Pre-Pottery Neolithic B
Pre-Pottery Neolithic B is a division of the Neolithic developed by Kathleen Kenyon during her archaeological excavations at Jericho in the West Bank. In addition the flint tool kit of the period is new, one of its major elements is the naviform core. This is the first period in which architectural styles of the southern Levant became primarily rectilinear, earlier typical dwellings were circular, pyrotechnology was highly developed in this period. During this period, one of the features of houses is evidenced by a thick layer of white clay plaster floors highly polished. It is believed that the use of plaster for floor. The earliest proto-pottery was White Ware vessels, made from lime and gray ash, built up around baskets before firing, sites from this period found in the Levant utilizing rectangular floor plans and plastered floor techniques were found at Ain Ghazal and Abu Hureyra. The period is dated to between ca.10,700 and ca.8,000 BP or 7000 -6000 BCE. Danielle Stordeurs recent work at Tell Aswad, an agricultural village between Mount Hermon and Damascus could not validate Henri de Contensons earlier suggestion of a PPNA Aswadian culture.
Instead, they found evidence of a fully established PPNB culture at 8700 BC at Aswad, similar sites to Tell Aswad in the Damascus Basin of the same age were found at Tell Ramad and Tell Ghoraifé. How a PPNB culture could spring up in this location, practicing domesticated farming from 8700 BC has been the subject of speculation. Like the earlier PPNA people, the PPNB culture developed from the Earlier Natufian but shows evidence of a northerly origin, work at the site of Ain Ghazal in Jordan has indicated a Pre-Pottery Neolithic C period which existed between 8,200 and 7,900 BP. Cultures practicing this lifestyle spread down the Red Sea shoreline and moved east from Syria into southern Iraq
Last Glacial Maximum
The Last Glacial Maximum was the last period in the Earths climate history during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension. Growth of the ice sheets reached their positions in about 24,500 BCE. Vast ice sheets covered much of North America, northern Europe, the ice sheets profoundly affected Earths climate by causing drought, and a dramatic drop in sea levels. It was followed by the Late Glacial, the formation of an ice sheet or ice cap requires both prolonged cold and precipitation. Hence, despite having temperatures similar to those of glaciated areas in North America and Europe and this difference was because the ice sheets in Europe produced extensive anticyclones above them. These anticyclones generated air masses that were so dry on reaching Siberia and Manchuria that precipitation sufficient for the formation of glaciers could never occur, all over the world, climates at the Last Glacial Maximum were cooler and almost everywhere drier. Even in less affected regions, rainforest cover was greatly diminished, only in Central America and the Chocó region of Colombia did tropical rainforests remain substantially intact – probably due to the extraordinarily heavy rainfall of these regions.
Most of the worlds deserts expanded and this occurred in Afghanistan and Iran, where a major lake formed in the Dasht-e Kavir. In Australia, shifting sand dunes covered half the continent, whilst the Chaco, in northern China – unglaciated despite its cold climate – a mixture of grassland and tundra prevailed, and even here, the northern limit of tree growth was at least 20° farther south than today. During the Last Glacial Maximum, much of the world was cold and inhospitable, with frequent storms, the dustiness of the atmosphere is a prominent feature in ice cores, dust levels were as much as 20 to 25 times greater than now. This was probably due to a number of factors, reduced vegetation, stronger global winds, the massive sheets of ice locked away water, lowering the sea level, exposing continental shelves, joining land masses together, and creating extensive coastal plains. During the last glacial maximum,21,000 years ago, Northern Europe was largely covered by ice, the southern boundary of the ice sheets passing through Germany and Poland.
