SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Francis Bacon

Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban known as Lord Verulam, was an English philosopher and statesman who served as Attorney General and as Lord Chancellor of England. His works are credited with developing the scientific method and remained influential through the scientific revolution. Bacon has been called the father of empiricism, his works argued for the possibility of scientific knowledge based only upon inductive reasoning and careful observation of events in nature. Most he argued science could be achieved by use of a sceptical and methodical approach whereby scientists aim to avoid misleading themselves. Although his practical ideas about such a method, the Baconian method, did not have a long-lasting influence, the general idea of the importance and possibility of a sceptical methodology makes Bacon the father of the scientific method; this method was a new rhetorical and theoretical framework for science, the practical details of which are still central in debates about science and methodology.

Francis Bacon was a patron of libraries and developed a functional system for the cataloging of books by dividing them into three categories—history and philosophy—which could further be divided into more specific subjects and subheadings. Bacon was educated at Trinity College, where he rigorously followed the medieval curriculum in Latin. Bacon was the first recipient of the Queen's counsel designation, conferred in 1597 when Elizabeth I of England reserved Bacon as her legal advisor. After the accession of James VI and I in 1603, Bacon was knighted, he was created Baron Verulam in 1618 and Viscount St. Alban in 1621; because he had no heirs, both titles became extinct upon his death at 65 years. Bacon died of pneumonia, with one account by John Aubrey stating that he had contracted the condition while studying the effects of freezing on the preservation of meat, he is buried at St Michael's Church, St Albans, Hertfordshire. Francis Bacon was born on 22 January 1561 at York House near the Strand in London, the son of Sir Nicholas Bacon by his second wife, Anne Bacon, the daughter of the noted Renaissance humanist Anthony Cooke.

His mother's sister was married to 1st Baron Burghley, making Burghley Bacon's uncle. Biographers believe that Bacon was educated at home in his early years owing to poor health, which would plague him throughout his life, he received tuition from a graduate of Oxford with a strong leaning toward Puritanism. He went up to Trinity College at the University of Cambridge on 5 April 1573 at the age of 12, living for three years there, together with his older brother Anthony Bacon under the personal tutelage of Dr John Whitgift, future Archbishop of Canterbury. Bacon's education was conducted in Latin and followed the medieval curriculum, he was educated at the University of Poitiers. It was at Cambridge that Bacon first met Queen Elizabeth, impressed by his precocious intellect, was accustomed to calling him "The young lord keeper", his studies brought him to the belief that the methods and results of science as practised were erroneous. His reverence for Aristotle conflicted with his rejection of Aristotelian philosophy, which seemed to him barren and wrong in its objectives.

On 27 June 1576, he and Anthony entered de societate magistrorum at Gray's Inn. A few months Francis went abroad with Sir Amias Paulet, the English ambassador at Paris, while Anthony continued his studies at home; the state of government and society in France under Henry III afforded him valuable political instruction. For the next three years he visited Blois, Tours and Spain. During his travels, Bacon studied language and civil law while performing routine diplomatic tasks. On at least one occasion he delivered diplomatic letters to England for Walsingham and Leicester, as well as for the queen; the sudden death of his father in February 1579 prompted Bacon to return to England. Sir Nicholas had laid up a considerable sum of money to purchase an estate for his youngest son, but he died before doing so, Francis was left with only a fifth of that money. Having borrowed money, Bacon got into debt. To support himself, he took up his residence in law at Gray's Inn in 1579, his income being supplemented by a grant from his mother Lady Anne of the manor of Marks near Romford in Essex, which generated a rent of £46.

Bacon stated that he had three goals: to uncover truth, to serve his country, to serve his church. He sought to further these ends by seeking a prestigious post. In 1580, through his uncle, Lord Burghley, he applied for a post at court that might enable him to pursue a life of learning, but his application failed. For two years he worked at Gray's Inn, until he was admitted as an outer barrister in 1582, his parliamentary career began when he was elected MP for Bossiney, Cornwall, in a by-election in 1581. In 1584 he took his seat in parliament for Melcombe in Dorset, in 1586 for Taunton. At this time, he began to write on the condition of parties in the church, as well as on the topic of philosophical reform in the lost tract Temporis Partus Maximus, yet he failed to gain a position. He showed signs of sympathy to Puritanism, attending the sermons of the Puritan chaplain of Gray's Inn and accompanying his mother to the Temple Church to hear Walter Travers; this led to the publication of his earliest surviving tract, which criticised the English church's suppression of the Puritan clergy.

In the Parliament of 1586, he urged execution for the Catholic Mary, Queen of Scots. About this time, he again approached his powerful uncle for help.

Philippine Leroy-Beaulieu

Philippine Leroy-Beaulieu is a French actress and the daughter of French actor Philippe Leroy-Beaulieu. After spending her childhood in Italy, she went to Paris at 16 to study drama against the advice of her parents. After appearing on the stage, she made her screen début in Roger Vadim's 1983 film Surprise Party. In 1985, she played her first major screen role, playing the distraught mother in Trois hommes et un couffin; the success of Coline Serreau's comedy helped her film career and a string of parts in costume films followed such films as Andrzej Wajda's Les Possédés in 1988, Philippe Le Guay's Les Deux Fragonard, Robert Enrico's and Richard T. Heffron's La Révolution française, whose release in 1989 was timed to coincide with celebrations for the bi-centenary of the 1789 Revolution, she starred in the title role of the French film Natalia, screened at the 1988 Cannes Film Festival. In the United States, Leroy-Beaulieu first became known for the role of Fauve Mistral in the 1984 mini-series version of Judith Krantz's novel Mistral's Daughter.

Philippine Leroy-Beaulieu on IMDb

Leonardo Pekarnik

Leonardo Gabriel Pékarnik is an Argentine Footballer who plays for San Telmo. He started his career with Club Atlético Independiente in 2000, he was part of the squad. In 2003, he moved to Estudiantes de La Plata but returned to Independiente in 2004. In 2005 Pékarnik joined Defensores de Belgrano in the Argentine 2nd division, he moved to Peru where he played for Universidad César Vallejo until the end of 2006. In 2007, he joined C. D. Luis Ángel Firpo of El Salvador where he won two Championships. In 2009, he joined Envigado FC of Colombia. Leonardo Pekarnik - Argentine Primera statistics at Fútbol XXI Leonardo Pekarnik at BDFA.com.ar