she co-starred with her father, in Brian Desmond Hurst's Behind the Mask.
Redgrave's first starring film role was in Morgan – A Suitable Case for Treatment, co-starring David Warner and directed by Karel Reisz, for which she received an Oscar nomination, a Cannes award, a Golden Globe nomination and a BAFTA Film Award nomination. Following this, she portrayed a cool London swinger in Blowup. Co-starring David Hemmings, it was the first English-language film of the Italian director Michelangelo Antonioni. Reunited with Karel Reisz for the biographical film of dancer Isadora Duncan in Isadora, her portrayal of Duncan led her gaining a National Society of Film Critics' Award for Best Actress, a second Prize for the Best Female Performance at the Cannes Film Festival, along with a Golden Globe and an Oscar nomination. In the same period came other portrayals of historical figures – ranging from Andromache in The Trojan Women to the lead in Mary, Queen of Scots, the latter earning her a third Oscar nomination, she played the role of Guinevere in the film Camelot with Richard Harris and Franco Nero, as Sylvia Pankhurst in Oh!
What a Lovely War. She portrayed the character of Mother Superior Jeanne des Anges in The Devils, the once controversial film directed by Ken Russell. Redgrave funded and narrated a documentary film, The Palestinian, about the situation of the Palestinians and the activities of the Palestinian Liberation Organisation. In the film Julia, she starred in the title role as a woman murdered by the Nazi German regime in the years prior to World War II for her anti-Fascist activism, her co-star in the film was Jane Fonda, who, in her 2005 autobiography, noted that: there is a quality about Vanessa that makes me feel as if she resides in a netherworld of mystery that eludes the rest of us mortals. Her voice seems to come from some deep place that knows all secrets. Watching her work is like seeing through layers of glass, each layer painted in mythic watercolor images, layer after layer, until it becomes dark, but then you know you haven't come to the bottom of it... The only other time I had experienced this with an actor was with Marlon Brando...
Like Vanessa, he always seemed to be in another reality, working off some secret, magn