Frederick North, Lord North
Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford, better known by his courtesy title Lord North, which he used from 1752 to 1790, was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782. He led Great Britain through most of the American War of Independence, he held a number of other cabinet posts, including Home Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer. North's reputation among historians has swung forth, it reached its lowest point in the late nineteenth century when he was depicted as a creature of the king and an incompetent who lost the American colonies. In the early twentieth century a revisionism emphasised his strengths in administering the Treasury, handling the House of Commons, in defending the Church of England. Whig historian Herbert Butterfield, argued that his indolence was a barrier to efficient crisis management. Lord North was born in London on 13 April 1732, at the family house at Albemarle Street, just off Piccadilly, though he spent much of his youth at Wroxton Abbey in Oxfordshire. North's strong physical resemblance to George III suggested to contemporaries that Prince Frederick might have been North's real father, a theory compatible with the Prince's reputation but supported by little real evidence.
His father, the first Earl, was at the time Lord of the Bedchamber to Prince Frederick, who stood as godfather to the infant. North was descended from the 1st Earl of Sandwich and was related to Samuel Pepys and the 3rd Earl of Bute, he at times had a turbulent relationship with his father Francis North, 1st Earl of Guilford, yet they were close. In his early years the family was not wealthy, though their situation improved in 1735 when his father inherited property from his cousin. Frederick's mother, Lady Lucy Montagu, died in 1734, his father remarried, but his stepmother, Elizabeth North, died in 1745, when Frederick was thirteen. One of his stepbrothers was Lord Dartmouth, he was educated at Eton College between 1742 and 1748, at Trinity College, where in 1750 he was awarded an MA. After leaving Oxford he travelled in Europe on the Grand Tour with Dartmouth, he visited Vienna and Paris, returning to England in 1753. On 15 April 1754, North twenty-two, was elected unopposed as the Member of Parliament for the constituency of Banbury, He served as an MP from 1754 to 1790 and joined the government as a junior Lord of the Treasury on 2 June 1759 during the Pitt–Newcastle ministry.
He soon developed a reputation as a good administrator and parliamentarian, was liked by his colleagues. Although he considered himself a Whig, he did not align with any of the Whig factions in Parliament and it became obvious to many contemporaries that his sympathies were Tory. In November 1763 he was chosen to speak for the Government concerning radical MP John Wilkes. Wilkes had made a savage attack on both the Prime Minister and the King in his newspaper The North Briton, which many thought libelous. North's motion that Wilkes be expelled from the House of Commons passed by 273 votes to 111. Wilkes' expulsion took place in his absence, as he had fled to France following a duel; when a government headed by the Whig magnate Lord Rockingham came to power in 1765, North left his post and served for a time as a backbench MP. He turned down an offer by Rockingham to rejoin the government, not wanting to be associated with the Whig grandees that dominated the Ministry, he returned to office when Pitt returned to head a second government in 1766.
North became a Privy Counsellor. As Pitt was ill, the government was run by the Duke of Grafton, with North as one of its most senior members. In December 1767, he succeeded Charles Townshend as Chancellor of the Exchequer. With the resignation of the secretary of state Henry Seymour Conway in early 1768, North became Leader of the Commons as well, he continued to serve. When the Duke of Grafton resigned as Prime Minister, North formed a government on 28 January 1770, his ministers and supporters tended to be known as Tories, though they were not a formal grouping and many had been Whigs. He took over with Great Britain in a triumphant state, following the Seven Years' War, which had seen the First British Empire expand to a peak by taking in vast new territories on several continents. Circumstances forced him to keep many members of the previous cabinet in their jobs, despite their lack of agreement with him. In contrast to many of his predecessors, North enjoyed a good relationship with George III based on their shared patriotism and desire for decency in their private lives.