This ice extended northward to cover Svalbard and Franz Josef Land and northeastward to occupy the Barents Sea, permafrost covered Europe south of the ice sheet down to present-day Szeged in Southern Hungary. Ice covered the whole of Iceland and almost all of the British Isles, britain was no more than a peninsula of Europe, its north capped in ice, and its south a polar desert. There were ice sheets in modern Tibet as well as in Baltistan, in Southeast Asia, many smaller mountain glaciers formed, and permafrost covered Asia as far south as Beijing. Palawan was part of Sundaland, while the rest of the Philippine Islands formed one large island separated from the continent only by the Sibutu Passage and the Mindoro Strait. In Africa and the Middle East, many mountain glaciers formed. The Persian Gulf averages about 35 metres in depth and the seabed between Abu Dhabi and Qatar is even shallower, being less than 15 metres deep
A cave is a hollow place in the ground, specifically a natural underground space large enough for a human to enter. Caves form naturally by the weathering of rock and often extend deep underground, the word cave can refer to much smaller openings such as sea caves, rock shelters, and grottos. A cavern is a type of cave, naturally formed in soluble rock with the ability to grow speleothems. Speleology is the science of exploration and study of all aspects of caves, visiting or exploring caves for recreation may be called caving, potholing, or spelunking. The formation and development of caves is known as speleogenesis, which can occur over the course of millions of years, caves are formed by various geologic processes and can be variable sizes. These may involve a combination of processes, erosion from water, tectonic forces, pressure. Isotopic dating techniques can be applied to cave sediments, in order to determine the timescale when geologic events may have occurred to help form and it is estimated that the maximum depth of a cave cannot be more than 3,000 metres due to the pressure of overlying rocks.
For karst caves the maximum depth is determined on the basis of the limit of karst forming processes. Most caves are formed in limestone by dissolution, solutional caves or karst caves are the most frequently occurring caves and such caves form in rock that is soluble. Most occur in limestone, but they can form in other rocks including chalk, marble, salt. Rock is dissolved by acid in groundwater that seeps through bedding planes, joints. Over geological epochs cracks expand to become caves and cave systems, the largest and most abundant solutional caves are located in limestone. Limestone dissolves under the action of rainwater and groundwater charged with H2CO3, the dissolution process produces a distinctive landform known as karst, characterized by sinkholes and underground drainage. Limestone caves are often adorned with calcium carbonate formations produced through slow precipitation and these include flowstones, stalagmites, soda straws and columns. These secondary mineral deposits in caves are called speleothems, the portions of a solutional cave that are below the water table or the local level of the groundwater will be flooded.
Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico and nearby Carlsbad Cavern are now believed to be examples of type of solutional cave. They were formed by H2S gas rising from below, where reservoirs of oil give off sulfurous fumes and this gas mixes with ground water and forms H2SO4. The acid dissolves the limestone from below, rather than from above, caves formed at the same time as the surrounding rock are called primary caves
Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock. It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimal crystal growth, Obsidian is commonly found within the margins of rhyolitic lava flows known as obsidian flows, where the chemical composition induces a high viscosity and polymerization degree of the lava. The inhibition of atomic diffusion through this highly viscous and polymerized lava explains the lack of crystal growth. Obsidian is hard and brittle, it therefore fractures with very sharp edges, which were used in the past in cutting and piercing tools, among the various forms of glass we may reckon Obsidian glass, a substance very similar to the stone found by Obsidius in Ethiopia. Obsidian is the rock formed as a result of quickly cooled lava, tektites were once thought by many to be obsidian produced by lunar volcanic eruptions, though few scientists now adhere to this hypothesis. Obsidian is mineral-like, but not a true mineral because as a glass it is not crystalline, in addition and it is sometimes classified as a mineraloid.
Though obsidian is usually dark in color similar to mafic rocks such as basalt, Obsidian consists mainly of SiO2, usually 70% or more. Crystalline rocks with obsidians composition include granite and rhyolite, because obsidian is metastable at the Earths surface, no obsidian has been found that is older than Cretaceous age. This breakdown of obsidian is accelerated by the presence of water, having a low water content when newly formed, typically less than 1% water by weight, obsidian becomes progressively hydrated when exposed to groundwater, forming perlite. Pure obsidian is usually dark in appearance, though the color varies depending on the presence of impurities and other transition elements may give the obsidian a dark brown to black color. Very few samples are nearly colorless, in some stones, the inclusion of small, radially clustered crystals of cristobalite in the black glass produce a blotchy or snowflake pattern. Obsidian may contain patterns of gas bubbles remaining from the lava flow and these bubbles can produce interesting effects such as a golden sheen.
An iridescent, rainbow-like sheen is caused by inclusions of magnetite nanoparticles, Obsidian can be found in locations which have experienced rhyolitic eruptions. Obsidian can be found in the eastern U. S. states of Virginia, as well as Pennsylvania, there are only four major deposit areas in the central Mediterranean, Pantelleria and Monte Arci. Ancient sources in the Aegean were Milos and Gyali, acıgöl town and the Göllü Dağ volcano were the most important sources in central Anatolia, one of the more important source areas in the prehistoric Near East. Use of obsidian in pottery of the Neolithic in the area around Lipari was found to be less at a distance representing two weeks journeying. Anatolian sources of obsidian are known to have been the used in the Levant. The first attested civilized use is from excavations at Tell Brak dated the late fifth millennia, Obsidian was valued in Stone Age cultures because, like flint, it could be fractured to produce sharp blades or arrowheads
Homo heidelbergensis – Homo rhodesiensis – is an extinct species of the genus Homo that lived in Africa and western Asia between 600,000 and 200,000 years ago. The skulls of this species share features with both Homo erectus and anatomically modern Homo sapiens, its brain was nearly as large as that of Homo sapiens. The Sima de los Huesos cave at Atapuerca in northern Spain holds particularly rich layers of deposits that represent an exceptional reserve of data where excavations are still in progress. Neanderthals and modern humans are all considered to have descended from Homo heidelbergensis that appeared around 700,000 years ago in Africa, fossils have been recovered in Ethiopia and South Africa. Between 300,000 and 400,000 years ago a group of Homo heidelbergensis migrated into Europe and West Asia via yet unknown routes, archaeological sites exist in Spain, France, Germany and Greece. Another Homo heidelbergensis group ventured eastwards into continental Asia, eventually developing into Denisovans, some researchers suggest that the finds associated to Homo heidelbergensis are mere variants of Homo erectus.
Both Homo antecessor and Homo heidelbergensis are likely to have descended from the very similar Homo ergaster from Africa. The anatomy is more primitive than that of Neanderthal, but the harmoniously rounded dental arch. Heidelbergensis from other known human species, the species name heidelbergensis only experienced a renaissance with the many discoveries of the past 30 years and appears now to be recognized by an increasing number of researchers. Any form of segregation is considered arbitrary, which is why these researchers forgo the name H. heidelbergensis altogether. Paleoanthropologists often refer to the surrounding the specimens, their dating and morphology, as “the muddle in the middle. ”The fact that there seem to be no clear transitions makes it difficult to draw up a list of unique characteristics of H. heidelbergensis that distinguishes it from H. erectus. In general, the show a continuation of evolutionary trends that are emerging from around the Lower into Middle Pleistocene.
Along with changes in the robustness of cranial and dental features, male H. heidelbergensis averaged about 1.75 m tall and 62 kg. Females averaged 1.57 m and 51 kg, the available space would allow for a far greater flexibility of development and It shows a combination of features, which has been previously found neither on a recent nor a fossil human mandible. The actual proof that we are dealing with human parts here only lies within the nature of the dentition, the completely preserved teeth bear the stamp human as evidence, The canines show no trace of a stronger expression in relation to the other groups of teeth. They suggest a moderate and harmonious co-evolution, as it is the case in recent humans, recent findings in a pit in Atapuerca of 28 human skeletons suggest that H. heidelbergensis might have been the first species of the Homo genus to bury its dead. Steven Mithen believes that H. heidelbergensis, like its descendant H. neanderthalensis, acquired a pre-linguistic system of communication.
No forms of art have been uncovered, although red ochre, the morphology of the outer and middle ear suggests they had an auditory sensitivity similar to modern humans and very different from chimpanzees
Agriculture is the cultivation and breeding of animals and fungi for food, biofuel, medicinal plants and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of human civilization. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science, the history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates and technologies. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture farming has become the dominant agricultural methodology, genetically modified organisms are an increasing component of agriculture, although they are banned in several countries. Agricultural food production and water management are increasingly becoming global issues that are fostering debate on a number of fronts, the major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers and raw materials. Specific foods include cereals, fruits, meats, fibers include cotton, hemp and flax. Raw materials include lumber and bamboo, other useful materials are produced by plants, such as resins, drugs, perfumes and ornamental products such as cut flowers and nursery plants.
The word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, Agriculture usually refers to human activities, although it is observed in certain species of ant and ambrosia beetle. To practice agriculture means to use resources to produce commodities which maintain life, including food, forest products, horticultural crops. This definition includes arable farming or agronomy, and horticulture, all terms for the growing of plants, even then, it is acknowledged that there is a large amount of knowledge transfer and overlap between silviculture and agriculture. In traditional farming, the two are often combined even on small landholdings, leading to the term agroforestry, Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa. At least 11 separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centers of origin, wild grains were collected and eaten from at least 105,000 years ago. Pigs were domesticated in Mesopotamia around 15,000 years ago, rice was domesticated in China between 13,500 and 8,200 years ago, followed by mung and azuki beans.
Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 13,000 and 11,000 years ago. From around 11,500 years ago, the eight Neolithic founder crops and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant. Cattle were domesticated from the aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey. In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago, along with beans, llamas, alpacas and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 9,000 years ago. Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 7,000 years ago, cotton was domesticated in Peru by 5,600 years ago, and was independently domesticated in Eurasia at an unknown time
A fish is any member of a group of animals that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a group to the tunicates, together forming the olfactores. Included in this definition are the living hagfish and cartilaginous, tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered obsolete or paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods, because in this manner the term fish is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology. The traditional term pisces is considered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification, the earliest organisms that can be classified as fish were soft-bodied chordates that first appeared during the Cambrian period. Although they lacked a true spine, they possessed notochords which allowed them to be more agile than their invertebrate counterparts, fish would continue to evolve through the Paleozoic era, diversifying into a wide variety of forms.
Many fish of the Paleozoic developed external armor that protected them from predators, the first fish with jaws appeared in the Silurian period, after which many became formidable marine predators rather than just the prey of arthropods. Fish are abundant in most bodies of water and they can be found in nearly all aquatic environments, from high mountain streams to the abyssal and even hadal depths of the deepest oceans. With 33,100 described species, fish exhibit greater species diversity than any group of vertebrates. Fish are an important resource for humans worldwide, especially as food and subsistence fishers hunt fish in wild fisheries or farm them in ponds or in cages in the ocean. They are caught by fishers, kept as pets, raised by fishkeepers. Fish have had a role in culture through the ages, serving as deities, religious symbols, fish do not represent a monophyletic group, and therefore the evolution of fish is not studied as a single event. Early fish from the record are represented by a group of small, jawless.
Jawless fish lineages are mostly extinct, an extant clade, the lampreys may approximate ancient pre-jawed fish. The first jaws are found in Placodermi fossils, the diversity of jawed vertebrates may indicate the evolutionary advantage of a jawed mouth. It is unclear if the advantage of a hinged jaw is greater biting force, improved respiration, fish may have evolved from a creature similar to a coral-like sea squirt, whose larvae resemble primitive fish in important ways. The first ancestors of fish may have kept the form into adulthood. Fish are a group, that is, any clade containing all fish contains the tetrapods
A tuna is a saltwater fish that belongs to the tribe Thunnini, a sub-grouping of the mackerel family – which together with the tunas, includes the bonitos and Spanish mackerels. Thunnini comprises fifteen species across five genera, the sizes of which vary greatly, the bluefin averages 2 m, and is believed to live for up to 50 years. Tuna and mackerel sharks are the species of fish that can maintain a body temperature higher than that of the surrounding water. An active and agile predator, the tuna has a sleek, streamlined body, found in warm seas, it is extensively fished commercially, and is popular as a game fish. As a result of over-fishing, stocks of tuna species such as the southern bluefin tuna have been reduced dangerously close to the point of extinction. The term tuna ultimately derives from Thunnus, the Middle Latin form of the Ancient Greek, θύννος tunny-fish – which is in turn derived from θύνω, the following cladogram illustrates the relationship between the tunas and other tribes of the family Scombridae.
The true tunas are those that belong to the genus Thunnus, until recently, it was thought that there were seven Thunnus species, and that Atlantic bluefin tuna and Pacific bluefin tuna were subspecies of a single species. In 1999, Collette established that based on molecular and morphological considerations, they are in fact distinct species. The genus Thunnus is further classified into two subgenera and Thunnus, the Thunnini tribe includes seven additional species of tuna across four genera. They are, The tuna is a sleek and streamlined fish and it has two closely spaced dorsal fins on its back, The first is depressible – it can be laid down, flush, in a groove that runs along its back. Seven to ten yellow finlets run from the fins to the tail. The caudal peduncle, to which the tail is attached, is quite thin, the tunas dorsal side is generally a metallic dark blue, while the ventral side, or underside, is silvery or whitish, for camouflage. Thunnus are widely but sparsely distributed throughout the oceans of the world, generally in tropical, all tunas are able to maintain the temperature of certain parts of their body above the temperature of ambient seawater.
For example, bluefin can maintain a body temperature of 25–33 °C. However, unlike typical endothermic creatures such as mammals and birds, tunas achieve endothermy by conserving the heat generated through normal metabolism. In all tunas, the heart operates at ambient temperature, as it receives cooled blood, unlike most fish, which have white flesh, the muscle tissue of tuna ranges from pink to dark red. The red myotomal muscles derive their color from myoglobin, an oxygen-binding molecule, the oxygen-rich blood further enables energy delivery to their muscles. For powerful swimming animals like dolphins and tuna, cavitation may be detrimental, even if they have the power to swim faster, dolphins may have to restrict their speed, because collapsing cavitation bubbles on their tail are too painful
Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport or for food. The type and range of animals hunted for food varies in different parts of the world, in some countries, game is classified, including legal classification with respect to licences required, as either small game or large game. Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport or for food, the term game arises in medieval hunting terminology by the late 13th century and is particular to English, from the generic meaning of Old English gamen joy, sport, merriment. Small game includes animals, such as rabbits, pheasants. Large game includes animals like deer and bear, big game is a term sometimes used interchangeably with large game although in other contexts it refers to large, typically African, mammals which are hunted mainly for trophies in safaris. The type and range of animals hunted for food varies in different parts of the world and this is influenced by climate, animal diversity, local taste and locally accepted views about what can or cannot be legitimately hunted.
Sometimes a distinction is made between varieties and species of a particular animal, such as wild turkey and domestic turkey. Fish caught for sport are referred to as game fish, the flesh of the animal, when butchered for consumption is often described as having a gamey flavour. This difference in taste can be attributed to the diet of the animal. In some countries, game is classified, including legal classification with respect to licences required, a single small game licence may cover all small game species and be subject to yearly bag limits. Large game are often subject to individual licensing where a licence is required for each individual animal taken. In some parts of Africa, wild animals hunted for their meat are called bushmeat, see article for more detailed information on how this operates within the economy. In Africa, animals hunted for their pelts or ivory are sometimes referred to as the big game, see the legal definition of game in Swaziland. South Africa has 62 species of gamebirds, including guineafowl, partridge, sandgrouse, geese, bustard, of the remaining 41 species,24 have shown an increase in numbers and distribution range in the last 25 years or so.
The status of 14 species appears unchanged, with insufficient information being available for the three species. S. and Canada, deer are the most commonly hunted big game. Other game species include, In the PRC there is a special category called ye wei. In the UK game is defined in law by the Game Act 1831 and it is illegal to shoot game on Sundays or at night. Other that are hunted for food in the UK are specified under the Wildlife, the ban is generally considered voluntary on private lands, and few birds live away from RSPB or Forestry Commission land allegedly
Argolis or the Argolid is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Peloponnese, situated in the part of the Peloponnese peninsula and part of the tripoint area of Argolis. Much of the territory of region is situated in the Argolid Peninsula. Most arable land lies in the part of Argolis. Its primary agricultural resources are oranges and olives, Argolis has a coastline on the Saronic Gulf in the northeast and on the Argolic Gulf in the south and southeast. Notable mountains ranges are the Oligyrtos in the northwest and Ktenia in the west, Argolis has land borders with Arcadia to the west and southwest, Corinthia to the north, and the Islands regional unit to the east. Parts of the history of the area can be found in the articles on Argos, Epidaurus, Troezen, Kranidi, from 1833 to 1899, Argolis was part of Argolidocorinthia, which included present Corinthia, Hydra and Kythira. It joined Corinthia to form Argolidocorinthia again in 1909, forty years later, in 1949, Argolis was finally separated from Corinthia.
The regional unit Argolis is subdivided into 4 municipalities and these are, Argos-Mykines Epidaurus Ermionida Nafplio As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Argolis was created out of the former prefecture Argolis. The prefecture had the territory as the present regional unit
The European ass is an extinct equine from the middle and late Pleistocene of Eurasia. It appeared first in the fossil report 300,000 years before present, in the east the range apparently stretched at least to the Volga and to Iran. In the north it reached almost to the North Sea in Germany and it is possible that the Iberian cebro, extinct in the wild from the 16th century, could correspond to the Equus hydruntinus. Morphologically the European ass can be distinguished from asses and hemiones particularly by its molars, the exact systematic position is still not fully clear, but genetic and morphological analysis suggest that it is closely related to the Asiatic wild ass. The specific epithet, means from Otranto, list of extinct animals of Europe