Francis Hauksbee

Francis Hauksbee the Elder FRS known as Francis Hawksbee, was an 18th-century English scientist best known for his work on electricity and electrostatic repulsion. Francis Hauksbee was common councillor Richard Hauksbee and his wife Mary, he was baptized on 27 May 1660 in the parish of Colchester. He was the fifth of five sons. In 1673 Hauksbee entered Colchester Royal Grammar School. From 1678 to at least 1685 he apprenticed as a draper in the City of London to his eldest brother, he was married no than May 1687, when a daughter was born. Five of his eight children survived infancy. From 1687 to 1703, he may have run his own drapery shop. From at least March 1701, he lived at Giltspur Street, where he made air-pumps and pneumatic engines; the transition from drapery to scientific instrumentation and experimentation is not well documented. Historians have had to speculate about the events that lead to Hauksbee engagement with the Royal Society. Hauksbee became Isaac Newton's lab assistant, he became a member of the Royal Society on 30 November 1703.

On 15 December 1703, he made his first experimental demonstration to the Society. This was the first meeting chaired by Isaac Newton, who had just become president of the Society, wished to resurrect the Royal Society's weekly demonstrations. Hauksbee was an instrument maker and appointed as chief experimentalist of the Royal Society, he was never formally appointed as Curator of experiments though he fulfilled the functions customarily associated with that office, he never received a fixed salary. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society on 30 November 1705, with lowest social class status among the previously-elected Fellows. By 1709 Hauksbee had established himself at Wine Office Court, by 1712 at Hind Court, both near Fleet Street and the Royal Society's house at Crane Court, he died at Hind Court and was buried in St Dunstan's-in-the-West, London on 29 April 1713. John Theophilus Desaguliers succeeded Hauksbee at the Royal Society, appointed as Demonstrator and Curator in 1714, by invitation from Isaac Newton, still President.

Hauksbee's primary contributions were that he was a talented scientific instrument-maker and a creative experimenter, able to discover unknown and unexpected phenomena his observations about electrical attraction and repulsion. Until 1705, most of these experiments were air pump experiments of a mundane nature, but Hauksbee turned to investigating the luminosity of mercury, known to emit a glow under barometric vacuum conditions, he was the first to observe, in the early 1700s, that it was possible to use glass for electrical experiments. By 1705, Hauksbee had discovered that if he placed a small amount of mercury in the glass of his modified version of Otto von Guericke's generator, evacuated the air from it to create a mild vacuum and rubbed the ball in order to build up a charge, a glow was visible if he placed his hand on the outside of the ball; this remarkable discovery was unprecedented at the time. This glow was bright enough to read by, it seemed to be similar to St. Elmo's fire; this effect became the basis of the gas-discharge lamp, which led to neon lighting and mercury vapor lamps.

In 1706 he produced an'influence machine' to generate this effect. Hauksbee continued to experiment with electricity, making numerous observations and developing machines to generate and demonstrate various electrical phenomena. In 1708, Hauksbee independently discovered Charles's law of gases, which states that, for a given mass of gas at a constant pressure, the volume of the gas is proportional to its temperature. Hauksbee published accounts of his experiments in the Royal Society's journal Philosophical Transactions. In 1709 he self-published Physico-Mechanical Experiments on Various Subjects which collected together many of these experiments along with discussion that summarized much of his scientific work. An Italian translation was published in 1716. A second edition was published posthumously in 1719. There were translations to Dutch and French; the Royal Society Hauksbee Awards, awarded in 2010, were given by the Royal Society to the “unsung heroes of science, technology and mathematics.”

"Hauksbee, Francis". Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Retrieved 24 April 2018. Electricity in the 17th and 18th Centuries: a study of early Modern Physics In-depth Electrical Machine From the Museo Galileo, has photographs of various electric machines

Arthur Milnes Marshall

Arthur Milnes Marshall was an English zoologist, known as an administrator at Victoria University. Born in Birmingham on 8 June 1852, he was the third son of William P. Marshall, secretary of the Institution of Civil Engineers. In 1870, while still at school, he graduated B. A. at London University, the following year entered St John's College, Cambridge, to read for the Natural Science Tripos. He was one of the first biology students following the reforms of Francis Balfour, took the classes of Michael Foster. In 1874 he graduated B. A. with a top first, was appointed in the early part of 1875 by Cambridge University to their table at the new Stazione Zoologica, Naples. In the summer of the same year he returned to Cambridge, during the October term he joined Balfour in giving a course of lectures and laboratory work in zoology. In 1877 Marshall won an open science scholarship at St Bartholomew's Hospital, in the same year he passed the M. B. examination at Cambridge, obtained the London degree of D.

Sc. and was elected to a fellowship at St John's College. He was appointed, in 1879, at the age of 27, to the newly-established professorship of zoology at Owens College, Manchester. There Marshall built a reputation as organiser, he graduated M. A. in 1878 and M. D. in 1882. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1885, served on its council 1891–2, he was president of section D at the meeting of the British Association at Leeds in 1890, gave one of the popular discourses before the British Association at the Edinburgh meeting in 1892. As an administrative move, Owens College became part of Victoria University in 1880. There Marshall organised the courses of biological study, he was secretary, subsequently chairman, of the board of studies. He was secretary of the extension movement initiated by the university. Marshall's main recreation was mountain climbing, despite the death of his friend Francis Balfour on Mont Blanc. In most long vacations he climbed on the Mont Blanc chain. On 31 December 1893, while he was engaged with friends in photographing the rocks of Deep Ghyll on Scafell, a rock gave way beneath him.

Falling backwards, he was killed instantaneously. A cross was cut on the rocks below Lord's Rake to mark the spot, he was unmarried. Between 1878 and 1882 Marshall published in the Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science "The Development of the Cranial Nerves in the Chick", 1878. In 1882 he published a memoir on "The Segmental Value of the Cranial Nerves" in the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology. With his researches on the anatomy of Pennatulid corals, these papers form Marshall's significant contributions to zoology. A list of his major papers is in The Owens College, Manchester, 1900, pp. 210, 211. Marshall wrote three text-books, The Frog, Practical Zoology, Vertebrate Embryology. Other works were Biological Essays and Addresses, The Darwinian Theory. A pithy speaker, he put recapitulation theory in the form that animals "climb up their genealogical tree". Online Books pageAttribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Marshall, Arthur Milnes".

Dictionary of National Biography. 3. London: Smith, Elder & Co

William Green (American football)

William Green is a former American football running back. He played college football for the Boston College, received consensus All-American honors; the Cleveland Browns chose him in the first round of the 2002 NFL Draft and he appeared in 46 games for Cleveland between 2002 and 2005. Green was born in New Jersey, his father was a heroin addict. His mother died of the disease a year after being infected by his father. After his parents' deaths, Green was separated from his four siblings. Green attended Holy Spirit High School in Absecon, New Jersey, where he played for the Holy Spirit Spartans high school football team and received multiple high school All-American honors. Green received an athletic scholarship to attend Boston College, played for the Boston College Eagles football team from 1998 to 2001. In two years as a starting running back, he compiled over 2,700 yards rushing and 32 touchdowns, he was a first-team All-Big East Conference selection in 2000 and 2001, was honored as the Big East Offensive Player of the Year, was recognized as a consensus first-team All-American in 2001, after receiving first-team honors from the American Football Coaches Association, The Sporting News, the Walter Camp Football Foundation, Football News and Pro Football Weekly.

In the 2002 NFL Draft, Green was a top-rated player. However, two college suspensions for marijuana use hurt his stock on draft day. Cleveland selected him as 16th overall pick in the first round of the 2002 NFL Draft; as a rookie in 2002, Green appeared in all 16 regular season games and started ten of them, gaining 887 yards and scoring six touchdowns. In a home game with playoff implications versus Atlanta late in the season, Green provided Browns fans with one of the most memorable moments of the new Browns, he ran a 64-yard touchdown to put the Browns ahead for good in a play known as "Run William Run!" due to radio play by play man Jim Donovan's call of the play. His 2003 season, was fraught with turmoil. After a good start with 559 yards, Green was arrested for drunk marijuana possession. Green was notoriously seen wearing one shoe and one sock during the arrest; the arrest led to a four-game suspension under the league's substance abuse policy. While under suspension, Green's fiancée, Asia Gray, stabbed him in the back during a domestic dispute.

The league extended his suspension through the end of the 2003 season "for treatment purposes."In 2004, Green gained 585 yards. On November 14, he was ejected prior to a game with the Pittsburgh Steelers for fighting with linebacker Joey Porter. Around this time, he had disclosed, his final season in Cleveland was an injury-plagued 2005 campaign where he appeared in eight games and gained only 78 yards. The Browns placed him on injured reserve at the end of training camp in 2006 and reached an injury settlement with Green allowing them to release him. In March 2008, it was reported that Green would attempt to play in the NFL again after two seasons out of the league, he worked out at his alma mater Boston College's Pro Day on March 19, showing up in "great shape," bench-pressing 225 pounds 25 times and posting a 42-inch vertical leap, but ran a 4.85 forty yard dash. However, he did not sign a contract. Rushing Stats Receiving Stats Prior to his 2008 NFL comeback attempt, Green became a Christian.

He became a motivational speaker at corporate and school events. His speeches are about forgiveness and overcoming struggles. In 2012, he became an ordained minister, he is the father of eight children, seven with his wife, Asia Gray, one from a previous relationship. All eight children live with his wife on a four-acre property in Berlin, New Jersey. Boston College Eagles bio Cleveland Browns bio Motivational Speaking website