North's ministry had an early success during the Falklands Crisis in 1770 in which Great Britain faced down a Spanish attempt to seize the Falkland islands, nearly provoking a war. Both France and Spain had been left unhappy by Great Britain's perceived dominance following the British victory in the Seven Years War. Spanish forces seized the British settlement on the Falklands and expelled the small British garrison; when Britain opposed the seizure, Spain sought backing from France. However, Louis XV did not believe his country was ready for war and in the face of a strong mobilisation of the British fleet the French compelled the Spanish to back down. Louis dismissed Choiseul, the hawkish French Chief Minister, who had advocated war and a large invasion of Great Britain by the French; the British government's prestige and popularity were enormously boosted by the
Irish House of Commons
The Irish House of Commons was the lower house of the Parliament of Ireland that existed from 1297 until 1800. The upper house was the House of Lords; the membership of the House of Commons was directly elected, but on a restrictive franchise, similar to the Unreformed House of Commons in contemporary England and Great Britain. In counties, forty-shilling freeholders were enfranchised whilst in most boroughs it was either only the members of self-electing corporations or a highly-restricted body of freemen that were able to vote for the borough's representatives. Most notably, Catholics were disqualified from sitting in the Irish parliament from 1691 though they comprised the vast majority of the Irish population. From 1728 until 1793 they were disfranchised. Most of the population of all religions had no vote; the vast majority of parliamentary boroughs were pocket boroughs, the private property of an aristocratic patron. When these boroughs were disfranchised under the Act of Union, the patron was awarded £15,000 compensation for each.
The British-appointed Irish executive, under the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, was not answerable to the House of Commons but to the British government. However, the Chief Secretary for Ireland was a member of the Irish parliament. In the Commons, business was presided over by the Speaker; the House of Commons was abolished when the Irish parliament merged with its British counterpart in 1801 under the Act of Union, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The House sat for the last time in Parliament House, Dublin on 2 August 1800; the Speaker of the Irish House of Commons was the presiding officer of the House and its most senior official. The position was one of considerable power and prestige, in the absence of a government chosen from and answerable to the Commons, he was the dominant political figure in the Parliament; the last Speaker was John Foster. The House was elected in the same way as the British House of Commons. By the time of the Union, the shape of the House had been fixed with two members elected for each of the 32 Counties of Ireland, two members for each of 117 Boroughs, two members for Dublin University, a total of 300 members.
The number of Boroughs invited to return members had been small but was doubled by the Stuart monarchs. Notes Parliament of 1374 William de Karlell, Kilkenny John de Karlell, Kilkenny Sir Richard Plunkett, MeathParliament of 1375 Sir Richard Plunkett, Meath Henry Mitchell John Tirel Parliament of 1380 Sir Richard Plunkett John Tirel Parliament of 1429 Sir Richard FitzEustace, KildareParliament of 1450 John Chevir, Speaker Members Patrick Barnewall Sir William Brabazon First session held at Dublin 13 June to 20 or 23 July 1541, 7 November 1541, 22 December 1541 Second session held at Limerick 15 February to 7 or 10 March 1542 Third session held at Trim June 1542 Dissolved 19 November 1543Speaker: Sir Thomas Cusack Members: Sir Edmond Butler Sir Thomas Cusack, Athenry Sir Christopher Barnewall, Dublin County James Stanyhurst, Speaker Sir Lucas Dillon, Meath Sir John Alan, Kinsale Francis Agard, Kinsale John Parker, Trim Sir Henry Radclyffe, Carlingford John Walsh, Youghal John Portyngall, Youghal Richmond Archbold, Cross Tipperary Edmund Prendergast, Cross Tipperary Nicholas White, County Kilkenny Henry Draycott, Naas John Meade, Cork City Humphrey Warren, Carrickfergus Barnaby Fitzpatrick 2nd Baron Upper OssoryMembers: List of Irish MPs 1585–86 Members: Roger Atkinson, Enniskillen Andrew Barrett Cork County Richard Barry, Dublin City Sir John Bere, Carlow Sir Francis Berkeley, Limerick County Ralph Birchenshaw, Augher Sir Valentine Blake, 1st Baronet, Galway County Sir John Blennerhassett, Baron of the Court of Exchequer, Belfast Robert Blennerhassett Tralee Richard Bolton, Dublin City Sir Edward Brabazon, Wicklow County Edmund Butler, Cross Tipperary Boetius Clancy, Clare Edmund Coppinger, Youghal Sir Thomas Crooke, 1st Baronet, Baltimore Sir John Davies and Attorney-General, Fermanagh Gilbert Domville, Kildare Charles Doyne, Trinity College Sir John Everard, Catholic d.
