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Francesco Guicciardini

Francesco Guicciardini was an Italian historian and statesman. A friend and critic of Niccolò Machiavelli, he is considered one of the major political writers of the Italian Renaissance. In his masterpiece, The History of Italy, Guicciardini paved the way for a new style in historiography with his use of government sources to support arguments and the realistic analysis of the people and events of his time. Francesco Guicciardini was born 6 March 1483 in Florence, now in Italy; the Guicciardini were well-established members of the Florentine oligarchy as well as supporters of the Medici. Influential in Florentine politics, Guicciardini's ancestors had held the highest posts of honor in the state for many generations, as may be seen in his own genealogical Ricordi autobiografici e di famiglia. Piero Guicciardini had studied with the philosopher Marsilio Ficino, who stood as his son's godfather. Like his father, Francesco received a fine humanist education and studied the classics, learning both Latin and a little Greek.

The boy was sent by his father to study law at the Universities of Ferrara and Padua, where he stayed until the year 1505. The death of an uncle, who had occupied the see of Cortona, induced the young Guicciardini to seek an ecclesiastical career, his father, however, "thought the affairs of the Church were decadent. He preferred to lose great present profits and the chance of making one of his sons a great man rather than have it on his conscience that he had made one of his sons a priest out of greed for wealth or great position." Thus, the ambitious Guicciardini once again turned his attention to law. At 23, he was appointed by the Signoria of Florence to teach legal studies at the Florentine Studio. In 1508, he married Maria Salviati, the daughter of Alamanno Salviati, cementing an oligarchical alliance with the powerful Florentine family. In the same year, he wrote the Memorie di famiglia, a family memoir of the Guicciardini family, the Storie Fiorentine, began his Ricordi, a rudimentary personal chronicle of his life.

Having distinguished himself in the practice of law, Guicciardini was entrusted by the Florentine Signoria with an embassy to the court of the King of Aragon, Ferdinand the Catholic, in 1512. He had doubts about accepting the position because it came with so little profit and would disrupt his law practice and take him away from the city. However, Francesco's father convinced him of the court’s prestige and the honour of having been chosen at so young an age. "No one could remember at Florence that such a young man had been chosen for such an embassy", he wrote in his diary. Thus Guicciardini started his career as a statesman, his Spanish correspondence with the Signoria reveals his power of observation and analysis, a chief quality of his mind. At the Spanish court, he learned lessons of political realism. In his letters back home, he expressed appreciation for being able to observe Spanish military methods and estimate their strength during the time of war. However, he distrusted the calculated gestures of Ferdinand and referred to him as a model of the art of political deceit.

During his time in Spain, the Medici regained power in Florence. Under the new regime, his embassy in Spain dragged on, frustrating Guicciardini as he yearned to return to Florence and participate in its political life. Guicciardini insisted on being recalled and sent a letter to the youthful Lorenzo de’ Medici in an attempt to secure a position in the new ruling group. Guicciardini returned home to Florence, where he took up his law practice again. In 1513, Giovanni de' Medici, the son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, became Pope Leo X and brought Florence under papal control, which provided opportunities for Florentines to enter papal service, as did Francesco in 1515. Leo X made him governor of Reggio in 1516 and Modena in 1517; this was the beginning of a long career for Guicciardini in papal administration, first under Leo X and under his successor, Clement VII. "He governed Reggio with conspicuous success" according to The Catholic Encyclopedia. He was appointed to govern Parma, according to the Encyclopedia, "in the confusion that followed the pope's death, he distinguished himself by his defence of Parma against the French."In 1523, he was appointed viceregent of the Romagna by Clement VII.

These high offices rendered Guicciardini the virtual master of the Papal States beyond the Apennine Mountains. As he described himself during this period: "If you had seen messer Francesco in the Romagna...with his house full of tapestries, servants thronged from the entire province where—since everything was referred to him—no one, from the Pope down, recognized anyone as his superior...". The political turmoil in Italy was continuously intensifying; as hostilities between King Francis I of France and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, the Pope remained undecided over which side to back and so sought Guicciardini's advice. Guicciardini advised an alliance with France and urged Clement to conclude the League of Cognac in 1526, which led to war with Charles V; that year, as the forces of Charles V threatened to attack, Clement made Guicciardini lieutenant-general of the papal army. Guicciardini was powerless to influence the commander of papal forces, Francesco Maria della Rovere, Duke of Urbino, to take action.

However, in April 1527, Guicciardini succeeded in averting an attack on Florence from a rebellious imperial army

ICCF England

The ICCF England belongs to the ICCF national member federations. 1962 saw the formation of the British Postal Chess Federation. The name was change to the British Federation of Correspondence Chess in 1999, again to English Federation for Correspondence Chess. Great Britain won the Gold Medal in Olympiad IX and thereafter the same followed up to gain the Silver Medal in Olympiad X representing England. Anthony Barnsley John G. Brookes Dr. Ian S. Brooks Peter Hugh Clarke Peter Coleman Richard V. M. Hall Adrian Swayne Hollis Maurice W. Johnson Peter Richard Markland Dr. Peter J. R. Millican Jonathan Penrose Nigel Edward Povah Michael Prizant John Pugh Keith Bevin Richardson Nigel Robson Simon Webb John Anderson Dr. Jerry E. C. Asquith Ken J. Bowyer John Joseph Carleton Clifford R. Chandler Mike J. Conroy Gordon H. Davies John Kenneth Footner Clive A. Frostick Keith Kitson Ajoy K. Mukherjee Ian M. Pheby Michael John Read Charles Rich Ian L. Snape Jonathan A. Tait Trevor Thomas Paul F. Timson Giuseppe Valerio Dr. Kevern J. Verney John Vivante-Sowter John F. Adams David William Anderton Frank Boyd Michael Edward Beech Brigden Henry W. Brockbank Duncan Chambers Julian Corfield Dr. Mike J. Donnelly David Ebbett Fred J. L. Fraser Kenneth B.

Harman Michael Howard Horton W. F. Lumley Liam Lynn Russell M. Pegg John D. Rhodes Sidney S. Shaw Chris C. W. Shephard Dr. Peter W. H. Smith Edward C. Sowden Peter John Sowray Alan Munro Stewart Janos I. Suto Ian D. Thompson John A. Toothill Christopher C. Williams Mike W. Wills Dr. Jill Barber Toni Halliwell Mrs. Mary E. Jones Dawn Williamson Mrs. M. E. E. Clarke National site

1991 World Championships in Athletics – Men's 4 × 400 metres relay

These are the official results of the Men's 4x400 metres event at the 1991 IAAF World Championships in Tokyo, Japan. There were a total number of sixteen participating nations, with three qualifying heats and the final held on Sunday September 1, 1991; the final was won by Great Britain in. Going into the meeting, the USA 4 × 400 m team hadn't lost at a major championships in over 7 years. Britain, by contrast, hadn't won a gold medal in the event since the 1936 Berlin Olympics; the British team made a tactical change, switching their top runner Roger Black, expected to be the anchor leg runner, to the first leg. The move paid off. Black ran a 44.6 first leg. Giving Derek Redmond the edge to beat Quincy Watts to the break. Both Watts and Redmond would become famous the following year, Watts for winning the Olympic gold medal in the 400 metres and Redmond for his determination, finishing his semi-final race in that same event with a torn hamstring, assisted by his father. Watts ran a 44.1 leg to catch Redmond, but it could have been faster because Watts had to pass Redmond on the outside of the turn due to the British team's superior position.

Danny Everett was not able to put any distance on John Regis having to fend off a challenge on the final straightaway, so going into the final leg, the USA held only a small lead. Kriss Akabusi, running the anchor leg paced off of the individual 400m Champion, Antonio Pettigrew dramatically overtook him on the home straight to win; the USA team were so shocked by the result, that on the medal podium, they were still in disbelief at the result. Indeed, television footage after the race, showed Pettigrew stood, hands on hips, shaking his head at the outcome of the race; the result was the only time out of 8 major championships over a 12-year span that the US team failed to win gold. All times are Japan Standard Time Held on Saturday 1991-08-31 1988 Men's Olympic 4 × 400 m Relay 1990 Men's European Championships 4 × 400 m Relay 1992 Men's Olympic 4 × 400 m Relay 1993 Men's World Championships 4 × 400 m Relay In 2002 this race came 42nd in the TV programme 100 Greatest Sporting Moments by Channel 4 of the UK.


Japanese Chinese cuisine

Japanese Chinese cuisine or Chūka is a style of Japanese cuisine served by nominally Chinese restaurants popularized in Japan in the late 19th century and more recent times. There is much confusion as both Japanese and Chinese reject that this food is the pure form of their own cuisine, however, it is clear this food is found in Japan, though now it is re-popularized throughout Asia from Japan as "Japanese cuisine"; this style of food is again different from modern Chinatown Chinese food in Japan, e.g. Yokohama Chinatown; the Shippoku style of cooking displays heavy influence from Chinese cuisine. Chūka is the adjective for Japanese style "Chinese" dishes, or the restaurants in Japan which serve them. Chuka dishes originated in China, but have become modified over the years to suit Japanese taste with Japanese or Western foods, they have changed enough that they are not identified as Chinese dishes by the Chinese themselves, nor as Japanese dishes by the Japanese. Japanese mistakenly consider them "Chinese", though the dish of origin in any Chinese restaurant would never be made in this way.

In some cases, Japanese foods have been added, such as in the case of miso-ramen. In other cases, only the noodles are "Chinese", as in the case of hiyashi chūka, invented in Sendai in 1937, uses Western food influences such as sliced cured ham; as meat was not common in Japanese cooking until many meat dishes pork dishes, are of Chinese origin or influence. Though Chinese cuisine would have been available in Chinatowns such as those in port cities of Kobe, Nagasaki, or Yokohama, a number of the dishes are considered meibutsu of these cities, Japanese-style Chinese cuisine is now available all over Japan; as Japanese restaurants are specialized to offer only one sort of dish, cuisine is focused on dishes found within three distinct types of restaurants: Ramen restaurants, Dim sum houses, standard Chinese-style restaurants. Ramen a dish of noodles in broth with meat and vegetable toppings, is referred to as Chuka Soba In Japan, ramen is one of the most popular fast-food options. Though every Japanese city has numerous inexpensive ramen restaurants specializing in these noodles, numerous varieties of instant ramen are available.

These noodles have changed much since their origin in China. Four main types of ramen are available in Japan: shio, shōyu, tonkotsu and miso. While the toppings used in ramen are generalized based on the broth type, this can vary from shop to shop; as complements to the noodles, ramen restaurants commonly offer Japanese-style fried rice and gyoza. Dim sum in Japan is very different from that, popularized in Chinatowns in the United States and Canada. In Japan's Chinatown areas, restaurants in which numerous dishes are brought around to diner's tables on carts do exist. But, in general, Dim sum items have only begun to gain popularity around Japan. Instead of carrying full menus of authentic, Chinese-oriented items such as stewed chicken's feet or tripe, Japanese dim sum restaurants, now found in larger cities such as Osaka and Tokyo seem to promote a cafe-like atmosphere. At these cafes and snacks become the focus, instead of full meals. In general, the menus seem to focus on cafe items, such as the like.

These are served alongside of pots of oolong or jasmine tea. Chinese Restaurants, serve a distinct set of popular dishes that are not typical of authentic Chinese cuisine, they cater to Japanese tastes. Most towns in Japan have at least one Chinese eatery, as the cuisine is popular. There are many packaged sauces available to cook favorite Chinese-Japanese dishes right at home; some of these typical dishes are: Dishes derived from Sichuan cuisine: Mābō-dōfu are Stir fried dishes of ground pork mixture with Tofu cubes in a spicy sauce. Mābō-nasu are Stir fried dishes of ground pork with Eggplant in a spicy sauce; the dish was popularized in Japan by Chen Kenmin in 1952. Ebi no Chili Sauce is a spicy, thick-sauced shrimp dish; as the name suggests, chili sauce is used. Hoi Kō Rō is a stir-fry of thinly sliced cabbage in a miso-based sauce. Banbanji is a cold dish of steamed chicken, shredded and covered in a sesame sauce, it is accompanied by cold vegetables as a salad or appetizer. Dishes derived from Fujian cuisine: Chin-jao Rōsu is a stir-fry of thinly sliced Beef strips with Japanese green peppers and bean sprouts in an Oyster sauce.

Champon is a ramen-like dish, topped with fried pork and vegetablesDishes derived from Cantonese cuisine: Subuta is the Japanese take on Sweet and sour pork. It has a thicker, amber-colored sauce, unlike the striking orange or red of the Americanized version. Unlike the American version, it does not contain pineapple. Another common dish substitutes the fried pork in this dish with small fried meat-balls, called "niku-dango". Chāshū is derived from char siu. However, while the original Cantonese version is roasted after marinating in a sweet sauce that gives it a red colour, the Japanese version is instead stewed in honey and soy sauce. Shumai


Ambareesha is a 2014 Indian Kannada action film directed and produced by Mahesh Sukhadhare under the Sri Sukhadhare Pictures banner. The film stars Rachita Ram and Priyamani in the lead roles. Dr. Ambareesh and his wife Sumalatha Ambareesh will be seen in guest roles; the soundtrack and score is composed by V. Harikrishna and the cinematography is by Ramesh Babu. After a social activist is murdered, a labourer decides to continue his fight against the real estate mafia in Bengaluru, he faces an uphill battle. The principal shooting for the film formally began on 7 October 2013. Ambareesha distribution rights was sold for record price then. For the Bangalore-Tumkur circle alone the movie managed to get 7.5 crores approximately. The movie managed to get 4 Crores from the Mysore-Mandya-Hassan circle distribution rights; the Mumbai Karnataka circle fetched 3 Crores, while the Hyderabad Karnataka circle distribution rights went for 1 crore. Total distribution sold for ₹21 crore Ambareesha on IMDb

Per Westerberg

Per Erik Gunnar Westerberg is a Swedish politician, Speaker of the Riksdag from 2006 to 2014. He was a Member of the Riksdag from 1979 to 2014, its most senior member from 2006 to his resignation, he was Sweden's Minister for Industry and Trade from 1991 to 1994. Westerberg was born in Nyköping and graduated from Stockholm School of Economics in 1974. From 1974 to 1977, Westerberg was employed at Saab-Scania in Södertälje. Westerberg was employed at Saab-Scania in Nyköping 1979–91, member of the board of AB Karl W. Olsson in 1974, Chairman of Cewe Instrument AB 1984–90 and Elwia AB from 1985, he was director of the Enterprise Agency FFV from 1983, member of the Power Management Committee 1978–82, member of the cooperative inquiry 1980–83, member of the inquiry for the recovery of beverage containers etc. 1982–83, the ownership investigation from 1985. His family has been running a family business for generations, he was secretary of the Moderate Youth from 1976 to 1978 and political secretary of the Moderate Party from 1978 to 1979.

Westerberg became vice chairman of the Moderate Party's county Södermanland in 1977 and was Union Secretary of the Moderate Youth League from 1977 to 78 as well as regional chairman in Nyköping 1979. Per Westerberg is an ordinary Member of the Riksdag since 1979 and was a deputy in 1977 and 1978, he was alternate member of the Finance Committee 1979–82, the Industry and Trade Committee 1979–82 and the Labour Market Committee from 1985. Per Westerberg was the longest serving member by his departure from the Riksdag, he served as Alderman of age after the 2006 general election before he was elected Speaker. During the Speaker election in 2006 was, the MP who spent the second longest time in the Riksdag acting Alderman because Westerberg in this election was himself disqualified, he was the wealthiest member of the Riksdag, with a personal fortune exceeding 120 million SEK. Westerberg was Minister for Industry and Trade in the Government of Carl Bildt from 1991 to 1994. In 2003 he was elected as first of the three Vice Speakers of the Riksdag, on 2 October 2006 he was elected Speaker of the Riksdag by the new liberal-conservative majority, defeating incumbent Björn von Sydow.

On 4 October 2010 he was re-elected as Speaker of the Riksdag, by a 194–153 vote. Per Westerberg lives in Nyköping with his wife, physician Ylwa Westerberg, with whom he has four children, his brother, Lars Westerberg, was CEO of Autoliv. Bulgaria: Commander of the Order of the Balkan Mountains Estonia: Grand Cross of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana Finland: Grand Cross of the Order of the White Rose Greece: Grand Cross of the Order of the Phoenix Luxembourg: Knight Grand Officer of the Order of Merit of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg Per Westerberg on the Moderate Party website Per Westerberg on the Riksdag website