Jalālābād, or Dzalalabad, is a city in eastern Afghanistan. It is the capital of Nangarhar Province. Jalalabad is located at the junction of the Kunar River, it is linked by an 150-kilometre highway with Kabul to the west, a 130-kilometre highway with the Pakistani city of Peshawar to the east. Jalalabad has a population of 356,274, making it one of the five largest cities of Afghanistan. Jalalabad is a leading center of social and trade activity because of its proximity with the Torkham border crossing, 65 km away. Major industries include papermaking, as well as agricultural products including oranges and sugarcane, it has a total land area of 12,796 hectares. The total number of dwellings in this city is 39,586. Faxian visited and worshiped the sacred Buddhist sites such as of The Shadow of the Buddha in Nagarhara. In 630 AD Xuan Zang, the famous Chinese Buddhist monk, visited Jalalabad, which he referred to as Adinapur, a number of other locations nearby; the city was a major center of Gandhara's Greco-Buddhist culture in the past until it was conquered by Ghaznavids in the 11th century.
However, not everyone converted to Islam at that period. In Hudud-al-Alam, written in 982 CE, there is reference to a village near Jalalabad where the local king used to have many Hindu and Afghan wives; the region became part of the Ghaznavid Empire in the 10th century. Sabuktigin annexed the land all the way west of the Neelum River in Kashmir. "The Afghans and Khiljies who resided among the mountains having taken the oath of allegiance to Sabuktigin, many of them were enlisted in his army, after which he returned in triumph to Ghazni." The Ghurids expanded the Islamic empire further into Hindustan. The region around Jalalabad became part of the Khalji territory, followed by that of the Timurids, it is said. It was renamed as Jalalabad in the last decade of the sixteenth century, in honour of Jalala, the son of Pir Roshan; the modern city gained prominence during the reign of founder of the Mughal Empire. Babur had chosen the site for this city, built by his grandson Jalal-uddin Mohammad Akbar in 1560.
It remained part of the Mughal Empire until around 1738 when Nader Shah and his Afsharid forces from Khorasan began defeating the Mughals. Nader Shah's forces were accompanied by the young Ahmad Shah Durrani and his 4,000-strong Afghan army from southern Afghanistan. In 1747, he founded the Durrani Empire after re-conquering the area; the Afghan army has long used the city while going back and forth during their military campaigns into the Indian subcontinent. The British-Indian forces invaded Jalalabad in 1838, during the First Anglo-Afghan War. In the 1842 Battle of Jellalabad, Akbar Khan besieged the British troops on their way to Jalalabad. In 1878, during the Second Anglo-Afghan War, the British again invaded and set up camps in Jalalabad but withdrew two years later. Jalalabad is considered one of the most important cities of the Pashtun culture. Seraj-ul-Emarat, the residence of Amir Habibullah and King Amanullah was destroyed in 1929 when Habibullah Kalakani rose to power; the mausoleum of both rulers is enclosed by a garden facing Seraj-ul-Emart.
The Sulemankhils, a Pashtun family famous for their scientific research, is from Jalalabad. Other celebrated Pashtun families originate from the villages near Jalalabad too. From 1978 to early 1990s, the city served as a strategic location for the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. In spring 1989, two Mujahideen rebel factions backed by Pakistan and the U. S. assaulted the city during the Battle of Jalalabad. However government forces managed to drive them out within two months, a major setback to the resistance fighters and the ISI. After the resignation of President Najibullah, Jalalabad fell to mujahideen rebels of Yunus Khalis on April 19, 1992. On September 12, 1996, the Taliban took control of the city until they were toppled by the US-backed Afghan forces in late 2001. Al-Qaeda had been building terrorist training camps in Jalalabad; the city returned to Afghan government control under Hamid Karzai. The economy of Jalalabad increased in the last decade. Many of the city's population began joining the Afghan National Security Forces.
