Towamencin Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania
Towamencin Township is a township in Montgomery County, United States. The population was 17,578 at the 2010 census, it is part of the North Penn School District and the North Penn Valley region, centered around the borough of Lansdale. Towamencin has residential neighborhoods, historic farmhouses, recreational facilities, many schools, open spaces; the community is a mix of residential and rural development. The Township is centrally located in the middle of Montgomery County with easy access to the Pennsylvania Turnpike’s Northeast Extension; the first settlers, of German and Dutch descent, arrived in Towamencin Township around the turn of the 18th century. They pursued agricultural endeavors to sustain their livelihood; the first grant of land in Towamencin Township was in 1703 from William Penn's Commissioners to Benjamin Furley on June 8. The Commissioners granted 1,000 acres to him. On June 17 of that same year, Abraham Tennis and Jan Lucken bought the property from him, divided the land in half in 1709.
The Edward Morgan Log House stands on land, part of 600 acres granted to Griffith Jones by the Commissioners. Edward Morgan purchased 309 acres of this land, which included an existing "dwelling house", from Griffith Jones on February 26, 1708. In 1720, his daughter Sarah, who in 1734 would give birth to the famous frontiersman Daniel Boone, married Squire Boone; the land containing the house was deeded to John Morgan, son of Edward, on August 23, 1723 as part of a 104-acre tract. In March 1728 the settlers of the area petitioned William Penn's Commissioners for Towamencin to become a Township; the request was granted and a charter given. The land was recorded, outlining the boundaries of the Township, known as antioch; those boundaries are similar to. In the enumeration of 1734 there were 32 landholders within the Township, with William Tennis having the most area at 250 acres; the American Indians who inhabited the area were the Lenni Lenape. They lived in Pennsylvania, as well as Delaware, New Jersey, parts of Maryland.
They were divided into three tribes: the Turtle and Wolf, which were subdivided into clans, each clan having a name representing the character and situation of the tribe as a whole. The Indians of Towamencin Township are of the Delaware Nation, they had a settlement in the southwest section of the Township along the Towamencin Creek. They established friendly relations with the settlers. There are some accounts of violence attributed to the Indians, but they cannot be proven and are fictional. There are many accounts of Indians helping to tend the sick, trading food and goods with the settlers, it is not recorded. The Maltese Cross of the Towamencin Volunteer Fire Company has an American Indian in the center. Pennsylvania is known as the Keystone State for its role in the Revolution, as one of the oldest settlements during the time, Towamencin Township played a part: the Township had encampments of soldiers, had many citizens that served, was the retreating place for General Washington and his troops after the Battle of Germantown.
The Continental Army troops were in Towamencin from October 8, 1777 to October 16, 1777 and camped in the Northern section of the Township. The Township provided a secure area without fear of surprise attack by the British. Washington commandeered Frederick Wampole's house to establish his quarters and conducted military duties from there; the house was located on Wambold Road. General Francis Nash was wounded at the Battle of Germantown and was carried from Germantown to Towamencin, he was cared for in a house, according to Washington's writings, located "a mile-and-a-quarter south of the Great North Wales Turnpike," now Sumneytown Pike, along with other wounded men of the Battle of Germantown. He died two days and is buried at the present-day Towamencin Mennonite Church cemetery, known as the Towamencin Mennonite Meetinghouse, it was reported that Henry Cassel, whose land was used as an encampment by the Colonists, submitted to the Continental Congress an estimate of damages to his property by Washington's Army.
The damage was to 696 fence rails used for firewood. The cost to replace those rails was 8.14 pounds. It is not known. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 9.7 square miles, all of it land. It is drained via the Skippack Creek into the Perkiomen Schuylkill River, its villages include Inglewood and Oak Park The Lansdale Interchange to Interstate 476 is with Sumneytown Pike in Kulpsville. Other roads of note include Allentown Road, Bustard Road/Forty Foot Road, Morris Road, Valley Forge Road Wambold Road, Welsh Road. 63 follows Forty Foot Welsh Road east into Lansdale. The township boundaries consists of straight sides at right angles and most of its boundaries consist of roads; as of the 2010 census, the township was 85.1% White, 4.1% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 8.4% Asian, 1.6% were two or more races. 2.5 % of the population were of Latino ancestry. As of the census of 2000, 17,597 people, 6,872 households, 4,810 families resided in the township.
The population density was 1,815.6 people per square mile. There were 7,035 housing units at an average density of 725.9/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 88.30% White, 3.47% African American, 0.09% Native American, 6.23% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.52% from other races, 1.37% fro
Piedmont (United States)
The Piedmont is a plateau region located in the Eastern United States. It sits between the Atlantic coastal plain and the main Appalachian Mountains, stretching from New Jersey in the north to central Alabama in the south; the Piedmont Province is a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian division which consists of the Gettysburg-Newark Lowlands, the Piedmont Upland and the Piedmont Lowlands sections. The Atlantic Seaboard fall line marks the Piedmont's eastern boundary with the Coastal Plain. To the west, it is bounded by the Blue Ridge Mountains, the easternmost range of the main Appalachians; the width of the Piedmont varies, being quite narrow above the Delaware River but nearly 300 miles wide in North Carolina. The Piedmont's area is 80,000 square miles; the name "Piedmont" comes from the French term for the same physical region meaning "foothill" from Latin "pedemontium", meaning "at the foot of the mountains", similar to the name of the Italian region of Piedmont, abutting the Alps.
The surface relief of the Piedmont is characterized by low, rolling hills with heights above sea level between 200 feet and 800 feet to 1,000 feet. Its geology is complex, with numerous rock formations of different materials and ages intermingled with one another; the Piedmont is the remnant of several ancient mountain chains that have since been eroded away. Geologists have identified at least five separate events which have led to sediment deposition, including the Grenville orogeny and the Appalachian orogeny during the formation of Pangaea; the last major event in the history of the Piedmont was the break-up of Pangaea, when North America and Africa began to separate. Large basins formed from the rifting and were subsequently filled by the sediments shed from the surrounding higher ground; the series of Mesozoic basins is entirely located inside the Piedmont region. Piedmont soils are clay-like and moderately fertile. In some areas they have suffered from erosion and over-cropping in the South where cotton was the chief crop.
In the central Piedmont region of North Carolina and Virginia, tobacco is the main crop, while in the north region there is more diversity, including orchards and general farming. The portion of the Piedmont region in the southern United States, is associated with the Piedmont blues, a style of blues music that originated there in the late 19th century. According to the Piedmont Blues Preservation Society, most Piedmont blues musicians came from Virginia, the Carolinas, Georgia. During the Great Migration, African Americans migrated to the Piedmont. With the Appalachian Mountains to the west, those who might otherwise have spread into rural areas stayed in cities and were thus exposed to a broader mixture of music than those in, for example, the rural Mississippi delta. Thus, Piedmont blues was influenced by many types of music such as ragtime and popular songs—styles that had comparatively less influence on blues music in other regions. Many major cities are located on the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, the eastern boundary of the Piedmont.
The fall line, where the land rises abruptly from the coastal plain, marks the limit of navigability on many major rivers, so inland ports sprang up along it. Within the Piedmont region itself, there are several areas of urban concentration, the largest being the Philadelphia metropolitan area in Pennsylvania; the Piedmont cuts Maryland in half. In Virginia, the Greater Richmond metropolitan area is the largest urban concentration. In North Carolina, the Piedmont Crescent includes several metropolitan clusters such as Charlotte metropolitan area, the Piedmont Triad, the Research Triangle. Other notable areas include the Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson, SC Combined Statistical Area in South Carolina, in Georgia, the Atlanta metropolitan area. Cecil Piedmont Atlantic Piedmont region of Virginia Interstate 85 Godfrey, Michael A.. Field Guide to the Piedmont. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-4671-6. Hilton Pond Center for Piedmont Natural History "Piedmont Plain". New International Encyclopedia.
The Eno River, named for the Eno Indians who once lived along its banks, is the initial tributary of the Neuse River in North Carolina, USA. The Eno rises in Orange County; the river's watershed occupies most of Durham counties. The Eno converges with the Flat and Little Rivers to form the Neuse at Falls Lake, which straddles Durham and Wake counties; the Eno is notable for its beauty and water quality, preserved through aggressive citizen efforts. Though more than forty miles from its source to its convergence at the Neuse, the Eno features significant stretches of natural preservation. Through the combined efforts of the North Carolina State Parks System, local government, private non-profit preservation groups, over 5,600 acres of land have been protected in the Eno Basin, including Occoneechee Mountain State Natural Area, Eno River State Park, West Point on the Eno, Penny's Bend State Nature Preserve. Permitted recreational activities include swimming, fishing, canoeing and backcountry camping.
Individual and group campsites are available. List of North Carolina rivers Eno River State Park West Point on the Eno Eno River Association Eno River State Park Occoneechee Mountain State Natural Area Penny's Bend State Nature Preserve West Point on the Eno - Durham City Park
Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to
Orange County, North Carolina
Orange County is a county located in the U. S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 133,801, its county seat is Hillsborough. Orange County is included in the Durham–Chapel Hill, NC Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Raleigh–Durham–Chapel Hill, NC Combined Statistical Area, which had a 2012 estimated population of 1,998,808, it is home to the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the flagship institution of the University of North Carolina System and the oldest state-supported university in the United States. The county was formed in 1752 from parts of Bladen and Johnston Counties, it was named for the infant William V of Orange, whose mother Anne, daughter of King George II of Great Britain, was regent of the Dutch Republic. In 1771, Orange County was reduced in area; the western part of it was combined with the eastern part of Rowan County to form Guilford County. Another part was combined with parts of Johnston County to form Wake County; the southern part of what remained became Chatham County.
In 1777, the northern half of what was left of Orange County became Caswell County. In 1849, the western third of the still-shrinking county became Alamance County. In 1881, the eastern half of the county's remaining territory was combined with part of Wake County to form Durham County; some of the first settlers of the county were English Quakers, who settled along the Haw and Eno Rivers. Arguably, the earliest settlers in the county were the Andrews family, which would marry into the Lloyd family; the Orange County seat of Hillsborough was founded in 1754 on land where the Great Indian Trading Path crossed the Eno River, was first owned and mapped by William Churton. To be named Orange, it was named Corbin Town, renamed Childsburgh in 1759. In 1766, it was named Hillsborough, after the Earl of Hillsborough, the British secretary of state for the colonies and a relative of royal Governor William Tryon. Hillsborough was an earlier Piedmont colonial town where court was held, was the scene of some pre-Revolutionary War tensions.
In the late 1760s, tensions between Piedmont farmers and county officers welled up in the Regulator movement, or as it was known, the War of the Regulation, which had its epicenter in Hillsborough. Several thousand people from North Carolina from Orange County, Anson County, Granville County in the western region, were dissatisfied with the wealthy North Carolina officials whom they considered cruel, arbitrary and corrupt. With specie scarce, many inland farmers found themselves unable to pay their taxes and resented the consequent seizure of their property. Local sheriffs sometimes kept taxes for their own gain and sometimes charged twice for the same tax. At times, sheriffs would intentionally remove records of their tax collection to further tax citizens; the most affected areas were said to be those of Rowan, Orange and Cumberland Counties. It was a struggle of lower-class citizens, who made up the majority of the population of North Carolina, the wealthy ruling class, who composed about 5% of the population, yet maintained total control of the government.
Of the 8,000 people living in Orange County at the time, an estimated 6000 - 7000 of them were in support of the Regulators. Governor William Tryon's conspicuous consumption in the construction of a new governor's mansion at New Bern fuelled the movement's resentment; as the western districts were under-represented in the colonial legislature, obtain redress by legislative means was difficult for the farmers. The frustrated farmers took to arms and closed the court in Hillsborough, dragging those they saw as corrupt officials through the streets and cracking the church bell. Tryon sent troops from his militia to the region, defeated the Regulators at the Battle of Alamance in May 1771. Several trials were held after the war, resulting in the hanging of six Regulators at Hillsborough on June 19, 1771. Hillsborough was used as the home of the North Carolina state legislature during the American Revolution. Hillsborough served as a military base by British General Charles Cornwallis in late February 1781.
The United States Constitution drafted in 1787 was controversial in North Carolina. Delegate meetings at Hillsboro in July 1788 voted to reject it for antifederalist reasons, they were persuaded to change their minds by the strenuous efforts of James Iredell and William Davie and by the prospect of a Bill of Rights. The Constitution was ratified by North Carolina at a convention in Fayetteville. William Hooper, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, was buried in the Presbyterian Church cemetery in October 1790. However, his remains were reinterred at Guilford Courthouse Military Battlefield, his original gravestone remains in the town cemetery. Chartered by the North Carolina General Assembly on December 11, 1789, the University of North Carolina's cornerstone was laid on October 12, 1793, near the ruins of a chapel, chosen due to its central location within the state. Beginning instruction of undergraduates in 1795, UNC is the oldest public university in the United States and the only one to award degrees in the 18th century.
The Reverend Robert and Margaret Anna Burwell founded and ran a school for girls called the Burwell School from 1837 to 1857 in their home on Churton Street in Hillsborough. Elizabeth Keckley was a slave in the Burwell household, serving there as a tee
Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War
The Southern theatre of the American Revolutionary War was the central area of operations in North America in the second half of the American Revolutionary War. During the first three years of the conflict, the largest military encounters were in the north, focused on campaigns around the cities of Boston, New York, Philadelphia. After the failure of the Saratoga campaign, the British abandoned operations in the Middle Colonies and pursued peace through subjugation in the Southern Colonies. Before 1778, the southern colonies were dominated by Patriot-controlled governments and militias, although there was a Continental Army presence that played a role in the defense of Charleston in 1776, suppression of Loyalist militias, attempts to drive the British from Loyalist East Florida; the British "southern strategy" commenced in late 1778 with the capture of Savannah, followed in 1780 by operations in South Carolina that included the defeat of two Continental Armies at Charleston and Camden. General Nathanael Greene, who took over as Continental Army commander after Camden, engaged in a strategy of avoidance and attrition against the British.
The two forces fought a string of battles. In all cases, the "victories" strategically weakened the British army by the high cost in casualties, while leaving the Continental Army intact to continue fighting; this was best exemplified by the Battle of Guilford Courthouse. Several American victories, such as the Battle of Ramseur's Mill, the Battle of Cowpens, the Battle of Kings Mountain served to weaken the overall British military strength; the culminating engagement, the Siege of Yorktown, ended with the British army's surrender. It marked the end of British power in the Colonies. In most colonies British officials departed as the Patriots took control. In Virginia, the royal governor resisted. In the Gunpowder Incident of April 20, 1775, Lord Dunmore, the Royal Governor of Virginia, removed gunpowder stored in Williamsburg to a British warship in the James River. Dunmore saw rising unrest in the colony and was trying to deprive Virginia militia of supplies needed for insurrection. Patriot militia led by Patrick Henry forced Dunmore to pay for the gunpowder.
Dunmore continued to hunt for caches of military equipment and supplies in the following months, acts that were sometimes anticipated by Patriot militia, who would move supplies before his arrival. Dunmore issued an emancipation proclamation in November 1775, promising freedom to runaway slaves who fought for the British. After an incident at Kemp's Landing in November where Dunmore's troops killed and captured Patriot militiamen, Patriot forces defeated Loyalist troops at the Battle of Great Bridge on December 9. Dunmore and his troops retreated to Royal Navy ships anchored off Norfolk. Patriot forces in the town completed the destruction of the former Loyalist stronghold. Dunmore was driven from an island in Chesapeake Bay that summer, never returned to Virginia. Georgia's royal governor, James Wright, nominally remained in power until January 1776, when the unexpected arrival of British ships near Savannah prompted the local Committee of Safety to order his arrest. Georgia Patriots and Loyalists alike believed the fleet had arrived to provide military support to the governor.
Wright reached the fleet. In the Battle of the Rice Boats in early March, the British left Savannah with a number of merchant vessels containing the desired rice supplies. South Carolina's population was politically divided; the lowland communities, dominated by Charleston, were Patriot in their views, while the back country held a large number of Loyalist sympathizers. By August 1775, both sides were recruiting militia companies. In September, Patriot militia seized Fort Johnson, Charleston's major defense works, Governor William Campbell fled to a Royal Navy ship in the harbor; the seizure by Loyalists of a shipment of gunpowder and ammunition intended for the Cherokee caused an escalation in tensions that led to the First Siege of Ninety Six in western South Carolina late November. Patriot recruiting was by outstripping that of the Loyalists, a major campaign involving as many as 5,000 Patriots led by Colonel Richard Richardson succeeded in capturing or driving away most of the Loyalist leadership.
Loyalists fled, either to the Cherokee lands. A faction of the Cherokee, known as the Chickamauga, rose up in support of the British and Loyalists in 1776, they were defeated by militia forces from North and South Carolina. Crucial in any British attempt to gain control of the South was the possession of a port to bring in supplies and men. To this end, the British organized an expedition to establish a strong post somewhere in the southern colonies, sent military leaders to recruit Loyalists in North Carolina; the expedition's departure from Europe was delayed, the Loyalist force, recruited to meet it was decisively defeated in the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge in late February 1776. When General Henry Clinton arrived at Cape Fear, North Carolina, in May, he found conditions there unsuitable for a strong post. Scouting by the Royal Navy identified Charleston, whose defenses were unfinished and seemed vulnerable, as a more suitable location. In June 1776, Clinton and Admiral Sir Peter Parker led an assault on Fort Sullivan
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. Established pursuant to Article III of the U. S. Constitution in 1789, it has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, including suits between two or more states and those involving ambassadors, it has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all federal court and state court cases that involve a point of federal constitutional or statutory law. The Court has the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution or an executive act for being unlawful. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction; the court may decide cases having political overtones, but it has ruled that it does not have power to decide nonjusticiable political questions. Each year it agrees to hear about one hundred to one hundred fifty of the more than seven thousand cases that it is asked to review.
According to federal statute, the court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, all of whom are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Once appointed, justices have lifetime tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed from office; each justice has a single vote in deciding. When the chief justice is in the majority, he decides. In modern discourse, justices are categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. While a far greater number of cases in recent history have been decided unanimously, decisions in cases of the highest profile have come down to just one single vote, exemplifying the justices' alignment according to these categories; the Court meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C, its law enforcement arm is the Supreme Court of the United States Police. It was while debating the division of powers between the legislative and executive departments that delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention established the parameters for the national judiciary.
Creating a "third branch" of government was a novel idea. Early on, some delegates argued that national laws could be enforced by state courts, while others, including James Madison, advocated for a national judicial authority consisting of various tribunals chosen by the national legislature, it was proposed that the judiciary should have a role in checking the executive power to veto or revise laws. In the end, the Framers compromised by sketching only a general outline of the judiciary, vesting federal judicial power in "one supreme Court, in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish", they delineated neither the exact powers and prerogatives of the Supreme Court nor the organization of the Template:Judicial branch as a whole. The 1st United States Congress provided the detailed organization of a federal judiciary through the Judiciary Act of 1789; the Supreme Court, the country's highest judicial tribunal, was to sit in the nation's Capital and would be composed of a chief justice and five associate justices.
The act divided the country into judicial districts, which were in turn organized into circuits. Justices were required to "ride circuit" and hold circuit court twice a year in their assigned judicial district. After signing the act into law, President George Washington nominated the following people to serve on the court: John Jay for chief justice and John Rutledge, William Cushing, Robert H. Harrison, James Wilson, John Blair Jr. as associate justices. All six were confirmed by the Senate on September 26, 1789. Harrison, declined to serve. In his place, Washington nominated James Iredell; the Supreme Court held its inaugural session from February 2 through February 10, 1790, at the Royal Exchange in New York City the U. S. capital. A second session was held there in August 1790; the earliest sessions of the court were devoted to organizational proceedings, as the first cases did not reach it until 1791. When the national capital moved to Philadelphia in 1790, the Supreme Court did so as well.
After meeting at Independence Hall, the Court established its chambers at City Hall. Under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases; as the Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the court's full membership to make decisions, starting with a quorum of four justices in 1789; the court lacked a home of its own and had little prestige, a situation not helped by the era's highest-profile case, Chisholm v. Georgia, reversed within two years by the adoption of the Eleventh Amendment; the court's power and prestige grew during the Marshall Court. Under Marshall, the court established the power of judicial review over acts of Congress, including specifying itself as the supreme expositor of the Constitution and making several important constitutional rulings that gave shape and substance to the balance of power between the federal government and states; the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuin