Warm-blooded animal species can maintain a body temperature higher than their environment. In particular, homeothermic species maintain a stable body temperature by regulating metabolic processes; the only known living homeotherms are birds and mammals, though ichthyosaurs and dinosaurs are believed to have been homeotherms. Other species have various degrees of thermoregulation. Animal body temperature control varies by species, so the terms "warm-blooded" and "cold-blooded" suggest a false idea of there being only two categories of body temperature control, are no longer used scientifically. In general, warm-bloodedness refers to three separate categories of thermoregulation. Endothermy is the ability of some creatures to control their body temperatures through internal means such as muscle shivering or increasing their metabolism; some writers restrict the meaning of endothermy to mechanisms that directly raise the animal's metabolic rate to produce heat. The opposite of endothermy is ectothermy.
Homeothermy maintains a stable internal body temperature regardless of external influence and temperatures. The stable internal temperature is higher than the immediate environment; the opposite is poikilothermy. Mammals and birds are homeothermic. Tachymetabolism maintains a high "resting" metabolism. In essence, tachymetabolic creatures are "on" all the time. Though their resting metabolism is still many times slower than their active metabolism, the difference is not as large as that seen in bradymetabolic creatures. Tachymetabolic creatures have greater difficulty dealing with a scarcity of food. A large proportion of the creatures traditionally called "warm-blooded", like birds and mammals, fit all three of these categories. However, over the past 30 years, studies in the field of animal thermophysiology have revealed many species belonging to these two groups that do not fit all these criteria. For example, many bats and small birds are poikilothermic and bradymetabolic when they sleep for the night.
For these creatures, the term heterothermy was coined. Further studies on animals that were traditionally assumed to be cold-blooded have shown that most creatures incorporate different variations of the three terms defined above, along with their counterparts, thus creating a broad spectrum of body temperature types; some fish have warm-blooded characteristics, such as the opah. Swordfish and some sharks have circulatory mechanisms that keep their brains and eyes above ambient temperatures and thus increase their ability to detect and react to prey. Tunas and some sharks have similar mechanisms in their muscles, improving their stamina when swimming at high speed. Body heat is generated by metabolism; this refers to the chemical reactions cells use to break down glucose into water and carbon dioxide and, in so doing, generate ATP, a high-energy compound used to power other cellular processes. Muscle contraction is a type of metabolic process that generates heat energy, heat is generated through friction when blood flows through the circulatory system.
All organisms metabolize food and other inputs. Like all energy conversions, metabolism is rather inefficient, around 60% of the available energy is converted to heat rather than to ATP. In most organisms, this heat is lost to the environment. However, endothermic homeotherms both produce more heat and have better ways to retain and regulate it than other animals, they have a higher basal metabolic rate, a greater capacity to increase their metabolic rate when engaged in strenuous activity. They have well-developed insulation in order to retain body heat and blubber in the case of mammals and feathers in birds; when this insulation is insufficient to maintain body temperature, they may resort to shivering—rapid muscle contractions that use up ATP, thus stimulating cellular metabolism to replace it and produce more heat. In general, in hot environments, they use evaporative cooling to shed excess heat, either by sweating or by panting —in general, mechanisms not present in poikilotherms, it has been hypothesized that warm-bloodedness evolved in mammals and birds because it provided defense against fungal infections.
Few fungi can survive the body temperatures of warm-blooded animals. By comparison, insects and amphibians are plagued by fungal infections. Www.earthlife.net The Reptipage: What is cold-blooded
Pathology is the study of the causes and effects of disease or injury. The word pathology refers to the study of disease in general, incorporating a wide range of bioscience research fields and medical practices. However, when used in the context of modern medical treatment, the term is used in a more narrow fashion to refer to processes and tests which fall within the contemporary medical field of "general pathology," an area which includes a number of distinct but inter-related medical specialties that diagnose disease through analysis of tissue and body fluid samples. Idiomatically, "a pathology" may refer to the predicted or actual progression of particular diseases, the affix path is sometimes used to indicate a state of disease in cases of both physical ailment and psychological conditions. A physician practicing pathology is called a pathologist; as a field of general inquiry and research, pathology addresses four components of disease: cause, mechanisms of development, structural alterations of cells, the consequences of changes.
In common medical practice, general pathology is concerned with analyzing known clinical abnormalities that are markers or precursors for both infectious and non-infectious disease and is conducted by experts in one of two major specialties, anatomical pathology and clinical pathology. Further divisions in specialty exist on the basis of the involved sample types and physiological systems, as well as on the basis of the focus of the examination. Pathology is a significant field in medical research; the study of pathology, including the detailed examination of the body, including dissection and inquiry into specific maladies, dates back to antiquity. Rudimentary understanding of many conditions was present in most early societies and is attested to in the records of the earliest historical societies, including those of the Middle East and China. By the Hellenic period of ancient Greece, a concerted causal study of disease was underway, with many notable early physicians having developed methods of diagnosis and prognosis for a number of diseases.
The medical practices of the Romans and those of the Byzantines continued from these Greek roots, but, as with many areas of scientific inquiry, growth in understanding of medicine stagnated some after the Classical Era, but continued to develop throughout numerous cultures. Notably, many advances were made in the medieval era of Islam, during which numerous texts of complex pathologies were developed based on the Greek tradition. So, growth in complex understanding of disease languished until knowledge and experimentation again began to proliferate in the Renaissance and Baroque eras, following the resurgence of the empirical method at new centers of scholarship. By the 17th century, the study of microscopy was underway and examination of tissues had led British Royal Society member Robert Hooke to coin the word "cell", setting the stage for germ theory. Modern pathology began to develop as a distinct field of inquiry during the 19th Century through natural philosophers and physicians that studied disease and the informal study of what they termed “pathological anatomy” or “morbid anatomy”.
However, pathology as a formal area of specialty was not developed until the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with the advent of detailed study of microbiology. In the 19th century, physicians had begun to understand that disease-causing pathogens, or "germs" existed and were capable of reproduction and multiplication, replacing earlier beliefs in humors or spiritual agents, that had dominated for much of the previous 1,500 years in European medicine. With the new understanding of causative agents, physicians began to compare the characteristics of one germ’s symptoms as they developed within an affected individual to another germ’s characteristics and symptoms; this realization led to the foundational understanding that diseases are able to replicate themselves, that they can have many profound and varied effects on the human host. To determine causes of diseases, medical experts used the most common and accepted assumptions or symptoms of their times, a general principal of approach that persists into modern medicine.
Modern medicine was advanced by further developments of the microscope to analyze tissues, to which Rudolf Virchow gave a significant contribution, leading to a slew of research developments. By the late 1920s to early 1930s pathology was deemed a medical specialty. Combined with developments in the understanding of general physiology, by the beginning of the 20th century, the study of pathology had begun to split into a number of rarefied fields and resulting in the development of large number of modern specialties within pathology and related disciplines of diagnostic medicine; the term pathology comes from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos, meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia, "study of". The modern practice of pathology is divided into a number of subdisciplines within the discrete but interconnected aims of biological research and medical practice. Biomedical research into disease incorporates the
Pisa is a city and comune in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Pisa. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its leaning tower, the city of over 91,104 residents contains more than 20 other historic churches, several medieval palaces, various bridges across the Arno. Much of the city's architecture was financed from its history as one of the Italian maritime republics; the city is home of the University of Pisa, which has a history going back to the 12th century and has the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, founded by Napoleon in 1810, its offshoot, the Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, as the best-sanctioned Superior Graduate Schools in Italy. The origin of the name, Pisa, is a mystery. While the origin of the city had remained unknown for centuries, the Pelasgi, the Greeks, the Etruscans, the Ligurians had variously been proposed as founders of the city. Archaeological remains from the fifth century BC confirmed the existence of a city at the sea, trading with Greeks and Gauls.
The presence of an Etruscan necropolis, discovered during excavations in the Arena Garibaldi in 1991, confirmed its Etruscan origins. Ancient Roman authors referred to Pisa as an old city. Strabo referred Pisa's origins to king of Pylos, after the fall of Troy. Virgil, in his Aeneid, states that Pisa was a great center by the times described; the Virgilian commentator Servius wrote that the Teuti, or Pelops, the king of the Pisaeans, founded the town 13 centuries before the start of the common era. The maritime role of Pisa should have been prominent if the ancient authorities ascribed to it the invention of the naval ram. Pisa took advantage of being the only port along the western coast between Ostia. Pisa served as a base for Roman naval expeditions against Ligurians and Carthaginians. In 180 BC, it became a Roman colony as Portus Pisanus. In 89 BC, Portus Pisanus became a municipium. Emperor Augustus fortified the colony into an important port and changed the name as Colonia Iulia obsequens.
Pisa was founded on the shore, but due to the alluvial sediments from the Arno and the Serchio, whose mouth lies about 11 km north of the Arno's, the shore moved west. Strabo states, it is located 9.7 km from the coast. However, it was a maritime city, with ships sailing up the Arno. In the 90s AD, a baths complex was built in the city. During the last years of the Western Roman Empire, Pisa did not decline as much as the other cities of Italy due to the complexity of its river system and its consequent ease of defence. In the seventh century, Pisa helped Pope Gregory I by supplying numerous ships in his military expedition against the Byzantines of Ravenna: Pisa was the sole Byzantine centre of Tuscia to fall peacefully in Lombard hands, through assimilation with the neighbouring region where their trading interests were prevalent. Pisa began in this way its rise to the role of main port of the Upper Tyrrhenian Sea and became the main trading centre between Tuscany and Corsica and the southern coasts of France and Spain.
After Charlemagne had defeated the Lombards under the command of Desiderius in 774, Pisa went through a crisis, but soon recovered. Politically, it became part of the duchy of Lucca. In 860, Pisa was captured by vikings led by Björn Ironside. In 930, Pisa became the county centre within the mark of Tuscia. Lucca was the capital but Pisa was the most important city, as in the middle of 10th century Liutprand of Cremona, bishop of Cremona, called Pisa Tusciae provinciae caput, a century the marquis of Tuscia was referred to as "marquis of Pisa". In 1003, Pisa was the protagonist of the first communal war in Italy, against Lucca. From the naval point of view, since the 9th century, the emergence of the Saracen pirates urged the city to expand its fleet. In 828, Pisan ships assaulted the coast of North Africa. In 871, they took part in the defence of Salerno from the Saracens. In 970, they gave strong support to Otto I's expedition, defeating a Byzantine fleet in front of Calabrese coasts; the power of Pisa as a maritime nation began to grow and reached its apex in the 11th century, when it acquired traditional fame as one of the four main historical maritime republics of Italy.
At that time, the city was a important commercial centre and controlled a significant Mediterranean merchant fleet and navy. It expanded its powers in 1005 through the sack of Reggio Calabria in the south of Italy. Pisa was in continuous conflict with the Saracens, who had their bases in Corsica, for control of the Mediterranean. In 1017, Sardinian Giudicati were militarily supported by Pisa, in alliance with Genoa, to defeat the Saracen King Mugahid, who had settled a logistic base in the north of Sardinia the year before; this victory gave Pisa supremacy in the Tyrrhenian Sea. When the Pisans subsequently ousted the Genoese from Sardinia, a new conflict and rivalry was born between these mighty marine republics. Between 1030 and 1035, Pisa went on to defeat several rival towns in Sicily and conquer Carthage in North Africa. In 1051–1052, the admiral Jacopo Ciurini conquered Corsica, p
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Italian unification known as the Risorgimento, was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century. The process began in 1815 with the Congress of Vienna and was completed in 1871 when Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy; the term, which designates the cultural and social movement that promoted unification, recalls the romantic and patriotic ideals of an Italian renaissance through the conquest of a unified political identity that, by sinking its ancient roots during the Roman period, "suffered an abrupt halt of its political unity in 476 AD after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire". However, some of the terre irredente did not join the Kingdom of Italy until 1918 after Italy defeated Austria–Hungary in World War I. For this reason, sometimes the period is extended to include the late 19th-century and the First World War, until the 4 November 1918 Armistice of Villa Giusti, considered the completion of unification.
This view is followed, at the Central Museum of Risorgimento at the Vittoriano. Italy was unified by Rome in the third century BC. For 700 years, it was a kind of territorial extension of the capital of the Roman Republic and Empire, for a long time, a privileged status and so it was not converted into a province. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Italy remained united under the Ostrogothic Kingdom and disputed between the Kingdom of the Lombards and the Byzantine Empire. Following conquest by the Frankish Empire, the title of King of Italy merged with the office of Holy Roman Emperor. However, the emperor was an absentee German-speaking foreigner who had little concern for the governance of Italy as a state. Southern Italy however was governed by the long-lasting Kingdom of Sicily or Kingdom of Naples established by the Normans. Central Italy was governed by the Pope as a temporal kingdom known as the Papal States; this situation persisted through the Renaissance but began to deteriorate with the rise of modern nation-states in the early modern period.
Italy, including the Papal States became the site of proxy wars between the major powers, notably the Holy Roman Empire and France. Harbingers of national unity appeared in the treaty of the Italic League, in 1454, the 15th century foreign policy of Cosimo De Medici and Lorenzo De Medici. Leading Renaissance Italian writers Dante, Boccaccio and Guicciardini expressed opposition to foreign domination. Petrarch stated. Machiavelli quoted four verses from Italia Mia in The Prince, which looked forward to a political leader who would unite Italy "to free her from the barbarians"; the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 formally ended the rule of the Holy Roman Emperors in Italy. However, the Spanish branch of the Habsburg dynasty, another branch of which provided the Emperors, continued to rule most of Italy down to the War of the Spanish Succession. A sense of Italian national identity was reflected in Gian Rinaldo Carli's Della Patria degli Italiani, written in 1764, it told how a stranger entered a café in Milan and puzzled its occupants by saying that he was neither a foreigner nor a Milanese.
"'Then what are you?' they asked.'I am an Italian,' he explained." The Habsburg rule in Italy came to an end with the campaigns of the French Revolutionaries in 1792–97, when a series of client republics were set up. In 1806, the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved by the last emperor, Francis II, after its defeat by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz; the Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars destroyed the old structures of feudalism in Italy and introduced modern ideas and efficient legal authority. The French Republic spread republican principles, the institutions of republican governments promoted citizenship over the rule of the Bourbons and Habsburgs and other dynasties; the reaction against any outside control challenged Napoleon's choice of rulers. As Napoleon's reign began to fail, the rulers he had installed tried to keep their thrones further feeding nationalistic sentiments. Beauharnais tried to get Austrian approval for his succession to the new Kingdom of Italy, on 30 March 1815, Murat issued the Rimini Proclamation, which called on Italians to revolt against their Austrian occupiers.
After Napoleon fell, the Congress of Vienna restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments. Italy was again controlled by the Austrian Empire and the Habsburgs, as they directly controlled the predominantly Italian-speaking northeastern part of Italy and were, the most powerful force against unification. An important figure of this period was Francesco Melzi d'Eril, serving as vice-president of the Napoleonic Italian Republic and consistent supporter of the Italian unification ideals that would lead to the Italian Risorgimento shortly after his death. Meanwhile and literary sentiment turned towards nationalism.
Recanati is a town and comune in the Province of Macerata, in the Marche region of Italy. Recanati was founded around 1150 AD from three pre-existing castles. In 1290 it proclaimed itself an independent republic and, in the 15th century, was famous for its international fair. In March 1798 it was conquered by Napoleon Bonaparte, it is the hometown of the tenor Beniamino Gigli and the poet Giacomo Leopardi, why the town is known to some as "the city of poetry". It contains the Teatro Persiani named after Giuseppe Persiani an opera composer, born in 1799; the origin of Recanati are unclear, although the area was inhabited since prehistoric times by the Piceni. In Roman times, the river Potenza, navigable saw the rise of two cities: Potentia, at the mouth, Helvia Recina, located more inland; when the Goths led by Radagaisus ravaged the region around 406 AD, their inhabitants took refuge on the hills founding the modern Recanati, which would take its name from Ricina. In the 12th century, during the controversies between Frederick Barbarossa and the Papacy, Recanati expelled the feudal counts which ruled its area, gave itself a communal constitution under the lead of consuls.
In 1203 they were replaced by podestà. In 1228, Recanati sided with Barbarossa's nephew, Frederick II, who again was in conflict with the popes. In 1239, Recanati supported the pope, the following year Gregory IX gave it the title of City and bishopric seat, held by the nearby Osimo. In the early 14th century, the strife between Guelphs and Ghibellines, which plagued much of Italy affected Recanati. In a series of incidents, citizens of Recanati, among the others and plundered the cathedral, killed some Guelph exponents. In response, in 1322, papal mercenaries besieged Recanati, destroyed its fortifications, the main Ghibelline palaces, the Priors' Palaces. By 1328, the Pope had pardoned the city. In 1415 Recanati hosted former Pope Gregory XII. At the time, the town was home to a popular trading fair, further boosted by Pope Martin V in 1422. During several centuries of economic prosperity, Recanati became home to prominent jurists and artists such as Lorenzo Lotto and Guercino. Recanati was occupied by Napoleonic troops in 1798.
In 1831 it took part to the Risorgimento riots, was annexed to the newly formed Kingdom of Italy in 1860 after the dissolution of most of the Papal States. Santa Maria di Castelnuovo: 12th-century church with portal with a Byzantine style lunette and dated 1253, depicting the Madonna enthroned with Sts Michael and Gabriel; the interior has a fresco by Pietro di Domenico of Montepulciano. Sant'Agostino: 13th century church and cloister, remade one century together with the cathedral. Istrian stone portal by Giuliano da Maiano. In the 18th century, the interior was remade redecorated according to a design by Ferdinando Galli da Bibbiena, with canvases by Pomarancio, Pier Simone Fanelli, Felice Damiani. San Vito church built over a pre-existing Romanesque-Byzantine edifice, it was given the current appearance in the mid-17th century, only the apse and the bell tower remaining of the former structure. The façade was remade after an earthquake in 1741 according to a design by Luigi Vanvitelli. Artworks in the interior include canvases by Pomarancio, Felice Damiano da Gubbio, Giuseppe Valeriani and Paolo de Matteis.
Co-Cathedral of St. Flavian: 14th century church with the annexed bishop's palace and the diocesan museum. Pope Gregory XII is buried here. San Domenico: 15th century church with a 1481 portal by Giuliano da Maiano, it houses a fresco of the Glory of St. Vincent Ferrer by Lorenzo Lotto. San Pietrino: 14th century church with an 18th-century façade attributed to Vanvitelli. Madonna delle Grazie: 1465 church San Filippo Neri church. Santa Maria in Monte Morello San Michele Palazzo Venieri, designed by Giuliano da Maiano. Palazzo Mazzagalli, designed by Giuliano da Maiano or Luciano Laurana. Montefiore Castle: dates to the late Middle Ages, it has a polygonal plan with a high tower with merlons. Neolithic necropolises of Fontenoce and Cava Kock. Civic Museum of Villa Colloredo Mels: town museum of art and archeology, among the paintings it houses among other paintings, Lotto's Recanati Polyptych. Carabinieri barracks; the city of Recanati had a large Jewish population for hundreds of years. Among the scholars produced by the city were Rabbi Menachem Recanati, author of the kabbalistic work The Reasons of the Mitzvot.
He was a student of Rabbi Eleazar Rokeiach from Worms, one of the Chassidei Ashkenaz, a group of German pietists. His work, Sefer HaRokeiach, is a guide to ethics and halacha, he wrote a mystical commentary on the Torah. Rabbi Elazar Rokeiach was the teacher of Nachmanides, whom Rabbi Recanati quotes in his work. Last names have been changed to Recanati, e.g. Agostino Recanati. Descendants of the Jews in town settled in Salonica, where Leon Yehuda Recanati, Raphael Recanati and Avraham Rakanti where born; the family includes Michael Recanati and Leon Recanati. Giacomo Leopardi, essayist and philologist Beniamino Gigli, tenor Recanati was the place of origin of some of the Italian paternal ancestors of famed Argentine soccer player Lionel Messi Giuseppe Persiani, opera composer Menachem Recanati and Rabbi Roman Catholic Diocese of Recanati Official website Tourist Inform
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website