Construction has risen. The Jalalabad Airport has long served as a military base for the NATO forces. In 2011, the U. S. Embassy in Kabul announced. Occasional suicide attacks by anti-Afghanistan forces take place; these forces include the Taliban, Haqqani Network, al-Qaeda, the new ISIS group. The United States has promised to eliminate these groups before withdrawing from Afghanistan; the city population is estimated to be 356,274 in year 2015. Nearly all residents of Jalalabad are followers of Sunni Islam; the city is home to one of Afghanistan's few Hindu temples, the Darga Hindu Temple founded in c. 1084 AD. Jalalabad is the regional hub in eastern Afghanistan, close to the border with Pakistan. Agriculture is the predominant land use at 44%, higher density of dwellings is found in Districts 1-5 and vacant plots are clustered in District 6. Districts 1-6 all have a grid network of roads. Jalalabad's climate is hot desert; the city's climate has close resemblance to that of Arizona in the United States.
It receives six to eight inches of rainfall per annum which are limited to winter and the months of spring. Frosts are not common, during the summer, the temperature can
Philip Massinger was an English dramatist. His finely plotted plays, including A New Way to Pay Old Debts, The City Madam and The Roman Actor, are noted for their satire and realism, their political and social themes; the son of Arthur Massinger or Messanger, he was baptized at St. Thomas's Salisbury on 24 November 1583, he belonged to an old Salisbury family, for the name occurs in the city records as early as 1415. He is described in his matriculation entry at Oxford, as the son of a gentleman, his father, educated at St. Alban Hall, was a member of parliament, was attached to the household of Henry Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke. Herbert recommended Arthur in 1587 for the office of examiner in the Court of the Marches. William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke, who would come to oversee the London Stage and the royal company as King James's Lord Chamberlain, succeeded to the title in 1601, it has been suggested that he supported Massinger at Oxford, but the omission of any reference to him in any of Massinger's prefaces points to the contrary.
Massinger left Oxford without a degree in 1606. His father had died in 1603, that may have left him without financial assistance; the lack of a degree and the want of patronage from Lord Pembroke may both be explained on the supposition that he had become Roman Catholic. On leaving the university he went to London to make his living as a dramatist, but his name cannot be affixed to any play until fifteen years when The Virgin Martyr appeared as the work of Massinger and Thomas Dekker. During these years he worked in collaboration with other dramatists. A joint letter, from Nathan Field, Robert Daborne and Philip Massinger, to Philip Henslowe, begs for an immediate loan of five pounds to release them from their "unfortunate extremity," the money to be taken from the balance due for the "play of Mr. Fletcher's and ours." A second document shows that Massinger and Daborne owed Henslowe £3 on 4 July 1615. The earlier note dates from 1613, from this time Massinger worked with John Fletcher. Sir Aston Cockayne, Massinger's constant friend and patron, refers in explicit terms to this collaboration in a sonnet addressed to Humphrey Moseley on the publication of his folio edition of Beaumont and Fletcher, in an epitaph on the two poets he says: "Plays they did write together, were great friends, And now one grave includes them in their ends."
After Philip Henslowe's death in 1616 Massinger and Fletcher began to write for the King's Men. Between 1623 and 1626 Massinger produced unaided for the Lady Elizabeth's Men playing at the Cockpit Theatre, three pieces, The Parliament of Love, The Bondman and The Renegado. With the exception of these plays and The Great Duke of Florence, produced in 1627 by Queen Henrietta's Men, Massinger continued to write for the King's Men until his death; the tone of the dedications of his plays affords evidence of his continued poverty. In the preface to The Maid of Honour he wrote, addressing Sir Francis Foljambe and Sir Thomas Bland: "I had not to this time subsisted, but that I was supported by your frequent courtesies and favours."The prologue to The Guardian refers to two unsuccessful plays and two years of silence, when the author feared he had lost the popular favour. It is probable that this break in his production was owing to his free handling of political matters. In 1631, Sir Henry Herbert, the Master of the Revels, refused to license an unnamed play by Massinger because of "dangerous matter as the deposing of Sebastian, King of Portugal," calculated to endanger good relations between England and Spain.
There is little doubt that this was the same piece as Believe as You List, in which time and place are changed, Antiochus being substituted for Sebastian, Rome for Spain. In the prologue, Massinger apologizes for his ignorance of history, professes that his accuracy is at fault if his picture comes near "a late and sad example." The obvious "late and sad example" of a wandering prince could be no other than Charles I's brother-in-law, the Elector Palatine. An allusion to the same subject may be traced in The Maid of Honour. In another play by Massinger, not extant, Charles I is reported to have himself struck out a passage put into the mouth of Don Pedro, king of Spain, as "too insolent." The poet seems to have adhered to the politics of his patron, Philip Herbert, 4th Earl of Pembroke, who had leanings to democracy and was a personal enemy of the Duke of Buckingham. The servility towards the Crown displayed in Beaumont and Fletcher's plays reflected the temper of the court of James I; the attitude of Massinger's heroes and heroines towards kings is different.