1624,'the acknowledged leader of the opposition' Tipperary Humphrey Farnham, Enniskillen William Ferrar, Clogher James Roche Fitz-Philip, Kinsale Dominick Roche Fitz-Richard, Kinsale Sir Henry Folliott, Fermanagh John Forrest, Youghal Sir Paul Gore, 1st Baronet, Ballyshannon Henry Gosnold, Second Justice of Munster, Clonakilty Sir James Gough, Waterford Sir Edward Harris, Chief Justice of Munster, Clonakilty Sir Robert Jacobe, Solicitor-General, Carlow Sir John King, Muster-master, Roscommon County Thomas Laffan, Cross Tipperary Gerard Lowther, Justice of the Common Pleas, Tallow Thomas Luttrell, Dublin County Dermot McCarthy Cork County Thomas Browne Mills, Limerick County Daniel Molyneaux, Ulster King of Arms, Strabane Samuel Molyneaux, Mallow Sir Garrett Moore Viscount Moore of Drogheda, Dungannon Sir Edward Moore, Charlemont Sir Richard Moryson, Vice-president of Munster, Bandonbridge Barnabas O'Brien Earl of Thomond, Coleraine Sir Daniel O'Brien 1st Viscount Clare, Clare Lawrence Parsons, Tallow William Parsons, Surveyor General, Newcastle Henry Piers, Secretary to the Lord Deputy, Baltimore Sir Christopher Plunket, Dublin County Sir Hugh Pollerde, Dungannon Sir Thomas Ridgeway Earl of Londonderry, vice-treasurer and treasurer-at-war,'in practice recognized by both parties as leader of the house' Tyrone Sir Robert Ridgeway, Ballynakill Sir Francis Roe, Tyrone Christopher Sibthorpe, Justice of the Court of King's Bench, Newtown Limavady Edward Skorye, Augher Sir Oliver St John, Master of the Ordnance and Vice-President of Connaught, Roscommon County Sir William Talbot, 1st Baronet, Kildare William Temple, Provost of Trinity College, Trinity College Sir
Order of the Garter
The Order of the Garter is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry in England and the United Kingdom. It is dedicated to the image and arms of England's patron saint. Appointments are made at the Sovereign's sole discretion. Membership of the Order is limited to the Sovereign, the Prince of Wales, no more than 24 living members, or Companions; the order includes supernumerary knights and ladies. New appointments to the Order of the Garter are announced on St George's Day, as Saint George is the order's patron saint; the order's emblem is a garter with the motto Honi soit qui mal y pense in gold lettering. Members of the order wear it on ceremonial occasions. King Edward III founded the Order of the Garter around the time of his claim to the French throne; the traditional year of foundation is given as 1348. However, the Complete Peerage, under "The Founders of the Order of the Garter", states the order was first instituted on 23 April 1344, listing each founding member as knighted in 1344.
The list includes Sir Sanchet D'Abrichecourt, who died on 20 October 1345. Other dates from 1344 to 1351 have been proposed; the King's wardrobe account shows Garter habits first issued in the autumn of 1348. Its original statutes required that each member of the Order be a knight and some of the initial members listed were only knighted that year; the foundation is to have been inspired by the Spanish Order of the Band, established in about 1330. The earliest written mention of the Order is found in Tirant lo Blanch, a chivalric romance written in Catalan by Valencian Joanot Martorell, it was first published in 1490. This book devotes a chapter to the description of the origin of the Order of the Garter. At the time of its foundation, the Order consisted of King Edward III, together with 25 Founder Knights, listed in ascending order of stall number in St George's Chapel: King Edward III Edward, the Black Prince, Prince of Wales Henry of Grosmont, Earl of Lancaster Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick Jean III de Grailly, Captal de Buch Ralph de Stafford, 1st Earl of Stafford William de Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March John de Lisle, 2nd Baron Lisle Bartholomew de Burghersh, 2nd Baron Burghersh John de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp John de Mohun, 2nd Baron Mohun Sir Hugh de Courtenay Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent John de Grey, 1st Baron Grey de Rotherfield Sir Richard Fitz-Simon Sir Miles Stapleton Sir Thomas Wale Sir Hugh Wrottesley Sir Nele Loring Sir John Chandos Sir James Audley Sir Otho Holand Sir Henry Eam Sir Sanchet D'Abrichecourt Sir Walter Paveley They are all depicted in individual portraits in the Bruges Garter Book made c.
1431, now in the British Library. Various legends account for the origin of the Order; the most popular involves the "Countess of Salisbury", whose garter is said to have slipped from her leg while she was dancing at a court ball at Calais. When the surrounding courtiers sniggered, the king picked it up and returned it to her, exclaiming, "Honi soit qui mal y pense!", the phrase that has become the motto of the Order. However, the earliest written version of this story dates from the 1460s, it seems to have been conceived as a retrospective explanation for the adoption of what was seen as an item of female underclothing as the symbol of a band of knights. In fact, at the time of the Order's establishment in the mid-14th century, the garter was predominantly an item of male attire. According to another legend, King Richard I was inspired in the 12th century by St George the Martyr while fighting in the Crusades to tie garters around the legs of his knights, who subsequently won the battle. King Edward recalled the event in the 14th century when he founded the Order.
This story is recounted in a letter to the Annual Register in 1774: In Rastel's Chronicle, I. vi. under the life of Edward III is the following curious passage: "About the 19 yere of this kinge, he made a solempne feest at Wyndesore, a greate justes and turnament, where he devysed, perfyted substanegally, the order of the knyghtes of the garter. And afterwarde they were called the knyghtes of the blew thonge." I am obliged for this passage to Esq.. Hence some affirm, that the origin of the garter is to be dated from Richard I* and that it owes its pomp and splendor to Edward III. *Winstanley, in his Life of Edward III says that the original book of the institution deduces the invention from King Richard the First. The motto in fact refers to Edward's claim to the French throne, the Order of the Garter was created to help pursue this claim; the use of the garter as an emblem may have derived from straps used t
Eton College is an English 13–18 independent boarding school and sixth form for boys in the parish of Eton, near Windsor in Berkshire. It was founded in 1440 by King Henry VI as The King's College of Our Lady of Eton besides Wyndsor, as a sister institution to King's College, making it the 18th-oldest Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference school. Eton is one of the original nine public schools as defined by the Public Schools Act 1868; the others are Harrow, Rugby, Westminster, Merchant Taylors' and St Paul's. Following the public school tradition, Eton is a full boarding school, which means pupils live at the school seven days a week, it is one of only five such remaining single-sex boys' public schools in the United Kingdom; the remainder have since become co-educational: Rugby, Charterhouse and Shrewsbury and Merchant Taylors', now a day school. Eton has educated 19 British prime ministers and generations of the aristocracy and has been referred to as "the chief nurse of England's statesmen".
Eton charges up to £12,910 per term, with three terms per academic year, in 2017/18. Eton was noted as being the sixth most expensive HMC boarding school in the UK in 2013/14, however the school admits some boys with modest parental income: in 2011 it was reported that around 250 boys received "significant" financial help from the school, with the figure rising to 263 pupils in 2014, receiving the equivalent of around 60% of school fee assistance, whilst a further 63 received their education free of charge. Eton has announced plans to increase the figure to around 320 pupils, with 70 educated free of charge, with the intention that the number of pupils receiving financial assistance from the school continues to increase. Eton College was founded by King Henry VI as a charity school to provide free education to 70 poor boys who would go on to King's College, founded by the same King in 1441. Henry took Winchester College as his model, visiting on many occasions, borrowing its statutes and removing its headmaster and some of the scholars to start his new school.
When Henry VI founded the school, he granted it a large number of endowments, including much valuable land. The group of feoffees appointed by the king to receive forfeited lands of the Alien Priories for the endowment of Eton were as follows: Archbishop Chichele Bishop Stafford Bishop Lowe Bishop Ayscough William de la Pole, 1st Marquess of Suffolk John Somerset, Chancellor of the Exchequer and the king's doctor Thomas Beckington, Archdeacon of Buckingham, the king's secretary and Keeper of the Privy Seal Richard Andrew, first Warden of All Souls College, Oxford the king's secretary Adam Moleyns, Clerk of the Council John Hampton of Kniver, Staffordshire, an Esquire of the Body James Fiennes, another member of the Royal Household William Tresham, another member of the Royal HouseholdIt was intended to have formidable buildings and several religious relics including a part of the True Cross and the Crown of Thorns, he persuaded the Pope, Eugene IV, to grant him a privilege unparalleled anywhere in England: the right to grant indulgences to penitents on the Feast of the Assumption.
The college came into possession of one of England's Apocalypse manuscripts. However, when Henry was deposed by King Edward IV in 1461, the new King annulled all grants to the school and removed most of its assets and treasures to St George's Chapel, Windsor, on the other side of the River Thames. Legend has it that Jane Shore, intervened on the school's behalf, she was able to save a good part of the school, although the royal bequest and the number of staff were much reduced. Construction of the chapel intended to be over twice as long, with 18, or 17, bays was stopped when Henry VI was deposed. Only the Quire of the intended building was completed. Eton's first Headmaster, William Waynflete, founder of Magdalen College and Head Master of Winchester College, built the ante-chapel that completed the chapel; the important wall paintings in the chapel and the brick north range of the present School Yard date from the 1480s. As the school suffered reduced income while still under construction, the completion and further development of the school has since depended to some extent on wealthy benefactors.
Building resumed when Roger Lupton was Provost, around 1517. His name is borne by the big gatehouse in the west range of the cloisters, fronting School Yard the most famous image of the school; this range includes the important interiors of the Parlour, Election Hall, Election Chamber, where most of the 18th century "leaving portraits" are kept. "After Lupton's time nothing important was built until about 1670, when Provost Allestree gave a range to close the west side of School Yard between Lower School and Chapel". This was remodelled and completed in 1694 by Matthew Bankes, Master Carpenter of the Royal Works; the last important addition to the central college buildings was the College Library, in the south range of the cloister, 1725–29, by Thomas Rowland. It has a important collection of books and manuscripts. In the 19th century, the architect John Shaw Jr became surveyor to Eton, he designed New Buildings, Provost Francis Hodgson's addition to provide better accommodation for collegers, who until had lived in Long Chamber, a long f
Augustus Hervey, 3rd Earl of Bristol
Admiral Augustus John Hervey, 3rd Earl of Bristol, PC was a Royal Navy officer and politician. He commanded the sixth-rate HMS Phoenix at the Battle of Minorca in May 1756 as well as the third-rate HMS Dragon at the Capture of Belle Île in June 1761, the Invasion of Martinique in January 1762 and the Battle of Havana in June 1762 during the Seven Years' War, he went on to be Chief Secretary for Ireland and First Naval Lord. He was known as the English Casanova, due to his colourful personal life. Hervey was born the second son of John, Lord Hervey and educated at Westminster School from 1733, he entered the Royal Navy in 1735 and was promoted to lieutenant in 1740. Promoted to post-captain on 15 January 1747, Hervey was given command of the third-rate HMS Princess at that time and of the sixth-rate HMS Phoenix in January 1752 and saw action in her at the Battle of Minorca in May 1756, he went on to command the fourth-rate HMS Defiance that month, the third-rate HMS Hampton Court in May 1757 and the third-rate HMS Monmouth in March 1758.
Hervey distinguished himself in several encounters with the French, was of great assistance to Admiral Hawke in 1759, although he had returned to England before the Battle of Quiberon Bay in November 1759. He took command of the third-rate HMS Dragon in March 1760 and saw action during the Capture of Belle Île in June 1761, the Invasion of Martinique in January 1762 and the Battle of Havana in June 1762 before transferring to the fourth-rate HMS Centurion in May 1763. Having served with distinction in the West Indies under Rodney, his active life at sea ceased when the Peace of Paris was concluded in February 1763, he was, nominally Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean Fleet in this year. He was promoted to rear-admiral on 31 March 1775 and to vice-admiral on 23 January 1778, he was known as the English Casanova, due to his colourful personal life. Hervey was Member of Parliament for Bury St Edmunds from 1757 to 1763, after being for a short time Member for Saltash, again represented Bury St Edmunds from 1768 until he succeeded his brother in the earldom of Bristol in 1775.
He took part in debates in Parliament, was a frequent contributor to periodical literature. He was an opponent of the Rockingham ministry and strong defender of Admiral Keppel with whom he had worked closely, he was a Groom of the Bedchamber to King George III from 1763 to 1775 and Chief Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland from 1766 to 1767. He joined the Board of Admiralty as First Naval Lord in the North ministry in February 1771 and stood down from the Admiralty Board in April 1775. In August 1744 Hervey had been secretly married to Elizabeth Chudleigh, afterwards Duchess of Kingston, but this union was dissolved in 1769. Lord Bristol died leaving no legitimate issue, having, as far as possible, alienated his property from the title. In about 1765 Hervey paid to take Ann Elliot off the stage to become his mistress, she would go on to take the King's brother as her lover. From 1775 Hervey had taken as his mistress Mary Nesbitt, a former artists' model of some notoriety, they lived together faithfully, at his Surrey home of Norwood House and she received property in his will.
He made changes to Norwood House including a stable. He died due to a gout in the stomach at St James's Square, London on 23 December 1779, aged 55, was buried at Ickworth in Suffolk. Many of his letters are in the Record Office, his journals in the British Museum. Other letters are printed in the Grenville Papers, vols. iii. and iv. and the Life of Admiral Keppel, by the Rev. Thomas Keppel. Hervey Bay, Queensland, a bay and city in Australia, was named after him by Captain James Cook while carrying out the survey of the east coast of Australia on 22 May 1770. Bristol Bay, the rich salmon fishing ground in southwest Alaska, was so named in honor of Hervey by Captain James Cook, who first charted the region in July 1778. Bristol Island, a five mile long ice-covered quake-prone chain of volcanos in the South Sandwich Islands and the coral atoll comprising the islands of Manuae and Te-O-Au-Tu in the Cook Islands were named in honour of Hervey by Captain James Cook. Courtney, William Prideaux. "Hervey, Augustus John".
In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 26. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Keppel, Thomas; the life of Augustus, Viscount Keppel. Henry Colburn. Rodger, N. A. M.. The Admiralty. Offices of State. Lavenham: T. Dalton Ltd. ISBN 0900963948; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Bristol and Marquesses of". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Holmes, M J R. Augustus Hervey - A Naval Casanova. Durham: Pentland Press. History of Hervey Bay
Chief Secretary for Ireland
The Chief Secretary for Ireland was a key political office in the British administration in Ireland. Nominally subordinate to the Lord Lieutenant, the "Chief Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant", from the early 19th century until the end of British rule he was the government minister with responsibility for governing Ireland equivalent to the role of a Secretary of State, it was the Chief Secretary, rather than the Lord Lieutenant, who sat in the British Cabinet. The Chief Secretary was ex officio President of the Local Government Board for Ireland from its creation in 1872. British rule over much of Ireland came to an end as the result of the Irish War of Independence, which culminated in the establishment of the Irish Free State. In consequence the office of Chief Secretary was abolished, as well as that of Lord Lieutenant. Executive responsibility within the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland was transferred to the President of the Executive Council and the Prime Minister of Northern Ireland respectively.
The dominant position of the Lord Lieutenant at Dublin Castle had been central to the British administration of the Kingdom of Ireland for much of its history. Poynings' Law in particular meant that the Parliament of Ireland lacked an independent power of legislation, the Crown kept control of executive authority in the hands of the Lord Lieutenant and its own appointees, rather than in the hands of ministers responsible to the Irish parliament. In 1560 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland ordered the Lord Lieutenant, the Earl of Sussex, to appoint John Challoner of Dublin as Secretary of State for Ireland "because at this present there is none appointed to be Clerk of our Council there, considering how more meet it were, that in our realm there were for our honour one to be our Secretary there for the affairs of our Realm"; the appointment of a Secretary was intended to both improve Irish administration, to keep the Lord Lieutenant in line. The role of Secretary of State for Ireland and Chief Secretary of Ireland were distinct positions, Thomas Pelham being the first individual appointed to both offices concurrently in 1796.
Over time, the post of Chief Secretary increased in importance because of his role as manager of legislative business for the Government in the Irish House of Commons, in which he sat as an MP. While the Irish administration was not responsible to the parliament, it needed to manage and influence it in order to ensure the passage of key legislative measures. In 1800 the Act of Union was passed by the Irish parliament, merging the kingdom into the new United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland with effect from 1 January 1801; the Chief Secretaryship was of particular importance in the run-up to the eventual enactment, on the second attempt, of the Act of Union, when Viscount Castlereagh held the post. The Chief Secretary's exercise of patronage and direct bribery were central to delivering a parliamentary majority for the Union. Upon the Union the Irish parliament ceased to exist. However, the existing system of administration in Ireland continued broadly in place, with the offices of Lord Lieutenant and Chief Secretary retaining their respective roles.
The last Chief Secretary was Sir Hamar Greenwood, who left office in October 1922. The Irish Free State, comprising the greater part of Ireland, would become independent on 6 December 1922. In Northern Ireland, a new Government of Northern Ireland was established with a Prime Minister of Northern Ireland; this government was suspended in 1972, the position of Secretary of State for Northern Ireland was created as a position in the British cabinet. This list includes holders of a key political office in the British administration in Ireland. Nominally subordinate to the Lord Lieutenant, from the late 18th century until the end of British rule he was the government minister with responsibility for governing Ireland. Exceptions were the periods from 29 June 1895 to 8 August 1902, when the Lord Lieutenant Lord Cadogan sat in the Cabinet and the Chief Secretaries Gerald Balfour until 9 November 1900 did not sit there and George Wyndham from that date sat there, from 28 October 1918 to 2 April 1921, when both the Lord Lieutenant Lord French and the Chief Secretaries Edward Shortt, Ian Macpherson and Sir Hamar Greenwood sat in the Cabinet.
Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, similar position in the British cabinet from 1972. British Historical Facts 1760–1830, by Chris Cook and John Stevenson ISBN 0-333-21512-5 British Historical Facts 1830–1900, by Chris Cook and Brendan Keith ISBN 0-333-13220-3 Twentieth-Century British Political Facts 1900–2000, by David Butler and Gareth Butler ISBN 0-333-77222-9 paperback
William Pitt the Younger
William Pitt the Younger was a prominent British Tory statesman of the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries. He became the youngest UK Prime Minister in 1783 at the age of 24, he left office in 1801, but served as Prime Minister again from 1804 until his death in 1806. He was Chancellor of the Exchequer for most of his time as Prime Minister, he is known as "the Younger" to distinguish him from his father, William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, called William Pitt the Elder or "Chatham", who had served as Prime Minister. The younger Pitt's prime ministerial tenure, which came during the reign of George III, was dominated by major events in Europe, including the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. Pitt, although referred to as a Tory, or "new Tory", called himself an "independent Whig" and was opposed to the development of a strict partisan political system, he led Britain in the great wars against Napoleon. Pitt was an outstanding administrator who worked for efficiency and reform, bringing in a new generation of outstanding administrators.
He cracked down on radicalism. To engage the threat of Irish support for France, he engineered the Acts of Union 1800 and tried to get Catholic emancipation as part of the Union, he created the "new Toryism", which revived the Tory Party and enabled it to stay in power for the next quarter-century. The historian Asa Briggs argues that his personality did not endear itself to the British mind, for Pitt was too solitary and too colourless, too exuded superiority, his greatness came in the war with France. Pitt reacted to become what Lord Minto called "the Atlas of our reeling globe", his integrity and industry and his role as defender of the threatened nation allowed him to inspire and access all the national reserves of strength. William Wilberforce said that, "For personal purity, disinterestedness and love of this country, I have never known his equal." Historian Charles Petrie concludes that he was one of the greatest prime ministers "if on no other ground than that he enabled the country to pass from the old order to the new without any violent upheaval...
He understood the new Britain." For this he is ranked amongst British Prime Ministers. William Pitt, second son of William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, was born at Hayes Place in the village of Hayes, Kent. Pitt was from a political family on both sides, his mother, Hester Grenville, was sister to former prime minister George Grenville. According to biographer John Ehrman, Pitt inherited brilliance and dynamism from his father's line, a determined, methodical nature from the Grenvilles. Suffering from occasional poor health as a boy, he was educated at home by the Reverend Edward Wilson. An intelligent child, Pitt became proficient in Latin and Greek. In 1773, aged fourteen, he attended Pembroke College, where he studied political philosophy, mathematics, trigonometry and history. At Cambridge, Pitt was tutored by George Pretyman. Pitt appointed Pretyman Bishop of Lincoln Winchester and drew upon his advice throughout his political career. While at Cambridge, he befriended the young William Wilberforce, who became a lifelong friend and political ally in Parliament.
Pitt tended to socialise only with fellow students and others known to him venturing outside the university grounds. Yet he was described as friendly. According to Wilberforce, Pitt had an exceptional wit along with an endearingly gentle sense of humour: "no man... indulged more or in that playful facetiousness which gratifies all without wounding any." In 1776, plagued by poor health, took advantage of a little-used privilege available only to the sons of noblemen, chose to graduate without having to pass examinations. Pitt's father, who had by been raised to the peerage as Earl of Chatham, died in 1778; as a younger son, Pitt the Younger received a small inheritance. He received legal education at Lincoln's Inn and was called to the bar in the summer of 1780. During the general elections of September 1780, Pitt, at the age of 21, contested the University of Cambridge seat, but lost. Still intent on entering Parliament, with the help of his university comrade, Charles Manners, 4th Duke of Rutland, secured the patronage of James Lowther.
Lowther controlled the pocket borough of Appleby. Pitt's entry into parliament is somewhat ironic as he railed against the same pocket and rotten boroughs that had given him his seat. In Parliament, the youthful Pitt cast aside his tendency to be withdrawn in public, emerging as a noted debater right from his maiden speech. Pitt aligned himself with prominent Whigs such as Charles James Fox. With the Whigs, Pitt denounced the continuation of the American War of Independence, as his father had. Instead he proposed that the prime minister, Lord North, make peace with the rebellious American colonies. Pitt supported parliamentary reform measures, including a proposal that would have checked electoral corruption, he renewed his friendship with William Wilberforce, now MP for Hull, with whom he met in the gallery of the House of Commons. After Lord North's ministry collapsed in 1782, the Whig Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham was appointed prime minister. Pitt was offered the minor post of vice-treasurer of Ireland, but he refused, considering the post overly subordinate.
Lord Rockingham died only three months after coming to power. Many