click links in text for more info

Francesc MaciĆ 

Francesc Macià i Llussà was the 122nd President of Catalonia and an officer in the Spanish Army. Francesc Macià i Llussà was born in Vilanova i la Catalonia, he achieved the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the Spanish army during his military career. He condemned the assault on the politically satirical Catalan journal Cu-Cut in 1905 by some Spanish army officers and was forced to abandon the army, he was representative for Barcelona and Borges Blanques in the Congress of Deputies from 1907 to 1923 elected by the Catalan Solidarity coalition. During his last years as a politician in Madrid, he moved from Catalan autonomist to independentist positions. In 1922, Macià founded the independentist party Estat Català. In 1926 he attempted an insurrection against the Spanish dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera; this uprising, the aim of, to achieve the independence of Catalonia, was based in Prats de Molló. He was arrested in France for this and was convicted and sentenced to two months in jail and a fine of 100 francs.

Macià left France for Brussels in March 1927. In April 1930 he returned to Spain after being pardoned. In 1931, after the elections that caused the exile of Alfonso XIII of Spain and gave the local majority to his party Republican Left of Catalonia, a few hours before the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic in Madrid, from the balcony of the Palace of the Generalitat, announced the "Catalan Republic, expecting that the other peoples of Spain constitute themselves as republics, in order to establish the Iberian Confederation". Macià was appointed as its acting president. Three days the government of the new Spanish Republic, sent three ministers to Barcelona to negotiate with Macià and the Catalan government. Macià reached an agreement with the ministers, in which the Catalan Republic was renamed Generalitat of Catalonia, becoming an autonomous government inside the Spanish Republic. Macià was the President of the Generalitat from 1932, after the first Catalan parliamentary election, until his death in December 1933.

Macià died on 25 December 1933 in Barcelona. His funeral caused a massive demonstration of grief, his remains rest in the Montjuïc Cemetery, in Barcelona's Montjuïc hill. Part of his personal collection, which consists of documentation image about the president travels throughout Catalonia and family snapshots, is preserved in the National Archive of Catalonia, they are a repository of Mrs. Teresa Peyrí i Macià; the fund contains documents generated and received by Francesc Macià, personal and family documents, correspondence from the period before the Second Spanish Republic and documentation produced in terms of its political activity. The fund brings together documents relating to his conduct before being named president of the Government of Catalonia: As a Member of Parliament on Catalan State, on Catalan Army and on the corresponding period in the Directory of General Primo de Rivera. There is the collection of photographs, most made during his presidency. Another part of Macià's personal archive consists of correspondence written to/by Joan Agell, documents of Centre Català in New York, diverse documentation and press clippings.

It is in the Pavelló de la República CRAI Library at the University of Barcelona. Plaça de Francesc Macià, Barcelona Biography Macià proclaiming the Catalan Republic Inventari del Fons FP, Subsèrie Francesc Macià, de l CRAI Biblioteca del Pavelló de la República de la Universitat de Barcelona


Laughtivism is strategic use of humor and mocking by social nonviolent movements in order to undermine the authority of an opponent, build credibility, break fear and apathy and reach target audiences. It has been defined, predominantly practiced independently by two activist groups - The Center for Applied Nonviolent Actions and Strategies based in Belgrade, Serbia as well as the New York-based team the Yes Men Some recent examples of Laughtivism include: The Yes Men creating a false movie production company comparing the Midwestern Tar Sands area to Mordor, Egyptian comedian Bassem Youssef's satirical television show The B+ which made fun of events during the Egyptian Revolution in 2011. For more examples of Laughtivism see "Why Dictators Don't Like Jokes", by Srdja Popovic and Mladen Joksic. For a critical view of Laughtivism see "Two Cheers for Laughtivism", by Kei Hiruta. Otpor! Bringing Down a Dictator Albert Einstein Institution "Revolution U" "The Revolutionist"

Richard Middleton (Lord Chancellor)

Richard Middleton was an English ecclesiastic and Lord Chancellor of England. Middleton was appointed Lord Chancellor on 29 July 1269, he was out of office before his death, but his successor Walter de Merton is first mentioned in the office on 29 November 1272. On 5 January 1270 Middleton was given the living of the church at Hemingbrough in the East Riding of Yorkshire by the cathedral chapter of Durham Cathedral, he was Archdeacon of Northumberland, occurring in that office on 23 September 1271 and in 1272. Middleton died on 7 August 1272. Fryde, E. B.. Handbook of British Chronology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-56350-X. Greenway, Diana E.. Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066–1300: Volume 2, Monastic Cathedrals: Durham: Archdeacons: Northumberland. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 11 January 2017. Staff. "Lord chancellors of England and Great Britain". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 11 January 2017

Mickie Caspi

Mickie Caspi is an Israeli-American calligrapher and artist specializing in Judaica. Caspi was raised in Highland Park, Illinois by two artists and Philip Padawer, who encouraged creativity from a young age, she lived in Israel on Kibbutz Nachshon for three years. After returning to Highland Park, she studied art at Columbia College in Chicago. Caspi worked as an artist-in-residence at the Kohl Jewish Teacher Center in Illinois. After graduating from Columbia College in 1982, she returned to Israel, living on Kibbutz Harel and in Jerusalem, she spent seven years as a freelance artist and calligrapher in Israel before returning to the United States in 1989 and establishing Caspi Cards & Art. Her hundreds of original designs have been reproduced on greeting cards, Judaic art prints, calendars and is known for her innovations as a Ketubah artist, she introduced the first pre-printed Same Sex Ketubah text in 1994, predating Same-sex marriage laws in the United States. Caspi derives her inspiration from many sources, including traditional Jewish motifs and Arabic illumination, contemporary graphics, as well as art nouveau and art deco.

Her art has been exhibited in Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, San Francisco and Boston, her illustrations have appeared in Hebrew children’s books and English publications. According to Marc Michael Epstein, "Examples by American artist... Mickie Caspi are among the best and brightest examples of motifs found in ketubot from the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries."Caspi volunteered at the Horace Mann School in Newton, Massachusetts. In 2011, the Oakland Hebrew Day School used her artwork as a stepping off point for the students to create their own works of art, she has illustrated books including the 1987 reprint of The Sea's Gift, 1930 by Levin Kipnis, which represented Israel at the International Children's Book Invitational. An avid organic gardener, Caspi incorporates the beauty of nature into much of her artwork, she resides in Newton, Massachusetts, is married, has three children and two grandsons. Jacobson, David,. Conservative Lithograph Ketubah by Mickie Caspi. Seattle, Washington: Linda Hodges Gallery Louie Award Finalist.

BR405 Bar Mitzvah Card by Mickie Caspi. Jewish Everyday Category Competition Illuminations, an exhibition about History and Innovation in the Hebrew Scribal Arts, Jewish Community Museum. San Francisco, CA Art Show Exhibition, Centerpoint. Brookline, MA Fisher, Eliezer. Ketubah Illustration and Calligraphy by Mickie Klugman. Jerusalem, Israel. Epstein, Marc Michael Skies of Parchment, Seas of Ink: Jewish Illuminated Manuscripts. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0300135534. Moore, Deborah Dash & Gertz, Nurith. P1103 Season's Ketubah by Mickie Caspi. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300135534. Sorrentino, Paolo. Healing Arts Prayer by Mickie Caspi. Images used by Inc.. Abbot, Paul. Jerusalem Rainbow Ketubah and Jewish Art Calendar by Mickie Caspi. Images used by Bonanza Productions. Marshall, Scott. Bar Mitzvah Man of Honor Blessings by Mickie Caspi. Images used by A Road Picture. Diamant, Anita. P200 Noah's Ark by Mickie Caspi. Vermont: Jewish Lights Publishing. ISBN 978-1580232517. Diamant, Anita.

P93-94 Alternative Egalitarian Ketubah Text by Mickie Caspi. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0743202558. Hoffman, Edward. Calligraphy & Illustration by Mickie Caspi. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. ISBN 978-0811827324. Lerner, Rabbi Devon A.. P245-246 Interfaith Ketubah Text by Mickie Caspi. New York: Henry Holt. ISBN 978-0805060836. Latner, Helen. P77-78 Interfaith and Egalitarian Ketubah Texts by Mickie Caspi. Massachusetts: Adams Media. ISBN 978-1558508019. Stern, David H.. Cover Illustration by Mickie Klugman. Clarksville. ISBN 978-9653590113. Kipnis, Levin.. Illustrated by Mickie Klugman. Tel Aviv: Sifriyat poʻalim. OCLC Number: 19192504. Stuhlman, Daniel D.. Illustrated by Micha Klugman. Chicago: BYLS Press. ISBN 978-0934402095. Official Website

Grace Mandeville

Grace Mandeville is a British actress, model, television presenter, internet personality best known for portraying Holly on CBBC's The Sparticle Mystery and for her and her sister's YouTube channel, "Mandeville Sisters." Grace Mandeville was born in England with a foreshortened right arm. She has one younger sister, who she shares her YouTube channel with, one younger brother, Henry. Mandeville attended sixth form in Surrey which she attended while filming The Sparticle Mystery however her mother would not let her. Mandeville chose to further pursue acting instead of attend university. Mandeville began acting when she was fifteen, getting advertorial jobs. Prior to this she appeared as an extra in Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix as a Hogwarts student. In 2010, she was cast as Holly in the CBBC show, The Sparticle Mystery, which premiered in February 2011. Mandeville appeared in BBC3's The Fear alongside her younger sister, Amelia, she has appeared in advertisements for Huawei and Matalan and is in CBBC shorts such as Lifebabble and Whoops I Missed the Bus with her sister.

In 2016, Mandeville appeared as a panelist in the CBBC show, The Dog Ate My Homework. In 2016, Mandeville and her sister began presenting for MTV UK. Mandeville and her younger sister Amelia created a YouTube channel in December 2013 called the "Mandeville Sisters"; the channel has since amassed over 114,000 subscribers. The sisters film weekly vlogs called the "MandevWeekly," and additionally post one other video during the week, they have filmed a number of everyday life with one hand. The channel includes collaborations and interviews with celebrities and other Youtubers. Mandeville models prosthetics for Open Bionics. In 2015, she modeled a Star Wars themed prosthetic arm for Fashion Finds the Force, designed by Open Bionics, she modeled a prosthetic arm for Sophie de Oliveira Barata's "Alternative Limb Project" from which Mandeville was featured in the New York Times. Mandeville has modeled for Dazed Magazine and TenEighty Magazine. Mandeville has taken part in a number of disability activism events and has been vocal about portrayal of people with disabilities in the media.

In addition to having a foreshortened right arm, she is allergic to animal fur. Mandeville lives with her family in Surrey, she began dating Ryan Anthony, a cyber security engineer, in May 2016, the couple married in August 2019. Grace Mandeville on IMDb

Aminata Mbengue Ndiaye

Aminata Mbengue Ndiaye is a Senegalese politician. In 2012, she was appointed Minister of Livestock and Animal Production in the government of Prime Minister Abdou Mbaye and from 2014 under the government of Prime Minister Mahammad Boun Abdallah Dionne till 5 April 2019, when she was named Minister of Fishery and Maritime Economy Ministre des Pêches et de l’Economie maritime], she serves as mayor of Louga, is chair of the women's movement of the Socialist Party of Senegal. Ndiaye served as Minister of Women and the Family, as well as Minister of Social Development and National Solidarity under the presidency of Abdou Diouf. Ndiaye is a member of the Pan-African Parliament. Born to El Hadj Ali Mbengue, a civil servant, in Louga, Senegal. Attended Lycée Ahmed Fall in Saint-Louis and Lycée Kennedy before École normale d'enseignement technique and École national d’économie appliqué. Member of the Senegalese national basketball team at the Second All African Games in Lagos, Nigeria in 1973. "Aminata Mbengue Ndiaye", in The HerStory Project: Volume 1, edited by Anthonia Makwemoisa Amalion, Dakar, ISBN 9782359260038, 2011, page 211-217.

"Aminata Mbengue Ndiaye: La'gardienne du temple' socialiste", in Femmes au Sénégal, Les Cahiers de l'Alternance, Konrad Adenauer Foundation and Centre d'études des sciences et techniques de l'information, issue 10, December 2006, page 91