Camiola's remarks on the limitations of the royal prerogative could hardly be acceptable at court. Massinger died at his house near the Globe Theatre, was buried in the churchyard of St. Saviour's, Southwark, on 18 March 1640. In the entry in the parish register he is described as a "stranger," which, implies nothing more than that he belonged to another parish, he is buried in the same tomb as Fletcher. That grave can be seen to this day in the chancel of what is now Southwark Cathedral near London Bridge on the south bank of the Thames. There the names of Fletcher and Massinger appear on adjacent plaques laid in the floor between the choir stalls. Next to these is a plaque commemorating Edmund Shakespeare, buried in the Cathedral, although the exact location of his grave is unknown; the supposition that Massinger was a Roman Catholic rests upon three of his
Lalbagh or Lalbagh Botanical Gardens, meaning The Red Garden in English, is a well-known botanical garden in southern Bengaluru, India. It has a famous glass house dating from 1889. Lalbagh houses India's largest collection of tropical plants, has a lake, is one of the main tourist attractions in Bengaluru. Lal Bagh is home to a few species of birds; the sighted birds include Myna, Crows, Brahminy Kite, Pond Heron, Common Egret, Spotted Owlets, Spotted kite, Spotted Pelican, Indian Cormorant, Purple Moor Hen etc. Hyder Ali commissioned the building of this garden in 1760 but his son, Tipu Sultan, completed it. Hyder Ali decided to create this garden on the lines of the Mughal Gardens that were gaining popularity during his time. Hyder Ali laid out these famous botanical gardens and his son added horticultural wealth to them by importing trees and plants from several countries. Hyder Ali deployed people from Thigala community who were good in gardening; the Lalbagh gardens were commissioned by the 18th century and over the years it acquired India's first lawn-clock and the subcontinent's largest collection of rare plants.
A menagerie established in the 1860s was under the charge of G. H. Krumbiegel in 1914. Captain S. S. Flower reported that it included a Court built between 1860 having tigers and rhinoceros; the Lalbagh gardens are based on the design of the Mughal Gardens that once stood at Sira, at a distance of 120 km from Bengaluru on the main NH4 at Tumkur District in Karnataka. This is amply supported by other historical records. At that time, Sira was the headquarters of the strategically important southernmost Mughal "suba" of the Deccan before the British Raj. In 1874, Lalbagh had an area of 45 acres. In 1889, 30 acres were added to the eastern side, followed by 13 acres in 1891 including the rock with Kempegowda tower and 94 acres more in 1894 on the eastern side just below the rock bringing it to a total of 188 acres; the foundation stone for the Glass House, modeled on London's Crystal Palace was laid on 30 November 1889 by Prince Albert Victor and was built by John Cameron, the superintendent of Lalbagh.
It was built with cast iron from the Saracen Foundry in Glasgow UK. Lalbagh is located in south Bengaluru, it holds a number of flower shows on the Republic Day. The garden has over 1,000 species of flora; the garden has trees that are over 100 years old. The garden surrounds one of the towers erected by the founder of Kempe Gowda; the park has some rare species of plants brought from Persia and France. With an intricate watering system for irrigation, this garden is aesthetically designed, with lawns, lotus pools and fountains. Most of the centuries-old trees are labelled for easy identification; the Lalbagh Rock, one of the most ancient rock formations on earth, dating back to 3,000 million years, is another attraction that attracts the crowds. Lalbagh has four gates; the western gate is situated near Siddapura Circle and one can enter this gate and enjoy the sylvan atmosphere of the garden. Outside, touching the compound gate, is Krumbigal Road; the other side of the road touches the compound wall of R.
