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Francesco I Sforza

Francesco I Sforza was an Italian condottiero who founded the Sforza dynasty in the duchy of Milan, ruling as its duke from 1450 until his death. He was the brother of Alessandro, whom he fought alongside. Francesco Sforza was born in San Miniato, one of the seven illegitimate sons of the condottiero Muzio Sforza and Lucia da Torsano, he spent his childhood in Tricarico, the marquisate of which he was granted in 1412 by King Ladislaus of Naples. In 1418, he married a Calabrese noblewoman. From 1419, he fought alongside his father, soon gaining fame for being able to bend metal bars with his bare hands, he proved himself to be an expert tactician and skilled field commander. After the death of his father during the War of L'Aquila, he participated in the Braccio da Montone's final defeat in that campaign. After some successes, he fell in disgrace and was sent to the castle of Mortara as a prisoner de facto, he regained his status after leading an expedition against Lucca. In 1431, after a period during which he fought again for the Papal States, he led the Milanese army against Venice.

Despite these moves, the wary Filippo Maria never ceased to be distrustful of Sforza. The allegiance of mercenary leaders was dependent, of course, on pay. In 1436-39, he served variously both Venice. In 1440, his fiefs in the Kingdom of Naples were occupied by King Alfonso I, and, to recover the situation, Sforza reconciled himself with Filippo Visconti. On 25 October 1441, in Cremona, he could marry Bianca Maria as part of the agreements that ended the war between Milan and Venice; the following year, he allied with René of Anjou, pretender to the throne of Naples, marched against southern Italy. After some initial setbacks, he defeated the Neapolitan commander Niccolò Piccinino, who had invaded his possessions in Romagna and Marche, through the help of Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta and the Venetians, could return to Milan. Sforza found himself warring against Francesco Piccinino and the alliance of Visconti, Eugene IV, Malatesta, who had murdered Polissena. With the help of Venice, Sforza was again victorious and, in exchange for abandoning the Venetians, received the title of capitano generale of the Duchy of Milan's armies.

After the duke died without a male heir in 1447, fighting broke out to restore the so-called Ambrosian Republic. The name Ambrosian Republic takes its name from the patron saint of Milan. Agnese del Maino, his wife's mother, convinced the condottiero, he received the seigniory of other cities of the duchy, including Lodi, started to plan the conquest of the ephemeral republic, allying with William VIII of Montferrat and Venice. In 1450, after years of famine, riots raged in the streets of Milan and the city's senate decided to entrust to him the duchy. Sforza entered the city as Duke on 26 February, it was the first time. While the other Italian states recognized Sforza as the legitimate Duke of Milan, he was never able to obtain official investiture from the Holy Roman Emperor; that did not come to the Sforza Dukes until 1494, when Emperor Maximilian formally invested Francesco's son, Ludovico, as Duke of Milan. Under his rule, Sforza modernised the duchy, he created an efficient system of taxation that generated enormous revenues for the government, his court became a center of Renaissance learning and culture, the people of Milan grew to love him.

In Milan, he founded the Ospedale Maggiore, restored the Palazzo dell'Arengo, had the Naviglio d'Adda, a channel connecting with the Adda River, built. During Sforza's reign, Florence was under the command of Cosimo de' Medici and the two rulers became close friends; this friendship manifested in first the Peace of Lodi and the Italian League, a multi-polar defensive alliance of Italian states that succeeded in stabilising all of Italy for its duration. After the peace, Sforza renounced part of the conquests in eastern Lombardy obtained by his condottieri Bartolomeo Colleoni, Ludovico Gonzaga, Roberto Sanseverino after 1451; as King Alfonso of Naples was among the signatories of the treaty, Sforza abandoned his long support of the Angevin pretenders to Naples. He aimed to conquer Genoa an Angevin possession. Sforza occupied Genoa and Savona in 1464. Sforza was the first European ruler to follow a foreign policy based on the concept of the balance of power, the first native Italian ruler to conduct extensive diplomacy outside the peninsula to counter the power of threatening states such as France.

Sforza's policies succeeded in keeping foreign powers from dominating Italian politics for the rest of the century. Sforza suffered from gout. In 1462, rumours spread that he was dead and a riot exploded in Milan, he however survived for four more years dying in March 1466. He was succeeded as duke by Galeazzo Maria Sforza. Francesco's successor Ludovico commis

Annan Shawhill railway station

Annan Shawhill was a station which served Annan, in the Scottish county of Dumfries and Galloway. It was served by trains on a line which ran between from a junction with the Caledonian Railway Main Line at Kirtlebridge across the Glasgow South Western Line forming the Solway Junction Railway over the Solway Viaduct to England. Annan is now served by the former GSWR station. Opened by the Solway Junction Railway part of the Caledonian Railway it became part of the London Midland and Scottish Railway during the Grouping of 1923. Passenger services were withdrawn in 1931 and the line south of Annan over the Solway Viaduct was closed completely; the line remained open from Annan to Kirtlebridge until 1955 for freight traffic when the line was closed completely. The station house is now a private dwelling. In 1965 the goods shed still survived and the trackbed was in use as the route for the pipeline that carried waste water from Chapelcross nuclear power station. Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt and stopping place and present.

Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Railway Atlas of Great Britain and Ireland: From Pre-Grouping to the Present Day. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-086-0. OCLC 22311137. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Nationalised Railway Atlas. Penryn, Cornwall: Atlantic Transport Publishers. ISBN 978-0-906899-99-1. OCLC 228266687. Mullay, A. J.. Rails across the border: the story of Anglo-Scottish Railways. Wellingborough: Patrick Stephens Limited. ISBN 1-85260-186-8. RAILSCOT on Solway Junction Railway Railways of the Solway Plain Station on navigable O. S. map Route of line crosses open railway line to the east of current station Start of former Solway Bridge can be seen) Video footage of the station in 2016

Differential backup

A differential backup is a type of data backup that preserves data, saving only the difference in the data since the last full backup. The rationale in this is that, since changes to data are few compared to the entire amount of data in the data repository, the amount of time required to complete the backup will be smaller than if a full backup was performed every time that the organization or data owner wishes to back up changes since the last full backup. Another advantage, at least as compared to the incremental backup method of data backup, is that at data restoration time, at most two backup media are needed to restore all the data; this simplifies data restores as well as increases the likelihood of shortening data restoration time. A differential backup is a cumulative backup of all changes made since the last full backup, i.e. the differences since the last full backup. The advantage to this is the quicker recovery time, requiring only a full backup and the last differential backup to restore the entire data repository.

The disadvantage is that for each day elapsed since the last full backup, more data needs to be backed up if a significant proportion of the data has changed, thus increasing backup time as compared to the incremental backup method. It is important to use the terms "incremental backup" correctly; the two terms are used in the industry, their use is universally standard. A differential backup refers to a backup made to include the differences since the last full backup, while an incremental backup contains only the changes since the last incremental backup. All the major data backup vendors have standardized on these definitions; the difference between incremental and differential backups can be illustrated as follows: Incremental backups:The above assumes that backups are done daily. Otherwise, the “Changes since” entry must be modified to refer to the last backup, it assumes a weekly rotation. Differential backups:It is important to remember the industry standard meaning of these two terms because, while the terms above are in wide use, some writers have been known to reverse their meaning.

For example, Oracle Corporation leverages a backward description of differential backups in their DB product as of May 14, 2015: "Differential Incremental Backups - In a differential level 1 backup, RMAN backs up all blocks that have changed since the most recent cumulative or differential incremental backup, whether at level 1 or level 0. RMAN determines which level 1 backup occurred most and backs up all blocks modified after that backup. If no level 1 is available, RMAN copies all blocks changed since the level 0 backup." Backup rotation scheme Continuous data protection Delta encoding Disk Archive - portable robust program for archiving and backup Dump - UNIX utility for multilevel incremental file system backups. Rsync - File synchronization algorithm and protocol