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Francisco Franco

Francisco Franco Bahamonde was a Spanish general and dictator who ruled over Spain from 1939 to 1975. During his rule Franco assumed the title Caudillo; this period in Spanish history, from the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War to Franco's death, is known as Francoist Spain or the Francoist dictatorship. Franco was born in Ferrol, Spain as the son of an upper-class family with strong traditional ties and several generations of high-ranking officers in the Spanish Navy, but due to the navy being crippled by the Spanish-American War Franco instead joined the Spanish Army as a cadet in the Toledo Infantry Academy in 1907, graduating in 1910. He would go on to serve in Morocco advancing through the ranks for bravery in combat and an assiduous attention to detail in logistics. In 1926 he became Brigadier General at age 33, the youngest General in all Europe, two years he became director of the General Military Academy in Zaragoza; as a conservative and a monarchist, Franco regretted the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of the Second Republic in 1931.

He was devastated by the closing of his beloved Academy, but continued his service in the Republican Army. For a time he was left without posting, but his career improved after the right wing CEDA and PRR won the 1933 election. In 1934 Franco led the brutal suppression of the uprising in Asturias, sharpening the antagonism between Left and Right in the country. In 1935 he became Chief of Army Staff, but when the leftist Popular Front won the 1936 election Franco was once again marginalized, being relieved of his position and relegated to the Canary Islands; when Calvo Sotelo, leader of the opposition, was murdered that summer it triggered a military coup, plotted since the election in February. Franco had kept his distance from the plot, but joined in the last minute with complete resolution; the coup precipitated the Spanish Civil War. Franco took control of the Army of Africa, air-lifted to Spain. With the death of the other leading generals, Franco became his faction's only leader and was appointed Generalissimo and Head of State in the autumn of 1936.

By a Unification Decree in 1937 Franco merged all Nationalist parties into a single party, the FET y de las JONS. In 1939 the Nationalists had won the war, which had claimed half a million lives; the victory extended Franco's dictatorship over all of Spain, it was followed by a period of repression of political opponents and dissenters. Between 30,000 and 50,000 people died by this repression, which employed forced labor, concentration camps, executions. Combined with the Nationalist executions during the war, the death toll of the White Terror lies between 100,000 and 200,000. Franco continued to rule Spain alone, with more power than any Spanish leader before or since, ruling exclusively by decree, he nurtured a cult of personality and the Movimiento Nacional became the only channel of participation in Spanish public life. During World War II he espoused neutrality as Spain's official wartime policy, but supported the Axis — whose members Italy and Germany had supported him during the Civil War — in various ways.

After the war, Spain was isolated by many other countries for nearly a decade. By the 1950s the nature of Franco's regime changed from being totalitarian and repressive to an authoritarian system with limited pluralism. During the Cold War Franco became one of the world's foremost anti-Communist figures and his regime was assisted by the West the United States. Spain had suffered chronic economic depression in the late 1940s and early 1950s, but by abandoning autarky and pursuing economic liberalization Franco presided over the "Spanish miracle". Economic authority was delegated to the technocrats of the Opus Dei, leading to tremendous economic growth; the Francoist dictatorship continued to soften over time and Luis Carrero Blanco became Franco's éminence grise, controlling the day-to-day operations of the government: this increased when Franco began showing symptoms of Parkinson's disease in the 1960s. The introduction of the Organic Law in 1966 limited and defined Franco's powers and created the office of Prime Minister.

In 1973, beset with old age and wishing to relinquish the burden of governing Spain, Franco resigned as Prime Minister and was succeeded by Carrero Blanco. However, Franco remained as Head of Commander-in-Chief. Franco was buried in the Valle de los Caídos. Through the power to appoint a king, granted to him by the 1947 Law of Succession to the Headship of the State, he restored the monarchy before his death, appointing Juan Carlos as his successor and King of Spain. Juan Carlos led the Spanish transition to democracy. Franco remains a controversial figure in Spanish history and the nature of his dictatorship changed over time, his reign was marked by both brutal repression, with thousands killed, economic prosperity, which improved the quality of life in Spain. His dictatorial style proved adaptable, which could introduce social and economic reform, the only consistent points in Franco's long rule were above all authoritarianism, Spanish nationalism, National Catholicism, anti-Freemasonry, anti-Communism.

Franco was born at 12:30 on 4 December 1892 in the Calle Frutos Saavedra in Galicia. He was baptised thirteen days at the military church of San Francisco, with the baptismal name Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo.

Rubidium oxide

Rubidium oxide is the chemical compound with the formula Rb2O. Rubidium oxide is reactive towards water, therefore it would not be expected to occur naturally; the rubidium content in minerals is calculated and quoted in terms of Rb2O. In reality, the rubidium is present as a component of silicate or aluminosilicate. A major source of rubidium is lepidolite, KLi2Al3O102, wherein Rb sometimes replaces K. Rb2O is a yellow colored solid; the related species Na2O, K2O, Cs2O are colorless, pale-yellow, orange, respectively. The alkali metal oxides M2O crystallise in the antifluorite structure. In the antifluorite motif the positions of the anions and cations are reversed relative to their positions in CaF2, with rubidium ions 8 coordinate and oxide ions 4 coordinate. Like other alkali metal oxides, Rb2O is a strong base. Thus, Rb2O reacts exothermically with water to form rubidium hydroxide. Rb2O + H2O →. Upon heating, Rb2O reacts with hydrogen to rubidium hydroxide and rubidium hydride: Rb2O + H2 → RbOH + RbH For laboratory use, RbOH is used in place of the oxide.

RbOH can be purchased. US$5/g; the hydroxide is more useful, less reactive toward atmospheric moisture, less expensive than the oxide. As for most alkali metal oxides, the best synthesis of Rb2O does not entail oxidation of the metal but reduction of the anhydrous nitrate: 10 Rb + 2 RbNO3 → 6 Rb2O + N2Typical for alkali metal hydroxides, RbOH cannot be dehydrated to the oxide. Instead, the hydroxide can be decomposed to the oxide using Rb metal: 2 Rb + 2 RbOH → 2 Rb2O + H2Metallic Rb reacts with O2, as indicated by its tendency to tarnish in air; the tarnishing process is colorful as it proceeds via bronze-colored Rb6O and copper-colored Rb9O2. The suboxides of rubidium that have been characterized by X-ray crystallography include Rb9O2 and Rb6O, as well as the mixed Cs-Rb suboxides Cs11O3Rbn; the final product of oxygenation of Rb is principally RbO2, rubidium superoxide: Rb + O2 → RbO2This superoxide can be reduced to Rb2O using excess rubidium metal: 3 Rb + RbO2 → 2 Rb2O "Rubidium Oxide". DiracDelta.co.uk science and engineering encyclopedia.

Dirac Delta Consultants. Archived from the original on 11 December 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2011. "Rubidium compounds: dirubidium oxide". WebElements: the periodic table on the web. WebElements. Retrieved 16 November 2011. "Rubidium Oxide". Fishersci.com. Thermo Fisher Scientific. Archived from the original on 18 April 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2011

Online child abuse

Online child abuse is a unique form of child abuse known as “Cyber Molestation” due to its virtual and anonymous nature. Such abuse may not happen face-to-face, nor does it require physical contact. However, online abuse can result in negative face-to-face consequences in the form of statutory rape, forcible sexual assault, etc. In the United States, online child abuse is recognized as a form of child abuse by the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. Online abuse of children can occur through a variety of forms including, but not limited to cyber-bullying and sexual abuse; such abuse requires the use of the World Wide Web or cellphones, increasing its significance in an technological world. The perpetrator of such online abuse may be a stranger or someone, known by the victim. A report by the Data & Society Research Institute and the Center for Innovative Public Health Research showed that 72% of U. S. Internet users have witnessed some form of online harassment or abuse, while 47% have experienced it.

This study found no distinction between genders with respect to harassment, but deduced that women were at risk for a wider variety of online abuse. Governments across the world have acknowledged the importance of recognizing and combating online abuse of children. In the United States this effort is led by the Internet Crimes Against Children Task Force; this task force consists of 61 individual task forces engaging with 4,500 federal and local law-enforcement agencies all with the goal of combating online abuse of children. Cyber-bullying, or Internet bullying, occurs when an individual or group electronically distributes negative, false, or otherwise harmful content about an individual or group using personal or private information that causes humiliation or distress to that individual. Cyber-bullying can happen through the use of any device, able to connect to the Internet of cellphones and does not require the perpetrator to be in the same vicinity of the victim. Cyber-bullying is prevalent among children as an extension of bullying within schools.

A Canadian research study found that children who were victims of cyber-bullying and bullied in school were more to bully others over cyberspace. Studies show a rising trend in online bullying. Although it remains the least-reported form of bullying it is hidden and believed to be under-reported; because victims cannot evade cyber-bullies, they may harbor feelings of guilt, incompetence or despair. Upwards of 37% of victims of cyber-bullying do not report their abuse. According to statistics of cyber-bullying from the i-SAFE Foundation, more than 50% of adolescents have been the victims of cyber-bullying, where one-third of them have been threatened online. A equal number admit to having engaged in perpetrating cyber-bullying themselves. Of the victims that reported their abuse, 25% reported repeated cyber-bullying; the Harford County Examiner reported that far more than 50% of child victims hid the issue from their parents when it occurred. The same examination reported that 1 in 10 youths had damaging photos taken of themselves without their permission, that girls are more to be involved with cyber-bullying than boys, both as bullies and as victims.

Different social groups and ages tend to receive differing amounts of unwanted negative feedback. For example, a reported 55.2% of young LGBTQ community members have been victims of cyber-bullying. Another trend shows that school-aged children are more to be victims of online abuse. A study in 2011 found three primary reasons for targeting others over the Internet: informal social control and entertainment. Informal social control is applying pressure to change another person's behavior. Dominance refers to the attempt of hurting someone, humiliating someone, or gaining access to their personal information. Entertainment refers to what is known as trolling: purposefully humiliating, annoying, or bothering someone for the purpose of eliciting an emotional response for the bully's enjoyment. Perpetrators of trolling are called trolls. Cyber-bullying is common among children and young adults that are ten to eighteen years old. Victims of cyber-bullying feel negative about themselves after being bullied.

It is common for cyber-bullying to have negative effects on cyber victims' social well-being because it has a negative impact on their self-esteem. Another consequence of cyber-bullying is. Further research conducted by Patchin & Hinduja found that those involved with cyber-bullying, as perpetrators, victims, or both, have lower self-esteem than those who have little to no exposure to cyber-bullying. Kowalski & Limber found that bullies and victims had the most negative scores on most measures of psychological health, physical and academic performance. In the United States, parents are encouraged to monitor their children's online activity and deal with cyber-bullying appropriately. If cyber-bullying involves sexual content or sexting, the cyberbully and their parents can be subject to legal consequences, including being registered as sexual offenders. Cyber-bullying that does not involve explicit sexual content can be more difficult to prosecute because there are no federal laws directly protecting children from direct forms of cyber-bullying.

Cases of cyber-bullying are difficult to pursue in the United States due to infringement on First Amendment rights. U. S. Schools can take action on incidents that occur outside of sc