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Francis Galton

Sir Francis Galton, FRS was an English Victorian era statistician, sociologist, anthropologist, tropical explorer, inventor, proto-geneticist, psychometrician. He was knighted in 1909. Galton produced over books, he created the statistical concept of correlation and promoted regression toward the mean. He was the first to apply statistical methods to the study of human differences and inheritance of intelligence, introduced the use of questionnaires and surveys for collecting data on human communities, which he needed for genealogical and biographical works and for his anthropometric studies, he was a pioneer in eugenics, coining the term itself in 1883, coined the phrase "nature versus nurture". His book Hereditary Genius was the first social scientific attempt to study greatness; as an investigator of the human mind, he founded psychometrics and differential psychology and the lexical hypothesis of personality. He devised a method for classifying fingerprints, he conducted research on the power of prayer, concluding it had none by its null effects on the longevity of those prayed for.

His quest for the scientific principles of diverse phenomena extended to the optimal method for making tea. As the initiator of scientific meteorology, he devised the first weather map, proposed a theory of anticyclones, was the first to establish a complete record of short-term climatic phenomena on a European scale, he invented the Galton Whistle for testing differential hearing ability. He was Charles Darwin's half-cousin. Galton was born at "The Larches", a large house in the Sparkbrook area of Birmingham, built on the site of "Fair Hill", the former home of Joseph Priestley, which the botanist William Withering had renamed, he was Charles Darwin's half-cousin. His father was son of Samuel "John" Galton; the Galtons were Quaker gun-manufacturers and bankers, while the Darwins were involved in medicine and science. He was half-cousin of Charles Darwin. Both families had members who loved to invent in their spare time. Both Erasmus Darwin and Samuel Galton were founding members of the Lunar Society of Birmingham, which included Boulton, Wedgwood, Edgeworth.

Both families were known for their literary talent. Erasmus Darwin composed lengthy technical treatises in verse. Galton's aunt Mary Anne Galton wrote on aesthetics and religion, her autobiography detailed the environment of her childhood populated by Lunar Society members. Galton was a child prodigy – he was reading by the age of two. Galton attended King Edward's School, but chafed at the narrow classical curriculum and left at 16, his parents pressed him to enter the medical profession, he studied for two years at Birmingham General Hospital and King's College London Medical School. He followed this up with mathematical studies at Trinity College, University of Cambridge, from 1840 to early 1844. According to the records of the United Grand Lodge of England, it was in February 1844 that Galton became a freemason at the Scientific lodge, held at the Red Lion Inn in Cambridge, progressing through the three masonic degrees: Apprentice, 5 February 1844. A note in the record states: "Francis Galton Trinity College student, gained his certificate 13 March 1845".

One of Galton's masonic certificates from Scientific lodge can be found among his papers at University College, London. A nervous breakdown prevented Galton's intent to try for honours, he elected instead to take a "poll" B. A. degree, like his half-cousin Charles Darwin. He resumed his medical studies but the death of his father in 1844 left him destitute, though financially independent, he terminated his medical studies turning to foreign travel and technical invention. In his early years Galton was an enthusiastic traveller, made a notable solo trip through Eastern Europe to Constantinople, before going up to Cambridge. In 1845 and 1846, he went to Egypt and travelled up the Nile to Khartoum in the Sudan, from there to Beirut and down the Jordan. In 1850 he joined the Royal Geographical Society, over the next two years mounted a long and difficult expedition into little-known South West Africa, he wrote a book on his experience, "Narrative of an Explorer in Tropical South Africa". He was awarded the Royal Geographical Society's Founder's Gold Medal in 1853 and the Silver Medal of the French Geographical Society for his pioneering cartographic survey of the region.

This established his reputation as a explorer. He proceeded to write the best-selling The Art of Travel, a handbook of practical advice for the Victorian on the move, which went through many editions and is still in print. Galton was a polymath who made important contributions in many fields of science, including meteorology, psychology and criminology. Much of this was influenced by his penchant for measuring. Galton prepared the first weather map published in The Times (1 April 1875

Grayson M.P. Murphy

Grayson Mallet-Prevost Murphy Sr. was an American banker and company director. Murphy attended Haverford College, he served as a volunteer in the Spanish–American War, attended the United States Military Academy, graduating in 1903. He was a lieutenant in the Philippine -- American War, in charge of 42nd Division, he was a recipient of the Army Distinguished Service Medal, as authorized by Congress on July 9, 1918. Murphy was a senior vice president of Guaranty Trust Company, he was Founder and Head of G. M.-P. Murphy & Co, he served on the boards of directors of the Anaconda Copper Mining Company, Guaranty Trust Company, New York Trust Company, Bethlehem Steel, Goodyear Tire & Rubber, New York Railways, Fifth Avenue Coach Co. and Chicago Motor Coach Co.. Murphy was active in the Association Against the Prohibition Amendment and voiced his opposition to the 18th Amendment at a Congressional hearing, his efforts contributed to the repeal of prohibition in the United States. He was the first European Commissioner of the American Red Cross during World War I. Murphy was implicated in the 1935 Business Plot exposed by General Smedley Butler to overthrow President Franklin Roosevelt in a military coup.

Murphy was the chief commissioner of the American Red Cross in Europe, treasurer of the American Liberty League. Murphy died on October 1937 in Manhattan, New York City, his funeral was held at St. James Protestant Episcopal Church at Seventy-first Street and Madison Avenue in Manhattan. "Major Murphy Sees His Duty in Army". The New York Times. 1918-01-07. Retrieved 2009-01-06. Murphy, Grayson M.-P.. "What the American Red Cross has been doing the past year".: printed for distribution by the New England Division, American Red Cross: 15 pages. CS1 maint: location

U.S. Amateur Four-Ball

The U. S. Amateur Four-Ball is an amateur golf tournament conducted by the United States Golf Association, it was first played in 2015 and replaced the U. S. Amateur Public Links, an individual tournament, played from 1922 to 2014; the U. S. Amateur Four-Ball is played by "sides" of two golfers, each with handicap indexes of 5.4 or less. 128 sides compete in a 36-hole stroke play qualifier that determines the field of 32 sides for match play. Play is conducted using a four-ball format, where the lowest score by either player on each hole is the score for the side; the women's counterpart is the U. S. Women's Amateur Four-Ball started in 2015. 2020 Philadelphia Cricket Club, Pennsylvania 2021 Chambers Bay, University Place, Washington 2022 Country Club of Birmingham, Alabama 2023 Kiawah Island Club, Kiawah Island, South Carolina Official website

Commencement speech

A commencement speech or commencement address is a speech given to graduating students at a university in the United States, although the term is used for secondary education institutions. The "commencement" is a ceremony in which degrees or diplomas are conferred upon graduating students. A commencement speech is given by a notable figure in the community, during the commencement exercise; the person giving such a speech is known as a commencement speaker. Colleges or universities will invite politicians, important citizens, or other noted speakers to come and address the graduating class. A commencement speech is less bound by the structure found in other forms of public address, like eulogies or wedding speeches; the speaker accordingly enjoys a unique freedom to express herself. Dianne Pleuss, from Toastmasters International, emphasizes that the speech "should not be a lecture, but rather a personal, engaging story the audience can relate to”. Toastmasters World Champion of Public Speaking, Ramona J. Smith, identifies six elements in a good commencement speech: “authenticity transparency wisdom humor credibility preparation"Despite meaning "beginning", commencement may be mistaken to mean "ending" due to its association with the end of college.

It's usage originated with students finishing their studies and being awarded a degree, thus commencing as bachelors or masters in a subject and enjoying new privileges within academia. Winston Churchill at Harrow School in 1941 John F. Kennedy's American University speech in 1963 Hillary Rodham Clinton at Wellesley College in 1969 Richard Feynman at the California Institute of Technology in 1974: "Cargo cult science" Steve Jobs at Stanford University in 2005 David Foster Wallace at Kenyon College in 2005: "This Is Water" J. K. Rowling at Harvard University in 2008: The Fringe Benefits of Failure Barack Obama, Howard University Steven Spielberg, Harvard Peter Thiel, Hamilton College Michael Bloomberg, University of Michigan Coach Mike Krzyzewski, Duke University U. S. Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas at Hillsdale College's Donald Trump, Liberty University in 2017 Hillary Rodham Clinton, Wellesley College in 2017 Graduation Speech The art of the commencement speech, an archive Excerpts from commencement speeches by Steve Jobs, Bill Gates, J.

K. Rowling


Budoji is a book on East-Asian, Korean culture written by Bak Geum in 1953, after recollecting the contents of the original Budoji, one of 15 books in a collection called JingShimRok, leading down from the period of Silla dynasty. Bak Geum states he left the JingShimRok in the North on his escape to South Korea during the North-South Korean war, rewriting the current Budoji from memory after his escape; the Budoji is claimed to have been the first of the 15 books of the JingShimRok with its focus on ancient history. The original JingShimRok is told to have been written by Bak Jae Sang during the Silla dynasty and passed down the Bak family to Bak Geum before its loss during his escape to South Korea; the first era of Korean history is called Mago. Budoji states that there were four Heavenly people, who were Hwanggung, Baekso and Heukso; the mother of Hwanggung and Cheonggung was Gungheui, the mother of Baekso and Heukso was Soheui. The mother of Gungheui and Soheui was Mago, it is said that Mago and Gungheui, bore children without a father.

This chapter describes the historical story about the four Heavenly people of Hwanggung, Baekso and Heukso. The first son of Hwanggung, received Cheonbusamin, he bequeathed the Cheonbusamin to Hwanin; the son of Hwanin, received the Cheonbusamin from his father, established the Budō. Budoji describes the achievement of Hwanung during the era in this chapter, it is described that Dangun is the son of Hwanung. Imgeom received Cheonbusamin from his father, established the state called Gojoseon; this chapter describes Samhan after the destruction of Gojoseon. Mahan was located in the north, Byeonhan was located in the south and Jinhan was located in the east. Baekje succeeded Byeonhan and Goguryeo succeeded Mahan and Silla succeeded Jinhan

Katsuya Yokoyama

Katsuya Yokoyama was an internationally renowned player and teacher of the shakuhachi, a traditional vertical bamboo flute of Japan. He was born in Shizuoka Prefecture in 1934 and studied Kinko-ryu and Azuma styles of music with his father, Rampo Yokoyama, grandfather, Koson Yokoyama. At the age of 25, Yokoyama began to study with Fukuda Rando, founder of the Azuma School and with Watazumi Doso, a legendary Fuke master who sought to synthesize shakuhachi music and spirituality within the context of Zen Buddhism. Guided by these two eminent masters, Yokoyama was able to combine the modernism of Rando with the religious traditional spirit of Watazumido in his training. With this foundation, he came to develop a remarkably powerful and creative style that embodied both ends of the continuum. A descendant of the Kinko tradition transmitted down through the generations, he pioneered a revolution in modern music that swept across post-War Japan. In 1960, Yokoyama completed his studies at the NHK Japanese Traditional Music Training Center and, a year formed Shakuhachi San-Jyuso-dan, a trio devoted to furthering new music for the instrument.

In 1963, he founded the Nihon Ongaku Shudan and Shakuhachi Sanbon-kai with Kinko master Aoki Reibo and Tozan master Hozan Yamamoto. The group helped to establish a new genre of music for the shakuhachi in trio. Yokoyama achieved international attention for his New York City premiere performance in November 1967, of Tōru Takemitsu's composition November Steps, for shakuhachi and orchestra, with the New York Philharmonic, under the direction of Seiji Ozawa. Up until his death Katsuya Yokoyama was head of the Chikushin-kai Shakuhachi Guild, he has been the recipient of many prestigious awards, amongst them the Geijutsu Sen-sho in 1971, the Geijutsu-sai Yushu-sho in 1972, the Geijutsu-sai Tai-sho in 1973 given by the Agency for Cultural Affairs and the Ongaku no Tomo-sha Award in 1991. In 1988, Yokoyama founded the Kokusai Shakuhachi Kenshu Center located in Bisei-cho, Japan where he hosted the first International Shakuhachi Festival in 1993; this event precipitated founding of the World Shakuhachi Society and Festival held in Boulder, Colorado in 1998.

At this gathering, five of the world's greatest shakuhachi masters, including Yokoyama, performed in a single venue for the first time ever. In 2002, the Japanese government honored Katsuya Yokoyama for a lifetime of achievement by awarding him the esteemed Shiju Hosho award. Yokoyama died on April 21, 2010. Yokoyama Katsuya's biography from The International Shakuhachi Society site KATSUYA YOKOYAMA