University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation, it grew from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge; the two'ancient universities' are jointly called'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world; the university is made up of 38 constituent colleges, a range of academic departments, which are organised into four divisions. All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities, it does not have a main campus, its buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city centre.
Undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments. It operates the world's oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system nationwide. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £2.237 billion, of which £579.1 million was from research grants and contracts. The university is ranked first globally by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as of 2019 and is ranked as among the world's top ten universities, it is ranked second in all major national league tables, behind Cambridge. Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 27 prime ministers of the United Kingdom and many heads of state and government around the world; as of 2019, 69 Nobel Prize winners, 3 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners have studied, worked, or held visiting fellowships at the University of Oxford, while its alumni have won 160 Olympic medals.
Oxford is the home of numerous scholarships, including the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the oldest international graduate scholarship programmes. The University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form as early as 1096, but it is unclear when a university came into being, it grew from 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190; the head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge forming the University of Cambridge; the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two'nations', representing the North and the South.
In centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. In addition, members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence and maintained houses or halls for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, John Balliol, father of a future King of Scots. Another founder, Walter de Merton, a Lord Chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life. Thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III.
Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England in London. The new learning of the Renaissance influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling at the University of Douai; the method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. As a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxford's reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment. In 1636 William Laud, the chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university's statutes. These, to a large extent, remained its gove
The River Thames, known alternatively in parts as the Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London. At 215 miles, it is the longest river in England and the second longest in the United Kingdom, after the River Severn, it flows through Oxford, Henley-on-Thames and Windsor. The lower reaches of the river are called the Tideway, derived from its long tidal reach up to Teddington Lock, it rises at Thames Head in Gloucestershire, flows into the North Sea via the Thames Estuary. The Thames drains the whole of Greater London, its tidal section, reaching up to Teddington Lock, includes most of its London stretch and has a rise and fall of 23 feet. Running through some of the driest parts of mainland Britain and abstracted for drinking water, the Thames' discharge is low considering its length and breadth: the Severn has a discharge twice as large on average despite having a smaller drainage basin. In Scotland, the Tay achieves more than double the Thames' average discharge from a drainage basin, 60% smaller.
Along its course are 45 navigation locks with accompanying weirs. Its catchment area covers a small part of western England; the river contains over 80 islands. With its waters varying from freshwater to seawater, the Thames supports a variety of wildlife and has a number of adjoining Sites of Special Scientific Interest, with the largest being in the remaining parts of the North Kent Marshes and covering 5,449 hectares; the Thames, from Middle English Temese, is derived from the Brittonic Celtic name for the river, recorded in Latin as Tamesis and yielding modern Welsh Tafwys "Thames". The name may have meant "dark" and can be compared to other cognates such as Russian темно, Lithuanian tamsi "dark", Latvian tumsa "darkness", Sanskrit tamas and Welsh tywyll "darkness" and Middle Irish teimen "dark grey"; the same origin is shared by countless other river names, spread across Britain, such as the River Tamar at the border of Devon and Cornwall, several rivers named Tame in the Midlands and North Yorkshire, the Tavy on Dartmoor, the Team of the North East, the Teifi and Teme of Wales, the Teviot in the Scottish Borders, as well as one of the Thames' tributaries called the Thame.
Kenneth H. Jackson has proposed that the name of the Thames is not Indo-European, while Peter Kitson suggested that it is Indo-European but originated before the Celts and has a name indicating "muddiness" from a root *tā-,'melt'. Indirect evidence for the antiquity of the name'Thames' is provided by a Roman potsherd found at Oxford, bearing the inscription Tamesubugus fecit, it is believed. Tamese was referred to as a place, not a river in the Ravenna Cosmography; the river's name has always been pronounced with a simple t /t/. A similar spelling from 1210, "Tamisiam", is found in the Magna Carta; the Thames through Oxford is sometimes called the Isis. And in Victorian times and cartographers insisted that the entire river was named the Isis from its source down to Dorchester on Thames and that only from this point, where the river meets the Thame and becomes the "Thame-isis" should it be so called. Ordnance Survey maps still label the Thames as "River Isis" down to Dorchester. However, since the early 20th century this distinction has been lost in common usage outside of Oxford, some historians suggest the name Isis is nothing more than a truncation of Tamesis, the Latin name for the Thames.
