Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Rev Dr William Trail or Trail DD FRSE MRIA LLD was an 18th/19th century Scots-born mathematician, remembered for his mathematical text books. For the majority of his life he served church duties in Northern Ireland. Trail was the son of Rev James Trail, his father left Scotland in 1756 to minister in Northern Ireland and in 1765 became Bishop of Down and Connor, thereafter being known as Rt Rev Trail. In 1759, he entered in Marischal College and in 1763 he moved to University of Glasgow where he studied under Robert Simson and graduated M. A. in 1766. In 1766 he was successful to obtain the chair of mathematics in Marischal College. In 1779 he resigned the professorship, moved to Northern Ireland as Chancellor of Down and Connor church under his father, the bishop, he remained thereafter in the Church of Ireland, playing his religious duties for the following forty years. In 1783 he was in Edinburgh as one of the joint founders of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, he retired to Bath, Somerset with his wife around 1821 and died there on 3 February 1831.
In 1770 he published Elements of Algebra for the use of Students in Universities, his most famous opera and became a popular book. Trail is well known by a biography of Robert Simson published in 1812. In 1799 he married Lady Frances Charteris eldest daughter of Francis Wemyss-Charteris and granddaughter of the Duke of Gordon, she was 45 years old when they married and they did not have children. She died in Bath in 1848. Gibson, G. A.. "Sketch of the History of Mathematics in Scotland to the end of the 18th Century: Part II". Proceedings of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society. 1. Doi:10.1017/S0013091500007409. Tweddle, Ian. Simson on Porisms. Springer. ISBN 978-1-84996-862-1. O'Connor, John J.. Wood, Paul. "Trail, William". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 15 June 2015
Francis Charteris (rake)
Colonel Francis Charteris, nicknamed "The Rape-Master General", was a Scottish soldier and adventurer who earned a substantial sum of money through gambling and the South Sea Bubble. He was convicted of raping a servant in 1730 and sentenced to death, but was subsequently pardoned, before dying of natural causes shortly afterwards. Charteris was born at Edinburgh in about 1665, the son of John Charteris, a magistrate, his wife, the daughter of Sir Francis Kinloch, 1st Baronet, his family owned property in Amisfield, near Dumfries. Before his conviction, he was notorious and despised by many in London as an archetypal rake, he had a serial military career, being dismissed from service four times. Despite his military dismissals, he amassed a considerable fortune. Charteris married the daughter of Alexander Swinton, Lord Mersington. Charteris would send his servants out through the countryside to recruit women for him to have sex with; the methods and enticements he used made. His reputation preceded his trial for raping a servant named Anne Bond.
When Bond was hired, on 24 October 1729, she was informed that her employer was "Colonel Harvey" for fear that his reputation would put off his prospective employee. Charteris had a number of contacts who hired women to work as servants, who would be trapped in the house and "urged" to have sex with him; when Bond began to work, she was besieged by "Harvey's" advances, along with offers of money. On her third day of employment, Anne realised that Harvey was in fact Colonel Francis Charteris and requested to leave; this request was refused, staff were positioned to prevent her from escaping. The next morning, 10 November, Charteris attacked and raped Bond. There were no witnesses, Charteris' servants in the next room testified that they heard nothing; when Bond told Charteris she was going to the authorities over the crime, he ordered servants to whip her and take her belongings and throw her out the door, telling them that she had stolen money from him. With assistance from Mary Parsons a former employer, Bond brought a complaint for the misdemeanour of "assault with intent to commit rape."
The Middlesex grand jury found grounds to proceed with this charge but upgraded the charge to the capital felony of rape. On 27 February 1730, Charteris was tried for rape at the Old Bailey; the trial was a media sensation. The defence attacked the virtue and motives of the complainant, accusing her of compliance, prostitution and extortion. Many of Charteris' witnesses and documents were shown to be false, the jury found him guilty. On 2 March, he was held in Newgate Prison; the Earl of Egmont wrote in his diary'All the world agree he deserved to be hanged long ago, but they differ whether on this occasion. Colonel Francis Charteris is still in Newgate.' On 10 April 1730, George II granted him a royal pardon after a campaign that included the Scottish Lord Advocate Duncan Forbes, who rented a house from Charteris in Edinburgh, Anne Bond herself prompted by the promise of an annuity. As a convicted felon, his property should have been forfeit under the doctrine of attainder, but he petitioned the King for its return.
In composition for his offence, he paid substantial sums to the Sheriffs of Middlesex. He was suspected of having given substantial gifts to various important individuals. Jonathan Swift commented on Charteris in several poems. In Lines on the Death of Dr. Swift, he explains "Chartres" as, "a most infamous, vile scoundrel, grown from a foot-boy, or worse, to a prodigious fortune both in England and Scotland: he had a way of insinuating himself into all Ministers under every change, either as pimp, flatterer, or informer, he was tried at seventy for a rape, came off by sacrificing a great part of his fortune". In 1732, he died from natural causes in Edinburgh from a condition caused by his stay in Newgate Prison. Shortly before he died, he was said to have stated that he would pay £150,000 to anybody who could prove to him that there was no hell, he was buried in Greyfriars Kirkyard. Upon his death, John Arbuthnot published "Epitaph on Don Francisco" in The London Magazine. In it, he wrote that Charteris was a man...who, having done, every Day of his Life, Something worthy of a Gibbet, Was once condemned to one For what he had not done.
Charteris was the inspiration for characters in William Hogarth's paintings, A Rake's Progress and A Harlot's Progress, in Fanny Hill. He was condemned by Alexander Pope in his Moral Essay III, written in 1733. Parallels were drawn between Charteris' sexual excesses and the greed of politicians such as Robert Walpole. Works cited Old Bailey Records of his trial Compilation of Newspaper records concerning the Anne Bond case. Popular Perceptions of Rape as a Capital Crime in Eighteenth-Century England: The Press and the Trial of Francis
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world, it holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer. The press mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education and research at the highest international levels of excellence". Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries, its publishing includes academic journals, reference works and English language teaching and learning publications. Cambridge University Press is a charitable enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press.
It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses. Authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, Stephen Hawking. University printing began in Cambridge when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house on the site of what became the Senate House lawn – a few yards from where the press's bookshop now stands. In those days, the Stationers' Company in London jealously guarded its monopoly of printing, which explains the delay between the date of the university's letters patent and the printing of the first book. In 1591, Thomas's successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, an octavo edition of the popular Geneva Bible; the London Stationers objected strenuously. The university's response was to point out the provision in its charter to print "all manner of books".
Thus began the press's tradition of publishing the Bible, a tradition that has endured for over four centuries, beginning with the Geneva Bible, continuing with the Authorized Version, the Revised Version, the New English Bible and the Revised English Bible. The restrictions and compromises forced upon Cambridge by the dispute with the London Stationers did not come to an end until the scholar Richard Bentley was given the power to set up a'new-style press' in 1696. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and presse" and James Halman, Registrary of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose, it was in Bentley's time, in 1698, that a body of senior scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the press's affairs. The Press Syndicate's publishing committee still meets and its role still includes the review and approval of the press's planned output. John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century.
Baskerville's concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design and printing techniques. Baskerville wrote, "The importance of the work demands all my attention. Caxton would have found nothing to surprise him if he had walked into the press's printing house in the eighteenth century: all the type was still being set by hand. A technological breakthrough was badly needed, it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates; this involved making a mould of the whole surface of a page of type and casting plates from that mould. The press was the first to use this technique, in 1805 produced the technically successful and much-reprinted Cambridge Stereotype Bible. By the 1850s the press was using steam-powered machine presses, employing two to three hundred people, occupying several buildings in the Silver Street and Mill Lane area, including the one that the press still occupies, the Pitt Building, built for the press and in honour of William Pitt the Younger.
Under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks. During Clay's administration, the press undertook a sizeable co-publishing venture with Oxford: the Revised Version of the Bible, begun in 1870 and completed in 1885, it was in this period as well that the Syndics of the press turned down what became the Oxford English Dictionary—a proposal for, brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. The appointment of R. T. Wright as Secretary of the Press Syndicate in 1892 marked the beginning of the press's development as a modern publishing business with a defined editorial policy and administrative structure, it was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories. The Cambridge Modern History was published
Francis Douglas, 8th Earl of Wemyss
Francis Wemyss Charteris Douglas, 8th Earl of Wemyss, 4th Earl of March, known as the Earl of March from 1810 to 1826 and as the Earl of Wemyss and March from 1826 to 1853, was a Scottish peer. Wemyss was the son of Francis Wemyss Charteris, Lord Elcho, the grandson of Francis Charteris, de jure 7th Earl of Wemyss, he was educated at Eton College 1780 to 1787. In 1810 he succeeded his second cousin twice removed William Douglas, 4th Duke of Queensberry and 3rd Earl of March to the Earldom of March, as the lineal heir male of the aforementioned Lady Anne Douglas, sister of the first Earl of March, he assumed the surname of Douglas. In 1821 he was created Baron Wemyss, of Wemyss in the County of Fife, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, which entitled him to an automatic seat in the House of Lords. In 1826 he obtained a reversal of the attainder of the earldom of Wemyss and became the eighth Earl of Wemyss as well. From 1821 to 1853 he served as Lord-Lieutenant of Peeblesshire. On 31 May 1794, he married Margaret Campbell and they had eight children: Lady Charlotte Charteris Lady Louisa Antoinetta Charteris Lady Harriet Charteris Lady Eleanor Charteris, married Walter Frederick Campbell of Shawfield Francis Wemyss-Charteris, 9th Earl of Wemyss Hon. Walter Charteris Lady Margaret Charteris Lady Katherine Charteris Wemyss, married her first cousin George Grey, 8th Baron Grey of Groby.
Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl of Wemyss
An earl is a member of the nobility. The title is Anglo-Saxon in origin, akin to the Scandinavian form jarl, meant "chieftain" a chieftain set to rule a territory in a king's stead. In Scandinavia, it was replaced by duke. In medieval Britain, it became the equivalent of the continental count. However, earlier in Scandinavia, jarl could mean a sovereign prince. For example, the rulers of several of the petty kingdoms of Norway had the title of jarl and in many cases they had no less power than their neighbours who had the title of king. Alternative names for the rank equivalent to "earl/count" in the nobility structure are used in other countries, such as the hakushaku of the post-restoration Japanese Imperial era. In modern Britain, an earl is a member of the peerage, ranking below a marquess and above a viscount. A feminine form of earl never developed; the term earl has been compared to the name of the Heruli, to runic erilaz. Proto-Norse eril, or the Old Norse jarl, came to signify the rank of a leader.
The Norman-derived equivalent count was not introduced following the Norman conquest of England though countess was and is used for the female title. Geoffrey Hughes writes, "It is a speculation that the Norman French title'Count' was abandoned in England in favour of the Germanic'Earl' because of the uncomfortable phonetic proximity to cunt". In the other languages of Britain and Ireland, the term is translated as: Welsh iarll and Scottish Gaelic iarla, Scots yarl or yerl, Cornish yurl. An earl has the title Earl of when the title originates from a placename, or Earl when the title comes from a surname. In either case, he is referred to as Lord, his wife as Lady. A countess who holds an earldom in her own right uses Lady, but her husband does not have a title; the eldest son of an earl, though not himself a peer, is entitled to use a courtesy title the highest of his father's lesser titles, for instance the eldest son of The Earl Of Wessex is styled as James, Viscount Severn. Younger sons are styled The Honourable, daughters, The Lady.
In the peerage of Scotland, when there are no courtesy titles involved, the heir to an earldom, indeed any level of peerage, is styled Master of, successive sons as younger of. In Anglo-Saxon England, earls had authority over their own regions and right of judgment in provincial courts, as delegated by the king, they collected fines and taxes and in return received a "third penny", one-third of the money they collected. In wartime they led the king's armies; some shires were grouped together into larger units known as earldoms, headed by an ealdorman or earl. Under Edward the Confessor earldoms like Wessex, East Anglia and Northumbria—names that represented earlier independent kingdoms—were much larger than any shire. Earls functioned as royal governors. Though the title of Earl was nominally equal to the continental duke, unlike them, earls were not de facto rulers in their own right. After the Norman Conquest, William the Conqueror tried to rule England using the traditional system but modified it to his own liking.
Shires became the largest secular subdivision in England and earldoms disappeared. The Normans did create new earls like those of Herefordshire and Cheshire but they were associated with only a single shire at most, their power and regional jurisdiction was limited to that of the Norman counts. There was no longer any administrative layer larger than the shire, shires became "counties". Earls no longer aided in tax collection or made decisions in country courts and their numbers were small. King Stephen increased the number of earls to reward those loyal to him in his war with his cousin Empress Matilda, he gave some earls the right to hold royal castles or control the sheriff and soon other earls assumed these rights themselves. By the end of his reign, some earls held courts of their own and minted their own coins, against the wishes of the king, it fell to Stephen's successor Henry II to again curtail the power of earls. He took back the control of royal castles and demolished castles that earls had built for themselves.
He did not create new earldoms. No earl was allowed to remain independent of royal control; the English kings had found it dangerous to give additional power to an powerful aristocracy, so sheriffs assumed the governing role. The details of this transition remain obscure, since earls in more peripheral areas, such as the Scottish Marches and Welsh Marches and Cornwall, retained some viceregal powers long after other earls had lost them; the loosening of central authority during the Anarchy complicates any smooth description of the changeover. By the 13th century, earls had a social rank just below the king and princes, but were not more powerful or wealthier than other noblemen; the only way to become an earl was to inherit the title or marry into one—and the king reserved a right to prevent the transfer of the title. By the 14th century, creating an earl included a special public ceremony where the king tied a sword belt around the waist of the new earl, emphasizing the fact that the earl's rights came from him.
Earls still held influence and, as "companions of the king", were regarded as supporters of the king's power. They showed that power for the first time in 1327 when they deposed Edward II, they would do th
Haddington, East Lothian
The Royal Burgh of Haddington is a town in East Lothian, Scotland. It is the main administrative and geographical centre for East Lothian, which as a result of late-nineteenth century Scottish local government reforms took the form of the county of Haddingtonshire for the period from 1889-1921, it lies about 17 miles east of Edinburgh. The name Haddington is Anglo-Saxon, dating from the sixth or seventh century AD when the area was incorporated into the kingdom of Bernicia; the town, like the rest of the Lothian region, was ceded by King Edgar of England and became part of Scotland in the tenth century. Haddington received burghal status, one of the earliest to do so, during the reign of David I, giving it trading rights which encouraged its growth into a market town. Today Haddington is a small town with a population of fewer than 10,000 people. In the middle of the town is the Town House, built in 1748 according to a plan by William Adam; when first built, it inheld a council chamber and sheriff court, to which assembly rooms were added in 1788, a new clock in 1835.
Nearby is the County Courthouse. Other nearby notable sites include the Jane Welsh Carlyle House, Mitchell's Close and the birthplace of author and government reformer Samuel Smiles on the High Street, marked by a commemorative plaque. Haddington is located predominantly on the north-east bank of the River Tyne, was once famous for its mills, it developed into the fourth-largest town in Scotland during the High Middle Ages, latterly was at the centre of the mid-eighteenth century Scottish Agricultural Revolution. In 1641, an Act was passed by the Parliament of Scotland to encourage the production of fine cloth, in 1645 an amendment went through stating that the masters and workers of manufactories would be exempt from military service; as a result of this, more factories were established. This factory suffered during the Civil War with the loss of its cloth to General Monck. A new charter was drawn up in May 1681, major capital invested in new machinery, but the New Mills had mixed fortunes affected by the lack of protectionism for Scottish manufactured cloth.
The Scots Courant reported in 1712 that New Mills was to be "rouped". The property was sold on the machinery and plant on 20 March; the lands of New Mills were purchased by Colonel Francis Charteris and he changed their name to Amisfield. As the county town of East Lothian, Haddington is the seat of East Lothian Council with offices located at John Muir House behind Court Street; this building occupies the site of Haddington's twelfth century royal palace and adjoins the former Sheriff Court complex. The town centre is home to a wide range of independent retailers including a bookshop, two sports shops, a saddlery and country goods specialist, two butchers, a hardware shop, cookware shop and several gift shops alongside several pubs and coffee shops. National retailers with a presence in Haddington include Tesco, M&Co, Aldi and Co-op Food. Besides retail and administration, the town is home to various lawyers' firms and has industrial capacity in the works beside the Tyne at the Victoria Bridge, around the site of the old station, various smaller industrial units and garages.
Haddington is home to the offices of the local newspaper the East Lothian Courier. There is a farmers' market held on the last Saturday of the month in Court Street; the town centre retains its historic street plan with Court Street, High Street, Market Street and Hardgate defining the edges of the original open triangular medieval market place, divided by a central island of buildings developed from the 16th century onwards on the site of market stalls. To the north and south the medieval rigg pattern of burgage plots can still be observed with narrow buildings fronting the main streets and long plots behind stretching back to the line of the old town walls, accessed by small closes and pends; the historic importance of the town's unaltered medieval plan and significant survival of historic buildings was recognised as early as the 1950s, with Haddington subject to an Improvement Scheme, Scotland's earliest, which saw many period properties rehabilitated by the Town Council and a pioneering town colour scheme developed, resulting in the distinctive and colourful townscape seen today.
Some comprehensive redevelopment did occur, chiefly around Newton Port and Hardgate to allow for widening of these narrow streets to improve motor traffic flow. This included the demolition of Bothwell Castle and its dovecote in 1955, the land now forming part of Hardgate Park. Today the whole town centre is a conservation area with a high proportion of listed buildings, some dating back to the C16th, the redevelopment and infill schemes undertaken since the 1950s have been in a sympathetic vernacular style which has maintained the town's historic character. Amisfield House was located east of Haddington, south of the River Tyne. Designed by architect Isaac Ware and built of Garvald red freestone for Colonel Francis Charteris, it was described in The Buildings of Scotland as "the most important building of the orthodox Palladian school in Scotland." John Henderson built the walled garden in 1783, the castellated stable block in 1785. The park in front of the house landscaped by James Bowie, is today ploughed.
A victim of dry rot, the house was demolished in 1928. All that remains of Amisfield today are the summer house, walled