V. School; the National College, Rashtriya Vidyalaya and Doddamavalli are nearby. The other side of the road goes to'Krishna Rao road', where you can see The Indian Institute of World Culture, a beautiful library and a fine auditorium, which hosts a programme every week. Farther south, Model House street and the Yediyur Terminus are the main points; the eastern gate has a wide road with Jayanagar close by. The southern gate is referred to as a small gate and is near Lalbagh Road; the northern gate is a wide and big road leading to the Glass House and serves as the primary exit. Flower shows are conducted every year during the week of Republic day and Independence day, to educate people about the variety of flora and develop public interest in plant conservation and cultivation; the Government of Karnataka organises "Janapada Jaatre" in Lalbagh on the second and fourth weekends of every month. Janapada Jaatre, which translates to Folk Fair, features folk dance and plays performed by troupes from all parts of Karnataka.
The show depicts the cultural folklore of Karnataka, the traditional costumes and musical instruments. A geological monument for the peninsular gneiss formation is a tourist attraction at the gardens; this monument has been designated by the Geological Survey of India on the Lalbagh hill, made up of 3,000 million-year-old peninsular gneissic rocks. One of the four cardinal towers erected by Kempegowda II a major tourist attraction, is seen above this hillock; this tower gives the full view of Bangalore from the top. As part of the ongoing development of the Bengaluru Metro Rail, the Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation Ltd has acquired a section of Lal Bagh of around 1,135 m2 where tree felling is taking place. On 13 and 14 April 2009, 500 feet of Lalbagh's wall was broken down and a number of eucalyptus trees were cut. Citizens protests started immediately and have been continuing on a weekly basis. Protests are being made against illegal tree felling and land acquisition by the government without paying heed to various acts put into place to protect Bengaluru's greenery and public park spaces.
Lalbagh is well connected by Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation buses from Kempegowda Bus Station
Nandi Hills, India
Nandi Hills or Nandi betta is an ancient hill fortress in southern India, in the Chikkaballapur district of Karnataka state. It is 10 km from Chickballapur town and 60 km from the city of Bengaluru; the hills are nestled near the town of Nandi. In traditional belief, the hills are the origin of the Arkavathy river, Ponnaiyar River, Palar River and Penna River. There are many stories about the origin of the name Nandi Hills. During the Chola period, Nandi Hills was called Ananda Giri meaning The Hill of Happiness. Another story is that Yoga Nandeeshwara performed penance here, so it was named after him. Nandi is commonly called Nandidurga because of the fort built here by the ruler Tipu Sultan, it is perhaps called Nandi Hills because the hills resemble a sleeping bull. Another theory holds that the hill gets its name from an ancient, 1300-year-old Dravidian-style Nandi temple situated on this hill. An ancient Lord Shiva and Parvati temple adorns this hill; the Bhoga Nandeeshwara Temple in Nandi village is one of the oldest temples in Karnataka dating back to the ninth century.
The temple hewn out of rock consists of two complexes. While the first complex houses three deities, the second complex consists of a huge and majestic kalyani pond; the foundation of the temple was constructed by the Banas of ninth century. The Chola rulers of the 11th century constructed the roof of the temple; the marriage hall was built by the Hoysalas in the thirteenth century and a wall of the second complex was built by the Vijayanagar kings. Beautiful stone carvings are a popular tourist site and are a source of inspiration for students of art and architecture, it is 4,851 ft above sea level. It is located close to the Bangalore International Airport. In addition, the hills are located about 20 km from the National Highway just after Devanahalli Town. Due to its location, Nandi Hills is developing and numerous commercial and residential ventures are underway in the region; the Bangalore amateur ham radio operators have a repeater set up on the Nandi Hills, which increases the reach or transmission and reception, Nandidurga was traditionally held unimpregnable, its storming by the army of Cornwallis on 19 October 1791 was one of the most notable incidents of the first war against Tipu Sultan of Mysore.
A description of the siege is given in Browne's History of Scotland and the records of the 71st Highlanders. Nundydroog, a celebrated fortress and country of Hindostan, in the province of Mysore; the former is built on the summit of a rock, about 1700 feet high, three-fourths of its circumference being inaccessible. Our forces took it by storm after a three weeks' siege, it stands in long. 77° 53' E. and lat. 13° 22' N. It became a retreat for British Raj officials during the hot season. Francis Cunningham built the summer residence here for Sir Mark Cubbon....this droog, one now used as a hotel, built by General Cubbon, sometime British resident. Several species of plant were introduced into an experimental garden. Firminger's manual notes that several species of Anona were grown at this garden and notes the peculiarity of Hypericum mysorense: H. mysorense.—An ornamental bush indigenous to the Western Ghauts, but found in gardens. It is domesticated, or wild, in the Fort at Nandidroog, the latter being situated on the top of an isolated hill on the plateau of Mysore at an elevation of 4,850 feet.