Sculptures titled Tamesis and Isis by Anne Seymour Damer can be found on the bridge at Henley-on-Thames, Oxfordshire. Richard Coates suggests that while the river was as a whole called the Thames, part of it, where it was too wide to ford, was called *lowonida; this gave the name to a settlement on its banks, which became known as Londinium, from the Indo-European roots *pleu- "flow" and *-nedi "river" meaning something like the flowing river or the wide flowing unfordable river. For merchant seamen, the Thames has long been just the "London River". Londoners refer to it as "the river" in expressions such as "south of the river"; the river gives its name to three informal areas: the Thames Valley, a region of England around the river between Oxford and West London. Thames Valley Police is a formal body. In non-administrative use, the river's name is used in those of Thames Valley University, Thames Water, Thames Television, publishing company Thames & Hudson and South Thames College. An example of its use in the names of historic entities is the Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Company.
The administrative powers of the Thames Conservancy have been taken on with modifications by the Environment Agency and, in respect of the Tideway part of the river, such powers are split between the agency and the Port of London Authority. The marks of human activity, in some cases dating back to Pre-Roman Britain, are visible at various points along the river; these include a variety of structure
Storrington is a large village in the Horsham District of West Sussex and one of two in the civil parish of Storrington and Sullington. Storrington lies at the foot of the north side of the South Downs; as of 2006 the village has a population of around 4,600. It has one main shopping street; the A283 road runs directly through the village and connects Storrington to Steyning in the east and Pulborough in the west. Storrington is listed in the Domesday Book as "Estorchestone", meaning a place well known for storks. A charter to hold a regular market on Wednesdays was granted by Henry IV in 1400, together with permissions for three fairs during the year, on Mayday, Wednesday of Whit week and the Feast of Martin on 11 November. Tanning and blacksmithing were important industries and only in the 20th century did these roles fade away. Rabbit breeding was another significant industry reflected in a number of local place names including'The Warren','Warren Hill','Sullington Warren' and'Warren Croft'.
This working/small industry background has however, left little behind architecturally. Nikolaus Pevsner, noted only the small door in Browns Lane, the church, the Dominican convent known as the Abbey to be significant. Since 1945 Storrington has expanded with a variety of housing projects, it is possible to be in open countryside in a few minutes from the town centre when walking towards the downs or one of the commons. Storrington's main supermarket is Waitrose. There are a variety of shops including delicatessens, charity shops, clothes shops, coffee shops, hardware stores, estate agencies, four banks, restaurants, a museum and a post office and three public houses: The Moon, the Anchor Inn and the White Horse Inn; the nearest large town is Worthing 10 mi to the south, followed by Horsham 13 mi to the north. Mainline train services are from Amberley. Trains to London terminate at Victoria. Trains to Gatwick Airport take about 25 minutes. From the village centre there is walking access to the South Downs Way.
From Chantry Hill or Kithurst Hill there are views across the English Channel to the south and opposite, to the North Downs. On a clear day you can see the Isle of Wight. Kithurst Hill which rises steeply above the village is marked at the summit by a trig point, 699 feet above sea level. Sport and leisure facilities include a recreation ground with football and cricket pitches and a leisure centre. Storrington has a Non-League football club Storrington F. C. who play at the recreation ground. Storrington is thinly disguised as the home of the home team in Hugh de Sélincourt's 1924 novel The Cricket Match, complete with chestnut trees and duck pond. In editions a cartoon map of the village is used as end pages. John Parker wrote what was a sequel in The Village Cricket Match in 1977. St Joseph's Hall in Greyfriars Lane is a Grade II listed former residence of the Bishop of Arundel and Brighton, it was built as a private house for US businessman George Trotter in 1910, sold to a French religious order, the Norbertines.
In 1956 it was used by Nona Byrne as a home for refugees from the Hungarian uprising. Parham Park, towards Pulborough, is a country house with rolling parkland with a large herd of maintained deer, it is open most weekends to visitors. There is the private Edwin Lutyens built Little Thakeham nearby. Places of worship include St Mary's on Church Street, the main Church of England place of worship, the Priory of Our Lady of England on Monastery Lane, the Roman Catholic parish church of Storrington; the Roman Catholic bishops of Arundel lived nearby for a while. Other Christian denominations have places as well, including Jehovah's Witnesses. Storrington is twinned with the commune of Villerest in the Loire department of central France. Media related to Storrington at Wikimedia Commons Storrington Museum Community website Horsham District Council Official Storrington & Sullington Parish Council Website
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. Established pursuant to Article III of the U. S. Constitution in 1789, it has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, including suits between two or more states and those involving ambassadors, it has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all federal court and state court cases that involve a point of federal constitutional or statutory law. The Court has the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution or an executive act for being unlawful. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction; the court may decide cases having political overtones, but it has ruled that it does not have power to decide nonjusticiable political questions. Each year it agrees to hear about one hundred to one hundred fifty of the more than seven thousand cases that it is asked to review.
According to federal statute, the court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, all of whom are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Once appointed, justices have lifetime tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed from office; each justice has a single vote in deciding. When the chief justice is in the majority, he decides. In modern discourse, justices are categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. While a far greater number of cases in recent history have been decided unanimously, decisions in cases of the highest profile have come down to just one single vote, exemplifying the justices' alignment according to these categories; the Court meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C, its law enforcement arm is the Supreme Court of the United States Police. It was while debating the division of powers between the legislative and executive departments that delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention established the parameters for the national judiciary.
Creating a "third branch" of government was a novel idea. Early on, some delegates argued that national laws could be enforced by state courts, while others, including James Madison, advocated for a national judicial authority consisting of various tribunals chosen by the national legislature, it was proposed that the judiciary should have a role in checking the executive power to veto or revise laws. In the end, the Framers compromised by sketching only a general outline of the judiciary, vesting federal judicial power in "one supreme Court, in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish", they delineated neither the exact powers and prerogatives of the Supreme Court nor the organization of the Template:Judicial branch as a whole. The 1st United States Congress provided the detailed organization of a federal judiciary through the Judiciary Act of 1789; the Supreme Court, the country's highest judicial tribunal, was to sit in the nation's Capital and would be composed of a chief justice and five associate justices.
The act divided the country into judicial districts, which were in turn organized into circuits. Justices were required to "ride circuit" and hold circuit court twice a year in their assigned judicial district. After signing the act into law, President George Washington nominated the following people to serve on the court: John Jay for chief justice and John Rutledge, William Cushing, Robert H. Harrison, James Wilson, John Blair Jr. as associate justices. All six were confirmed by the Senate on September 26, 1789. Harrison, declined to serve. In his place, Washington nominated James Iredell; the Supreme Court held its inaugural session from February 2 through February 10, 1790, at the Royal Exchange in New York City the U. S. capital. A second session was held there in August 1790; the earliest sessions of the court were devoted to organizational proceedings, as the first cases did not reach it until 1791. When the national capital moved to Philadelphia in 1790, the Supreme Court did so as well.
After meeting at Independence Hall, the Court established its chambers at City Hall. Under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases; as the Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the court's full membership to make decisions, starting with a quorum of four justices in 1789; the court lacked a home of its own and had little prestige, a situation not helped by the era's highest-profile case, Chisholm v. Georgia, reversed within two years by the adoption of the Eleventh Amendment; the court's power and prestige grew during the Marshall Court. Under Marshall, the court established the power of judicial review over acts of Congress, including specifying itself as the supreme expositor of the Constitution and making several important constitutional rulings that gave shape and substance to the balance of power between the federal government and states; the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuin
Ushaw College is a former Catholic seminary near the village of Ushaw Moor, County Durham, England. It was founded in 1808 by scholars from the English College, who had fled France after the French Revolution. Ushaw College was affiliated with the University of Durham from 1968 and was the principal Roman Catholic seminary for the training of Catholic priests in the north of England closing in 2011 due to the shortage of vocations; the buildings and grounds are now maintained by a charitable trust. The English College, Douai was founded in 1568 but was forced to leave France in 1795 following the French Revolution. Part of the college settled temporarily at Crook Hall northwest of Durham. In 1804 Bishop William Gibson began to build at Ushaw Moor, four miles west of Durham; these buildings, designed by James Taylor, were opened as St Cuthbert's College in 1808. There was a steady expansion during the nineteenth century with new buildings put up to cater for the expanding number of clerical and secular students.
In 1847, the newly built chapel, designed by Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin was opened. This was followed by the Big Library and Exhibition Hall designed by Joseph Hansom, 1849–1851; the Junior House, designed by the distinguished architect, Peter Paul Pugin, was added in 1859. St Cuthbert’s Chapel, designed by Dunn and Hansom, was opened in 1884, replacing an earlier one by Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin, which the seminary had outgrown; the Refectory was built by E. W. Pugin; the final development came in the early 1960s with the opening of a new East wing, providing additional classrooms and single bedrooms for 75 students. The main college buildings are grade II listed, however the College Chapel is grade II* and the Chapel of St Michael is grade I; the College became a Licensed Hall of Residence of the University of Durham in 1968. It was independent of the University but offered courses validated by the University, both Church and lay students studied at the college; the Junior House closed in 1972, its younger students being transferred to St Joseph's College, Upholland in Lancashire.
In 2002, the College rejected a report from the Roman Catholic hierarchy that it should merge with St Mary's College, near Birmingham. However, in October 2010 it was announced that the college would close in 2011 due to the shortage of vocations in the Roman Catholic Church, that the site might be sold. Following a detailed feasibility study by the college's Trustees and Durham University, with support from Durham County Council and English Heritage, it was announced in January 2012 that Durham Business School would temporarily relocate to the College during rebuilding of the School’s buildings in Durham; this was seen as the first step in a long-term education-based vision for the site. The University agreed to catalogue and archive the Ushaw library and inventory the other collections to ensure their preservation and specialist conservation, with a view to creating a proposed Ushaw Centre for Catholic Scholarship and Heritage. In March 2019, an uncatalogued early charter of King John was found in the library manuscript collection.
In 2017, Durham University announced plans to develop an international residential research library at Ushaw College, the first of its kind in the UK, with the aim of attracting scholars from around the world to work on the collections of Ushaw, Durham University and Durham Cathedral. The University has confirmed that it has extended the agreement to lease the east wing of the College to 2027; the College is used for numerous musical events and for the Ushaw Lecture Series, organised by the University's Centre for Catholic Studies. In 2018, Durham University's Centre for Evaluation and Monitoring are residents the east wing of the College used by the Business School; the College armorial bearings are "Per pale dexter Argent a Cross Gules on a Canton Azure a Cross of St Cuthbert proper sinister impaling Allen Argent three Rabbits couchant in pale Sable." Various emblems on shield represent the college's history and foundation, for example:- Three coneys are from the family coat of arms of William Allen, the founder of English College, Douai.
See Three hares. The small cross of St Cuthbert represents the College's patron saint; the large cross of St George honours the English Roman Catholic Martyrs. Clergy Nicholas Cardinal Wiseman – first Archbishop of Westminster Francis Cardinal Bourne – Archbishop of Westminster Arthur Cardinal Hinsley – Archbishop of Westminster William Cardinal Godfrey – Archbishop of Westminster John Carmel Cardinal Heenan – Archbishop of Westminster Rafael Cardinal Merry del Val y Zulueta – Cardinal Secretary of State Charles Petre Eyre – Archbishop of Glasgow. Louis Charles Casartelli – 4th Bishop of Salford Hugh Lindsay – 10th Bishop of Hexham and Newcastle James Chadwick – 2nd Bishop of Hexham and Newcastle Alexander Goss – Bishop of Liverpool Thomas Grant – Bishop of Southwark Mark Davies, Bishop of Shrewsbury John Lingard – author of The History Of England, From the First Invasion by the Romans to the Accession of Henry VIII Bernard Łubieński - Redemptorist missionary priest John Furniss – English Roman Catholic priest, known for his mission to children James Nugent – Roman Catholic priest of the Archdiocese of Liverpool Nicholas Rigby – English Roman Catholic priest and author of The Real Doctrine of the Church on Scripture Constantine Scollen – Irish Roman Catholic missionary priest and outstanding linguist in Canada in the mid- to late 19th century and author of Thirty Years among the Indians of the Northwest Paul Swarbrick - Bishop of LancasterLay George Goldie – nineteenth-century ecclesiastical architect Edward
Kensal Green is an area in north-west London located in the London boroughs of Brent and Kensington & Chelsea. The surrounding areas are Harlesden to the West, Willesden to the north and Queens Park to the east and Notting Hill and White City to the south; the areas of College Park and Ladbroke Grove are located in the London boroughs of Hammersmith & Fulham and Kensington & Chelsea respectively. The area is located close to the site of Old Oak Common. Kensal Green is a residential area with good transport links to central London. Surrounding districts include Willesden to the north, Harlesden to the west, Queens Park to the east and Notting Hill to the south; as well as the Kensal Green ward, the area takes in the wards of Dalgarno, St Helens, parts of Queens Park and College Park & Old Oak. The area is known for independent boutiques and bars as well as Gee Barber, an original sixties gents' barber; the area has seen significant gentrification over recent years and is earning a reputation as a'celebrity haunt-meets-Nappy Valley'.
In 2009, Chamberlayne Road in Kensal Rise was named by Vogue as the hippest street in Europe. The area is now home to a number of noteworthy residents including musicians Paloma Faith and Rita Ora, chef Thomasina Miers, film director, DJs and musicians Don Letts and Mark Rae, actress Thandie Newton, singer Lily Allen, model-turned-author Sophie Dahl, author Zadie Smith, handbag designer Bill Amberg, David Cameron's ex-strategy guru Steve Hilton, footballer-turned-media personality Ian Wright and Sienna Miller; the area now boasts Britain's first independent boutique cinema and social enterprise, The Lexi Cinema. It is staffed by local volunteers and all its profits go to an eco-village in South Africa. In 2014, luxury goods maker Mulberry named its handbag Kensal and launched an advertising campaign with Cara Delevingne. Time Out described Kensal Green as "a cool, rebellious young upstart with torn jeans and wacky ideas about politics and marijuana and shit", highlighting pubs The Chamberlayne and Paradise by Kensal Green, cocktail bar The Shop, high-end butcher Brooks and authentic Neapolitan pizzas from Sacro Cuore.
Burger restaurant Benz Burgers in Kensal Green, set up by entrepreneur Ben Todar in 2016, was awarded second best takeaway in Britain. It has traditionally been popular with those working in creative industries. According to local estate agents, those buying properties in the area include developers, people working in the financial district of the city and others moving from nearby Notting Hill; the area attracts Americans thanks to the American School in neighbouring St John's Wood, as well as being popular with the French due to a Lycée Français opening in Brent's former town hall. Little Wormwood Scrubs is a wide open space and has various activities, Kensington memorial Park remains popular amongst locals. Queens Park and King Edwards Vll park are both within walking distance. Part of one of the ten manors within the district of Willesden, Kensal Green is first mentioned in 1253, translating from old English meaning the King’s Holt, its location marked the boundary between Willesden and the Chelsea & Paddington, on which it remains today.
It formed part of one of ten manors, most Chamberlayne Wood Manor, named after Canon Richard de Camera. In the 15th century the Archbishop of Canterbury Henry Chichele, acquired lands in Willesden and Kingsbury. In 1443 he founded All Souls' College and endowed it with the same lands in his will; as a resultant, most of Willesden and Kensal Green remained agricultural until the mid-1800s, well into the Victorian era. In 1805, the construction of the Grand Junction Canal passed through the district to join the Regent's Canal at Paddington; as the combined Grand Union Canal, this allowed passage of commercial freight traffic from the Midlands to London Docks, hence onwards to the River Thames. There were two dairy farms in Kensal Green by the early 1800s, which expanded after the 1864 Act of Parliament which made it illegal to keep cattle within the City of London. Although by the late 1800s residential development had reduced the farmland, still in the 1890s many sheep and pigs were raised in the district.
One of the farms became a United Dairies creamery, supplied by milk trains from Mitre Bridge Junction. St. John's Church was built in 1844 followed by more inns. In 1832 Kensal Green Cemetery was incorporated by Act of Parliament and opened January 1833; this led to a revaluation of the surrounding lands, in 1835 ecclesiastical commissioners were appointed by the Crown, who reported in 1846 that: "the larger portion of the Prebendal Estates possess, in our opinion, a value far beyond their present agricultural value." With enough people living locally to create a new parish, in 1844 St. John the Evangelist Church in Kilburn Lane was consecrated; the 1851 census records just over 800 people living in the new parish. In the 1860s, Kensal Green manor house, situated where Wakeman Road joins Harrow Road, was demolished. Rapid increase in residential development followed, firstly with land west of Kilburn High Road, followed by the sale of Banister's Farm leading to the development of Bannister Road and Mortimer Road.
At this time Kensal Green was suffering huge social problems and had a reputation of being a slum, with 55% off its residents living in poverty and squalor, despite being neighbours to thriving Queen's Park. The rapid residential development led to local commissioners reporting in 1880 that there was inadequate drainage and sewerage facilities, with most houses having only improved access to what were the old agricultural drains. In that same year, All S