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Francesco Borromini

Francesco Borromini, byname of Francesco Castelli, was an Italian architect born in the modern Swiss canton of Ticino who, with his contemporaries Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Pietro da Cortona, was a leading figure in the emergence of Roman Baroque architecture. A keen student of the architecture of Michelangelo and the ruins of Antiquity, Borromini developed an inventive and distinctive, if somewhat idiosyncratic, architecture employing manipulations of Classical architectural forms, geometrical rationales in his plans and symbolic meanings in his buildings, he seems to have had a sound understanding of structures, which Bernini and Cortona, who were principally trained in other areas of the visual arts, lacked. His soft lead drawings are distinctive, he appears amassing a large library by the end of his life. His career was constrained by his personality. Unlike Bernini who adopted the mantle of the charming courtier in his pursuit of important commissions, Borromini was both melancholic and quick in temper which resulted in him withdrawing from certain jobs, his death was by suicide.

Because his work was idiosyncratic, his subsequent influence was not widespread but is apparent in the Piedmontese works of Camillo-Guarino Guarini and, as a fusion with the architectural modes of Bernini and Cortona, in the late Baroque architecture of Northern Europe. Critics of the Baroque, such as Francesco Milizia and the English architect Sir John Soane, were critical of Borromini's work. From the late nineteenth century onwards, interest has revived in the works of Borromini and his architecture has become appreciated for its inventiveness. Borromini was born at Bissone, near Lugano in the Ticino, at the time a bailiwick of the Swiss Confederacy, he began his career as a stonemason himself. He soon went to Milan to practice his craft, he moved to Rome in 1619 and started working for Carlo Maderno, his distant relative, at St. Peter's and also at the Palazzo Barberini; when Maderno died in 1629, he and Pietro da Cortona continued to work on the palace under the direction of Bernini. Once he had become established in Rome, he changed his name from Castelli to Borromini, a name deriving from his mother's family and also out of regard for St Charles Borromeo.

In 1634, Borromini received his first major independent commission to design the church and monastic buildings of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane. Situated on the Quirinal Hill in Rome, the complex was designed for the Spanish Trinitarians, a religious order; the monastic buildings and the cloister were completed first after which construction of the church took place during the period 1638-1641 and in 1646 it was dedicated to San Carlo Borromeo. The church is considered by many to be an exemplary masterpiece of Roman Baroque architecture. San Carlino is remarkably small given its significance to Baroque architecture; the site was not an easy one. Borromini positioned the church on the corner of two intersecting roads. Although the idea for the serpentine facade must have been conceived early on in the mid-1630s, it was only constructed towards the end of Borromini's life and the upper part was not completed until after the architect's death. Borromini devised the complex ground plan of the church from interlocking geometrical configurations, a typical Borromini device for constructing plans.

The resulting effect is that the interior lower walls appear to weave in and out alluding to a cross form to a hexagonal form and to an oval form. The area of the pendentives marks the transition from the lower wall order to the oval opening of the dome. Illuminated by windows hidden from a viewer below, interlocking octagons and hexagons diminish in size as the dome rises to a lantern with the symbol of the Trinity. In the late sixteenth century, the Congregation of the Filippini rebuilt the church of Santa Maria in Vallicella in central Rome. In the 1620s, on a site adjacent to the church, the Fathers commissioned designs for their own residence and for an oratory in which to hold their spiritual exercises; these exercises combined preaching and music in a form which became immensely popular and influential on the development of the musical oratorio. The architect Paolo Maruscelli drew up plans for the site and the sacristy was begun in 1629 and was in use by 1635. After a substantial benefaction in January 1637, Borromini was appointed as architect.

By 1640, the oratory was in use, a taller and richer clock tower was accepted, by 1643, the relocated library was complete. The striking brick curved facade adjacent to the church entrance has an unusual pediment and does not correspond to the oratory room behind it; the white oratory interior has a ribbed vault and a complex wall arrangement of engaged pilasters along with freestanding columns supporting first level balconies. The altar wall was reworked at a date. Borromini’s relations with the Oratorians were fraught. By 1650, the situation came to a head and in 1652 the Oratorians appointed another architect. However, with the help of his Oratorian friend and provost Virgilio Spada, Borromini documented his own

Lake Shore Limited

The Lake Shore Limited is an overnight Amtrak passenger train service between Chicago and the Northeastern United States. The train uses the former main line of the New York Central Railroad, part of, now the Empire Corridor. In Albany, New York, it divides with separate sections serving Boston. Amtrak began service in 1975; the train is named for the New York Central's Lake Shore Limited, discontinued in 1956. During fiscal year 2018, the Lake Shore Limited carried 337,882 passengers, a decrease of 13.1% from FY2017. In FY2016, the train had a total revenue of $28,563,624, an increase of 0.2% over FY2015. The Lake Shore Limited is named after one of its illustrious predecessors that ran on the famed Water Level Route of the New York Central. Like the present day Lake Shore Limited, the New York Central edition offered service between New York and Boston and Chicago, although the New York Central used LaSalle Street Station; the New York Central annulled the Lake Shore Limited in 1956, as part of a system-wide reorganization.

Service over the Water Level Route continued until the formation of Amtrak, with the last route being the New England States and its unnamed Penn Central successor. Amtrak did not include service west of Buffalo over the New York Central's Water Level Route in its original route plan. For the Albany - Boston section of the route, there would be no train service from 1971 to the 1975 inauguration of the Lake Shore Limited. Between May 1971 and January 1972 Amtrak operated the Lake Shore over the route with support from the state of Ohio; the modern Lake Shore Limited began running October 1975 with both New York and Boston sections. The Lake Shore Limited was the last train to use the decaying Buffalo Central Terminal, departing on October 28, 1979. Since it has used Buffalo–Depew. On the night of August 3, 1994, around 3:45 am, the westbound Lake Shore Limited, with two locomotives and fifteen cars, carrying 320 passengers, nineteen crew members, derailed on Conrail-owned tracks near Batavia, New York.

The initial derailment of the wheels of the third car on the train, occurred at milepost 403.7, the train traveled for another three miles, until the general derailment of the train, at milepost 406.7. In all, fourteen cars derailed, with some sliding down an embankment, 118 passengers and crew members were injured. However, there were no fatalities; the National Transportation Safety Board determined that the probable cause were the wheels coming off a section of flattened rail. Service to Poughkeepsie began on November 8, 2010. In 2010–2011, Amtrak studied restoring the Hammond/Whiting stop but rejected it because of difficulty of routing trains to the station's single platform. Due to planned repair work on the Freedom Tunnel, Spuyten Duyvil Bridge, Track 19 in New York's Penn Station, the New York section was discontinued from May 26 to September 3, 2018, the train only ran from Chicago to Boston. In the January 2011 issue of Trains Magazine, this route was listed as one of five routes to undergo improvement evaluation by Amtrak in FY 2011, just as the previous five routes had been examined in FY 2010.

Amtrak published its Performance Improvement Plan for the Lake Shore Limited in September 2011. One idea was to change the train's eastbound departure time from Chicago to be earlier, it departs at 9:30 PM, to facilitate connections from often-late West Coast trains. The improved departure time would add $2 million in yearly revenue. Amtrak considered more radical changes to the operations of the Lake Shore Limited, including a re-route over the Chicago–Detroit Line, but rejected them; the Lake Shore Limited consists of a New York section and a Boston section, which run combined between Chicago and Albany. As of February 2019, the train has two P42DC locomotives, one Viewliner baggage car, three Amfleet II coaches, one Amfleet I split Business/Cafe car, one Viewliner II diner, three Viewliner Sleepers. In normal service, at Albany, the train splits into its New York sections. Low demand and cost-cutting led Amtrak to drop through service to Boston between 2003 and 2008; the New York section uses a single dual-mode P32AC-DM for third-rail power in Pennsylvania Station.

West of Albany, power is provided by two or three GE Genesis P42DC or P40DC diesel locomotives, which continue on to Boston. In the late 1990s Amtrak considered adding New York, as a stop between Buffalo and Erie. Dunkirk was listed as a stop with service "to commence on a date to be announced" on several timetables, but the stop was never added. In 2010–2011, Amtrak studied restoring the Hammond/Whiting stop but rejected it because of difficulty of routing trains to the station's single platform. During the 2000s and 2010s the Lake Shore Limited carried either a Horizon Fleet or Amfleet lounge car. Between November 2007 and December 2009, maintenance problems led Amtrak to withdraw the Heritage diners and substitute Amfleet Cafe-based diner-lites, a move that became a source of passenger displeasure and a liability for the route, as the Heritage cars could prepare fresh food on board. In July 2016, Amtrak once again replaced the Lake Shore's full-service dining car with an Amfleet II diner-lite.

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Columbia Pike–Farragut Square Line

The Columbia Pike–Farragut Square Line, designated Route 16Y, is a rush hour-only MetroExtra bus route operated by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority between the neighborhood of Barcroft and McPherson Square station of the Blue and Silver lines of the Washington Metro. This line is part of the Pike Ride service; this line provides service to Barcroft in Arlington County, Virginia and McPherson Square in Washington, D. C; the 16Y operates from Four Mile Run Division every 5 minutes from 5:55 AM – 9:47 AM and 3:30 PM – 7:52 PM on weekdays during rush hours. Morning rush 16Y trips head to McPherson Square station, while afternoon rush 16Y trips head to the neighborhood of Barcroft. During morning 16Y trips, D. C. stops can only be alighted. C. stops can only be boarded. The 16Y serves limited stops through the entire route; the 16Y splits service from Columbia Pike to head towards Lyon Park from South Courthouse Road towards Arlington Boulevard, all the way to D. C. through the Roosevelt Bridge.

Route 16Y is the only MetroExtra route. Local Columbia Pike service is provided by Route 16E, Route 16G, Route 16H. Local bus service is provided on Arlington Transit Routes 42, 45, 77 through the neighborhood of Lyon Park, the Pershing Drive–Arlington Boulevard Line through Arlington Boulevard up to Rosslyn. Route 16Y began service on September 29, 2002, becoming the first bus route to run through Downtown D. C. since the opening of the Yellow Line in 1983. The 16Y was created by WMATA to provide limited stop/ express service between the neighborhood of Barcroft and McPherson Square station via Columbia Pike, Arlington Boulevard, the Roosevelt Bridge; the original 16Y route serves limited stops on Columbia Pike between South Four Mile Run Drive, South Courthouse road, until it runs non stop to Downtown, serving all stops until McPherson Square station. The 16Y serves Farragut Square Station, both the North and the West side, before arriving to McPherson Square; the 16Y became part of the Pike Ride route alongside with the other 16 lines.

As part of the Pike Ride project, the 16Y brings in more faster service during rush hours through Columbia Pike. The 16Y became a MetroExtra route in 2012, alongside with route 16F of the Columbia Pike–Federal Triangle Line; this groups the 16Y, as an limited stop routes, while all other 16 lines are local routes which serves all stops in Columbia Pike. Alongside with the addition of MetroExtra Better Bus program, it brings more reliable service on the 16Y when more times was added throughout the years; the 16Y changes more its schedule times throughout the years, although a few minor changes to the route was added. Starting in April 7, 2003, the 16Y added service to the Arlington County Department of Human Services /Sequoia at South Courthouse Road and 2nd Street South; this stop became a "Boarding Only" during morning peak periods, "Boarding and Alighting Only" during afternoon peak periods. From the addition of the stop, the 16Y eliminated the alighting only stop at the neighborhood of Penrose on Columbia Pike, as the 16Y will no longer run on Washington Boulevard, south of Walter Reed Drive.

The 16Y began to add more service through South Courthouse Road. The 16Y started to serve on the intersection of 6th Street South to bring more stops to the route; as the DHS/Sequoia stop at 2nd Street South is a Boarding Only stop on morning peak period, this new stop allows access to DHS/Sequoia by walking. The 16Y began to add service through Lyon Park and Fort Myer near Arlington Boulevard, by adding more stops to bring more service on the 16Y; the DHS/Sequoia stop is no longer a Boarding Only stop on morning peak hours, after service on Washington Boulevard and Arlington Boulevard was added. Alongside these changes, the 16Y now operates near Fort Myer on Arlington Boulevard and North Pershing Drive. Unlike its original timetable, this stop is both Boarding and Alighting during peak hours


Fun is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "Light-hearted pleasure, enjoyment, or amusement. Although associated with recreation and play, fun may be encountered during work, social functions, in daily life. There are physiological implications to the experience of fun. Modern Westernized civilizations prioritize fun as an sexual aspect; the word fun is associated with sports, sexual activity, entertaining media, high merriment, amusement. Although its etymology is uncertain, it has been speculated that it may be derived from fonne and fonnen. An 18th century meaning was "cheat, hoax", a meaning still retained in the phrase "to make fun of"; the landlady was going to reply, but was prevented by the peace-making sergeant, sorely to the displeasure of Partridge, a great lover of what is called fun, a great promoter of those harmless quarrels which tend rather to the production of comical than tragical incidents. Henry Fielding, The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling The way the word fun is used demonstrates its distinctive elusiveness and happiness.

Expressions such as "Have fun!" and "That was fun!" Indicate that fun is pleasant, to some extent unpredictable. Expressions such as "I was making fun of myself" convey the sense that fun is something that can be amusing and not to be taken seriously; the adjective "funny" has two meanings which need to be clarified between a speaker and listener. One meaning is "amusing, droll" and the other meaning is "odd, peculiar"; these differences indicate the evanescent and experiential nature of fun and the difficulty of distinguishing "fun" from "enjoyment". Fun's evanescence can be seen. Many physical activities and individual sports are regarded as fun until the participant seeks to win a competition, at which point, much of the fun may disappear as the individual's focus tightens. Surfing is an example. If you are a "mellow soul" "once you're riding waves, you're guaranteed to be having... fun". The pleasure of fun can be seen by the numerous efforts to harness its positive associations. For example, there are many books on serious subjects, about skills such as music and languages quite difficult to master, which have "fun" added to the title.

Many physical activities provide opportunities to have fun. Not only can these activities be fun but can improve physical and mental states. According to Johan Huizinga, fun is "an primary category of life, familiar to everybody at a glance right down to the animal level." Psychological studies reveal both the importance of fun and its effect on the perception of time, sometimes said to be shortened when one is having fun. As the adage states: "Time flies when you're having fun", it has been suggested that games and activities perceived as fun are challenging in some way. When a person is challenged to think consciously, overcome challenge and learn something new, they are more to enjoy a new experience and view it as fun. A change from routine activities appears to be at the core of this perception, since people spend much of a typical day engaged in activities that are routine and require limited conscious thinking. Routine information is processed by the brain as a "chunked pattern": "We look at the real world", according to game designer Raph Koster, "we instead recognize something we have chunked, leave it at that.

One might argue that the essence of much of art is in forcing us to see things as they are rather than as we assume them to be". Since it helps people to relax, fun is sometimes regarded as a "social lubricant", important in adding "to one's pleasure in life" and helping to "act as a buffer against stress". For children, fun is related to play and they have great capacity to extract the fun from it in a spontaneous and inventive way. Play "involves the capacity to have fun – to be able to return, at least for a little while, to never-never land and enjoy it." Some scientists have identified areas of the brain associated with the perception of novelty, which are stimulated when faced with "unusual or surprising circumstances". Information is received in the hippocampus, the site of long-term memory consolidation, where the brain attempts to match the new information with recognizable patterns stored in long-term memory; when it is unable to do this, the brain releases dopamine, a chemical which stimulates the amygdala, the site of emotion, creates a pleasurable feeling, associated with the new memory.

In other words, fun is created by stimulating the brain with novelty. In the modern world, fun is sold as a consumer product in the form of games, television and other amusements. Marxist sociologists such as the Frankfurt School criticise mass-manufactured fun as too calculated and empty to be satisfying. Bill Griffith satirises this dysphoria when his cartoon character Zippy the Pinhead asks mechanically, "Are we having fun yet?" In the Beatles song "She's Leaving Home" fun is called "the one thing that money can't buy." Amusement Entertainment Epicurus Happiness Hedonic treadmill Vicki. Having Fun. Heinemann-Raintree Library. ISBN 978-1-4034-9832-8. Retrieved 4 February 2013. Raph Koster, Theory of Fun for Game Design, O'Reilly Media, Inc. ISBN 978-1-932111-97-2

Roadgames: Original Soundtrack Recording

Roadgames: Original Soundtrack Recording is the soundtrack album from the 1981 Australian film of Roadgames. This CD features music by the composer Brian May for Richard Franklin and Everett De Roche’s films Roadgames and Patrick. Roadgames1. Main Title / On the Road / The Icebox / It’s the End of the World / No More Games2. Hitch’s theme / Morning Scene3; the Chase4. Quid Investigates / What’s the Matter, Buddy?”5. Quid Inspects Meat6. Hallucinating7. Final Pursuit8. Collision / High Jump9. Closing Titles10. Hitch's theme Patrick11. Main Title12. Matricide13; the Flat14. The Intruder15. Room 1516. You Can Feel17. Bossa for Ed18. Kathy's tune19; the Trance20. Patrick Power21. Kathy's theme22; the Strobe23. Exit Matron24. Kathy Looks for Ed25. Dr Roget26; the Needle27. Kathy Returns28. I'm Going Now29. He's Dead30. End Title Engineer - Roger SavageSoundtrack album producer Philip PowersArtwork - Alex CottonMastering - Meredith BrooksBooklet Notes - Richard Franklin, Director of Patrick and Roadgames


Suyamvaram is a 1999 Indian Tamil-language comedy-drama film starring an ensemble cast from actors in the Tamil film industry and shot by a large technical team from the industry. The film was planned by Giridharilal Nagpal who produced and wrote the film's story and brought together 14 major directors, 19 cinematographers and over thirty leading actors in the Tamil film industry; the film holds the Guinness World Record for casting the most stars in a film and for being the quickest feature-length film made, with filming being completed in 23 hours and 58 minutes. The film released on 16 July 1999, to positive reviews from critics, praising the intentions of the makers. Kuselan and Suseela have nine children: six girls. Azhagappan is the family's loyal servant; the movie opens with Kuselan's 60th birthday celebrations. At the hospital, the family is informed that Kuselan will not live long and decides to keep him comfortable in his last days. From the devastated family, Kuselan asks for one last favour: all his children get married before he dies.

The children agree, a statewide ad is put out saying that those chosen to marry Kuselan's children would get a piece of the family properties and a crore in cash. Needless to say, the mention of wealth brings in potential brides and grooms by the truck full to be interviewed by either Gnanapithan and Arivozhimangai or the doctors Mithrabuthan and Panchabootham. Kuselan and Krishna are happy upon thinking that everything would happen as planned, but there is a major hitch that they did not know about: most of the children have fallen in love. Arunachalam and Indiran have fallen love with Kushboo and Heera respectively. Easwari, Uma and Hema are in love with Kanna, Pallavan and Kanthen respectively; each of them gets their lover ready for the interview, after some hard work and bribing, they are all selected. Urvashi is linked with the absent-minded doctor Ram Kumar, who shows up at the interview upon thinking it is an interview for a doctor's post in a clinic while Ezhilarasi pairs with Azhagappan.

Kabilan, with Vichitra in tow, tries to worm his way in as a groom, when that effort fails, he kidnaps the nine brides for ransom. Krishna calls his friend ACP Sanjay IPS, who defeats Kabilan and his aides, defuses the bomb planted by Kabilan at the marriage hall and saves the brides. After finding the brides and after the marriage, Kuselan explains that his heart attack was a joke, he wanted them to get married. In order of appearance: Directors: J. Paneer, A. R. Ramesh, Keyaar, E. Ramdoss, Guru Dhanapal, Liaquat Ali Khan, R. Sundarrajan, Selva, K. Subash, Sundar C, Siraj, K. S. Ravikumar, P. Vasu Screenplay & dialogues: Siraj Story & Producer: Giridharilal Nagpal Music Composers: Deva, S. A. Rajkumar, Vidyasagar Cinematographers: Babu, Raghunatha Reddy, B. L. Rao, D. Shankar, K. S. Selvaraj, A. Karthik Raja, Ashokrajan, K. S. Udhayashankar, Vijayshree, M. V. Panneerselvam, U. K. Senthil Kumar, R. B. Imayavaramban, Ram Gunasekharan, R. Rajarathnam, R. H. Ashok, K. B. Ahmed, G. Mohan, Victor S. Kumar Editors: P. Sai Suresh, K. Thanikachalam, P. Madan Mohan, L. Kesavan Art Director: G. K Producer Giridharilal Nagpal announced his intentions of making, Suyamvaram, a film shot within 24 hours in January 1999, citing it had been a fourteen-year dream.

The film's launch occurred in March 1999 with Kamal Haasan in attendance. He announced his intentions of shooting the film within 24 hours on 5 and 6 April 1999 across film studios in Chennai. Along with Nagpal, the film brought together 19 associate directors, 45 assistant directors, 19 cameramen, 36 assistant cameramen, nine steadycam operators, 14 heroes, 12 heroines, comedians, five dance masters, 16 assistants, 140 chorus dancers, stunt coordinators, art director, makeup and set designers, 15 film units, a still photographer and 1,483 extras to make the film. Despite months of planning, Nagpal left many details to the last minute with no script produced and directors describing scenes to actors, who would rehearse them once before filming. Two representatives, on behalf of the Guinness World Records, were present to oversee the time-schedule, they were joined by representatives from the Limca Book of Records on the set. Giridharlal said, "The goal is to finish every stage of film-making within the stipulated 24 hour period, developing rushes, dubbing, re-recording and final mixing for the master copy will all be done in that time.

The script is being divided into 11 parts, one director will shoot one part, all of them working on the same day, at different sets and venues". Production began on 5 April at 7 am on the sixth floor of the AVM Studios and the AVM Gardens directed by Sundar C. At 9.30am scenes were shot at the Kamaraj Memorial involving Prabhu Deva and Roja, while at 11am scenes with Sathyaraj and Kushboo were shot in studios resembling a gypsy tent camp. At noon in Film City, a song sequence with Abbas and Heera was shot and at Guindy, Ramdoss shot scenes involving Pandiarajan and Kasthuri. P. Vasu filmed scenes involving Prabhu and Aishwarya in a room with computers at 2.45pm, after a brief delay caused by missing props. Karin Przygocki, an English teacher at the American International School Chennai, was recruited to play an American