This is mentioned, as curiously enough, one has to travel more than a hundred miles towards the Western Ghauts, before the plant is met with in the wild state again. Fertile seed has never been secured; the fine yellow flowers are three inches across. Only suitable for the shrubbery in hill gardens. Potato cultivation was introduced for the first time in the neighbourhood of Bangalore by a Colonel Cuppage and continued by the botanist Benjamin Heyne. Heyne brought seeds from St. Helena and these grew well enough that they were supplied in Madras and preferred to those obtained from Bengal. In 1860, tea plants were tried on Nandi Hills by Hugh Cleghorn. Nandi Hills are undergoing development, including a one-crore renovation of the Tipu Fort; the Department of Horticulture is setting up a one-crore food court. A 30-lakh music stage, located on a three-and-a-half acre grove, will be used to conduct cultural programmes. Furthermore, the Horticulture Department is developing 140 acres of land in the Nandi Hills region with the creation of a large-scale exotic botanical garden.
A planetarium with an initial one-crore investment is being constructed. A gondola lift system will connect the peak of the Nandi Hill with the nearby Muddenahalli. Other projects including Prestige Golfshire and QVC Nandi Hills are coming up near Nandi Hills. There are plans to construct Cable cars at the cost of 15 to 20 crore which will reduce the number of vehicles going to the hills there by protecting the nature The vegetation of the hills is typical of high hills. Inside the fort at the summit, many of the large trees are planted exotics such as Eucalyptus and the undergrowth consists of Coffea arabica along with some native species; the forest acts as a substrate for cloud condensation and every morning the trees are covered in water. This allows for many moist forest species of animals; the hills are rich in birdlife making it a popular location for birdwatchers and bird photographers. The evergreen forest patch on t
Allan Cunningham (author)
Allan Cunningham was a Scottish poet and author. He was born at Keir, near Dalswinton and Galloway, first worked as a stonemason's apprentice, his father was a neighbour of Robert Burns at Ellisland, Allan with his brother James visited James Hogg, the "Ettrick shepherd", who became a friend to both. Cunningham's other brothers were the naval surgeon Peter Miller Cunningham and the poet, Thomas Mounsey Cunningham. Cunningham gave his leisure to writing imitations of old Scottish ballads. In 1809 he collected old ballads for Robert Hartley Cromek's Remains of Galloway Song, it gained for him the friendship of James Hogg. In 1810 Cunningham went to London, where he worked as a parliamentary reporter and journalist till 1814, when he became clerk of the works in the studio of the sculptor, Francis Chantrey, a post he kept until Chantrey's death in 1841. Cunningham contributed some songs to Eugenius Roche's Literary Recreations in 1807, he wrote three novels, a life of Sir David Wilkie, Lives of Eminent British Painters and Architects, that include biographies of William Hogarth, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Thomas Gainsborough and William Blake.
Besides these, he wrote many songs. A Wet Sheet and a Flowing Sea is a sea-song, he brought out an edition of Robert Burns' Works. Other works included: Sir Marmaduke Maxwell The King of the Peak, the story of Sir George Vernon and his daughter, Dorothy Vernon's supposed elopement with John Manners from Haddon Hall. Cunningham was married to Jean Walker, servant in a house where he lived, they had five sons and one daughter, all of whom rose to important positions, inherited in some degree his literary gifts. Among them were Joseph Davey Cunningham, Alexander Cunningham, Peter Cunningham and Francis Cunningham. Scottish literature This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Cousin, John William. A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. London: J. M. Dent & Sons – via Wikisource. Works by Allan Cunningham at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Allan Cunningham at Internet Archive Works by Allan Cunningham at LibriVox Works by Allan Cunningham at Open Library "Archival material relating to Allan Cunningham".
