Physical restraint

Physical restraint refers to means of purposely limiting or obstructing the freedom of a person's bodily movement. Binding objects such as handcuffs, ropes, straps or straitjackets are used for this purpose. Alternatively different kinds of arm locks deriving from unarmed combat methods or martial arts are used to restrain a person, which are predominantly used by trained police or correctional officers; this less also extends to joint locks and pinning techniques. The freedom of movement in terms of locomotion is limited, by locking a person into an enclosed space, such as a prison cell and by chaining or binding someone to a heavy or immobile object; this effect can be achieved by seizing and withholding specific items of clothing, that are used for protection against common adversities of the environment. Examples can be protective clothing against temperature, forcing the individual to remain in a sheltered spot. A practice employed in countries including Zimbabwe is to take away a prisoner's shoes, forcing them to remain barefoot.

The freedom of movement is restricted in many everyday situations without the protection offered by conventional footwear. Various ground textures in urban as well as natural areas can cause substantial physical distress for a shoeless person and hinder their locomotion. Ground textures consisting of crushed stone or similar construction aggregate can be impossible for a person to walk or run over without wearing shoes. Aside from extreme circumstances, an unshod person is compromised by the usual imponderabilities of most surroundings and localities. Controlling the free movement of detainees by keeping them barefoot is therefore common practice in many countries. A main motive can be seen in the fact, that the principal effects of frustrating prison escape and curbing acts of resistance are obtained without cost and with only minimal effort. Further it is an effective complementation of binding restraints. British Police officers are authorised to use leg and arm restraints, if they have been instructed in their use.

Guidelines set out by the Association of Chief Police Officers dictate that restraints are only to be used on subjects who are violent while being transported, restraining the use of their arms and legs, minimising the risk of punching and kicking. Pouches carrying restraints are carried on the duty belt, in some cases carried in police vans. For restraint for medical or psychiatric purposes, see medical restraint. Physical restraints are used: by police and prison authorities to obstruct delinquents and prisoners from escaping or resisting to enforce corporal punishment by impeding motions of the target, as is still practiced in penal functions of several countries by specially-trained teachers or teaching assistants to restrain children and teenagers with severe behavioral problems or disorders like autism or Tourette syndrome, to prevent hurting others or themselvesapproximately 70% of teachers who work with students with behavioral disabilities use a type of physical restraint used in emergency situations or for de-escalation purposes many educators believe restraints are used to maintain the safety and order of the classroom and students, while those who oppose their use believe they are dangerous to the physical and mental health of children and may result in death and.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act has stated that "Restraints may not be used as an alternative to adequate staff". "restraint may be used only when aggressive behavior interferes with an individual's own ability to benefit from programming or poses physical threat to others".by escapologists and stunt performers to restrain people who are suffering from involuntary physical spasms, to prevent them from hurting themselves controversially, in psychiatric hospitalsrestraints were developed during the 1700s by Philippe Pinel and performed with his assistant, Jean-Baptiste Pussin in hospitals in Franceby a kidnapper or other material for eroticism Restraining someone against their will is a crime in most jurisdictions, unless it is explicitly sanctioned by law.. The misuse of physical restraint has resulted in many deaths. Physical restraint can be dangerous, sometimes in unexpected ways. Examples include: postural asphyxia unintended strangulation death due to choking or vomiting and being unable to clear the airway death due to inability to escape in the event of fire or other disaster death due to dehydration or starvation due to the inability to escape cutting off of blood circulation by restraints nerve damage by restraints cutting of blood vessels by struggling against restraints, resulting in death by loss of blood death by hypothermia or hyperthermia whilst unable to escape death from deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism due to lack of movementFor these and many other reasons, extreme caution is needed in the use of physical restraint.

Gagging a restrained person is risky, as it involves a substantial risk of asphyxia, both from the gag itself, from choking or vomiting and being unable to clear the airway. In practice, simple gags do not restrict communication much. Gags that prevent communication may prevent the communication of distress that might otherwise prevent injury. A

Syzygium forte

Syzygium forte known as white apple, flaky-barked satinash or brown satinash, is a tree of the family Myrtaceae native to Western Australia and the Northern Territory. The tree grows to a height of 9 to 25 metres, it blooms between January producing white flowers. The trunk and main branches have brown to orange brown bark; the leaves are opposite with an elliptical shape. The leaf lamina can 8 cm wide with a thick and pale mid-rib; the flowers form in clusters with multiple white stamens forming fleshy dirty-white fruits with a globular shape and a diameter of around 6 centimetres. It is found along watercourses in the Kimberley region of Western Australia where it grows in soils over sandstone, it is both cyclone resistant and salt tolerant. It is found in rainforest areas in the top end of the Northern Territory and in the Cape York Peninsula and North East areas of Queensland as well as in New Guinea, it is found in areas of beach forest at around sea level to rainforests to an altitude of around 450 metres.

The fruit are eaten by cassowaries and is used as a shade tree for parks and gardens and as a street tree. The wood is millable with a density of 0.69 to 0.96 kg/L. The species was first formally described as Eugenia fortis by the botanist Ferdinand von Mueller in 1865 as part of the work Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae but is 1983 was reclassified into the genus Syzygium by B. Hyland in the work A revision of Syzygium and allied genera in Australia. Published in Australian Journal of Botany Supplementary Series. There are two known subspecies: Syzygium forte subsp. Forte Syzygium forte subsp. Potamophilum