UK National Archives
Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet was a Scottish historical novelist, poet and historian. Many of his works remain classics of Scottish literature. Famous titles include Ivanhoe, Rob Roy, Old Mortality, The Lady of the Lake, The Heart of Midlothian and The Bride of Lammermoor. Although remembered for his extensive literary works and his political engagement, Scott was an advocate and legal administrator by profession, throughout his career combined his writing and editing work with his daily occupation as Clerk of Session and Sheriff-Depute of Selkirkshire. A prominent member of the Tory establishment in Edinburgh, Scott was an active member of the Highland Society, served a long term as President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and was a Vice President of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland; as Encyclopædia Britannica argues: "Scott gathered the disparate strands of contemporary novel-writing techniques into his own hands and harnessed them to his deep interest in Scottish history and his knowledge of antiquarian lore.
The technique of the omniscient narrator and the use of regional speech, localized settings, sophisticated character delineation, romantic themes treated in a realistic manner were all combined by him into a new literary form, the historical novel. His influence on other European and American novelists was immediate and profound, though interest in some of his books declined somewhat in the 20th century, his reputation remains secure." Walter Scott was born on 15 August 1771. He was the ninth child of a Writer to the Signet and Anne Rutherford, his father was a member of a cadet branch of the Scott Clan, his mother descended from the Haliburton family, the descent from whom granted Walter's family the hereditary right of burial in Dryburgh Abbey. Via the Haliburton family, Walter was a cousin of the pre-eminent contemporaneous property developer James Burton, a Haliburton who had shortened his surname, of his son, the architect Decimus Burton. Walter subsequently became a member of the Clarence Club, of which the Burtons were members.
Five of Walter's siblings died in infancy, a sixth died when he was five months of age. Walter was born in a third-floor flat on College Wynd in the Old Town of Edinburgh, a narrow alleyway leading from the Cowgate to the gates of the University of Edinburgh, he survived a childhood bout of polio in 1773 that left him lame, a condition, to have a significant effect on his life and writing. To cure his lameness he was sent in 1773 to live in the rural Scottish Borders at his paternal grandparents' farm at Sandyknowe, adjacent to the ruin of Smailholm Tower, the earlier family home. Here he was taught to read by his aunt Jenny, learned from her the speech patterns and many of the tales and legends that characterised much of his work. In January 1775 he returned to Edinburgh, that summer went with his aunt Jenny to take spa treatment at Bath in England, where they lived at 6 South Parade. In the winter of 1776 he went back to Sandyknowe, with another attempt at a water cure at Prestonpans during the following summer.
In 1778, Scott returned to Edinburgh for private education to prepare him for school, joined his family in their new house built as one of the first in George Square. In October 1779 he began at the Royal High School of Edinburgh, he was now well able to explore the city and the surrounding countryside. His reading included chivalric romances, poems and travel books, he was given private tuition by James Mitchell in arithmetic and writing, learned from him the history of the Church of Scotland with emphasis on the Covenanters. After finishing school he was sent to stay for six months with his aunt Jenny in Kelso, attending the local grammar school where he met James and John Ballantyne, who became his business partners and printed his books. Scott began studying classics at the University of Edinburgh in November 1783, at the age of 12, a year or so younger than most of his fellow students. In March 1786 he began an apprenticeship in his father's office to become a Writer to the Signet. Whilst at both high school and university, Scott had become a friend of Adam Ferguson, the son of Professor Adam Ferguson who hosted literary salons.
Scott met the blind poet Thomas Blacklock, who lent him books and introduced him to James Macpherson's Ossian cycle of poems. During the winter of 1786–87 the 15-year-old Scott met Robert Burns at one of these salons, for what was to be their only meeting; when Burns noticed a print illustrating the poem "The Justice of the Peace" and asked who had written the poem, only Scott knew that it was by John Langhorne, was thanked by Burns. Scott describes this event in his memoirs where he whispers the answer to his friend Adam who tells Burns Another version of the event is described in Literary Beginnings When it was decided that he would become a lawyer, he returned to the university to study law, first taking classes in moral philosophy and universal history in 1789–90. After completing his studies in law, he became a lawyer in Edinburgh; as a lawyer's clerk he made his first visit to the Scottish Highlands directing an eviction. He was admitted to the Faculty of Advocates in 1792, he had an unsuccessful love suit with Williamina Belsches of Fettercairn, who married Scott's friend Sir William Forbes, 7th Baronet.
As a boy and young man, Scott was fascinated by the oral traditions of the Scottish Borders. He was an obsessive collector of stories, developed an innovative method of recording what he heard at the feet of local story-tellers using carvings on twigs, to avoid
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC