The Troupes coloniales or Armée coloniale called La Coloniale, were the military forces of the French colonial empire from 1900 until 1961. From 1822 to 1900 these troops were designated Troupes de marine, in 1961 they readopted this name, they were recruited from mainland France or from the French settler and indigenous populations of the empire. This force played a substantial role in the conquest of the empire, in World War I, World War II, the First Indochina War and the Algerian War; the Armée coloniale should not be confused with the famous North African regiments of the French Army such as the Foreign Legion, the Bat' d'Af', Spahis, Algerian Tirailleurs and Goumiers, all of which were part of the Army of Africa. The North African units date from 1830 and were brought together as the XIX Army Corps in 1873, forming part of the French Metropolitan Army. Instead the Troupes Coloniales can be divided into: French long service volunteers assigned to service in France itself or as garrisons in French West and Central Africa, New Caledonia or Indochina.
These were designated as Tirailleurs sénégalais, Tirailleurs malgaches, Tirailleurs indochinois, etc. according to the name of the colony of origin. Tirailleurs sénégalais was the name given to all West and Central African regiments, since Senegal had been the first French colony south of the Sahara. All colonial troops came under a single General Staff; the troupes coloniales were predominantly infantry but included artillery units as well as the usual support services. At various dates they included locally recruited cavalry units in Indo-China as well as camel troops in sub-Saharan Africa; the precise meaning of the terms "colonial troops", "colonial army", marine troops or" troops of the French colonies" has changed several times since the 18th century: During the 18th and early 19th centuries "marine infantry" was the title used to identify French troops stationed permanently in France's various overseas territories. After the middle of the 19th century this term was extended to include the "native" troops recruited in the French colonies, excluding North Africa.
The title "colonial troops" was adopted in 1900, when all the Marine Infantry and Marine Artillery troops that had come under the Ministry of the Navy were transferred to come under the orders of the War Department. In 1958 when France's African colonies had gained their independence, the mission and title of these troops was redefined. After a brief period as "Overseas Troops" the traditional title of Marines was restored; the Marine regiments did however remain part of the French Army. Colony troops: Compagnies Franches de la MarineRegular regiments of the Royal Army assigned to colonial service: The European Colonial Infantry regiments were, until 1914, uniformed in a similar style to their metropolitan counterparts. On colonial service white, dark blue or light khaki uniforms were worn with topees, according to circumstances. Between 1895 and 1905 a light blue/grey bleu mecanicien uniform was worn for field dress in Africa and Indo China. During and after World War I khaki became the norm for all colonial troops in contrast to the horizon blue of the metropolitan conscripts.
The blue dress uniform was however restored for French personnel who enlisted as volunteers in either the Colonial Infantry or Colonial Artillery, from 1928 to 1939. Tirailleur regiments in Africa wore red fezes and sashes with dark blue, or khaki uniforms until 1914; the Indo-Chinese units wore a salacco headdress and blue, white or khaki drill clothing based on local patterns. After World War I khaki became the normal dress for indigenous troops, although sashes and fezzes continued to be worn for parade until the 1950s; the modern Troupes de Marine are distinguished in full dress by dark blue kepis with red piping and bronze anchor badges, red sashes and yellow fringed epaulettes. These traditional items are worn with the standard light beige or camouflage dress of the modern French Army on ceremonial occasions. From 1822 to 1900 these troops, both French and indigenous, had been designated as Troupes de Marine, though they were not directly linked to the French Navy. Both services were however shared an anchor badge.
This insignia continued to be worn after the Troupes de la Marine became the Troupes Coloniales in 1900 and photographs of mehariste troopers taken in the 1950s show anchor badges in the Mauritanian desert far from the sea. In 1961 the title of Troupes de Marine was readopted after a brief period as Troupes d'Outre-Mer; as the remaining French African territories became independent in the late 1950s and early 1960s, the tirailleurs were discharged to join their new national armies. In 1964, the 7th Regiment of Tirailleurs, formed in 1913 as the 7e Régiment de tirailleurs Algériens was redesigned the 170e Régiment d'Infanterie; the various "Tirailleurs Indochinois" regiments were dispersed by the Japanese coup of 10 March 1945 and were not reformed. On 1 May 1994, in the presence of veterans of the armée d'Afrique, légionnaires, spahis and artilleurs, the 170e Régiment d'Infanterie was redesignated as the 1er Régiment de Tirailleurs, it wears the insignia and bears the honors and traditions of the old 1er régiment de tirailleurs Algériens, disbanded in 1964.
Throughout their changing titl
French Armenian Legion
The Armenian Legion was a foreign legion unit within the French Army active during and just after World War I which fought against the Ottoman Empire. The original name of the legion was "La Légion d'Orient", it was renamed "La Légion Arménienne" on February 1, 1919. The soldiers in this legion were referred to informally among Armenians as Gamavor. Many Armenians living in France volunteered to join the French Foreign Legion at the beginning of the war; this was prior to the establishment of the French Armenian Legion. Negotiations of Boghos Nubar with French political and military authorities culminated in the formation of the French Armenian Legion; the Legion was established in Cairo, Egypt in November 1916, with the accord of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and an Armenian delegation. Several Armenian organizations pledged contributions to form several battalions under the planned Armenian Legion; the parties agreed to the following: The aim of creating the Legion was to allow Armenians' contribution to the liberation of the Cilicia region in the Ottoman Empire and to help them to realize their national aspirations of creating a state in that region.
The Legion was to fight only Turks and only in Cilicia. The Legion was to become the core of a planned future Armenian Army. Signed in Paris by General Pierre Roques, Minister of War, General Marie-Jean-Lucien Lacaze, Minister of Navy, the official decision regarding the establishment of the Armenian Legion was signed on 15 November 1916 in Paris. According to this initial decision, The Eastern Legion was to be stationed in Cyprus Armenians and Syrians of Ottoman nationality would be permitted to volunteer The Legion would be commanded by French officers Volunteers for the Legion would have an equivalent status compared to French soldiers and would be under the responsibility of the French War Ministry Infantry commander Romieu would supervise the establishment of the Legion The Legion was to be deployed in Cilicia, now known as Çukurova, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor 10,000 Francs were to be allocated from the war budget of the French Navy to use in the establishment of camps The volunteers were to be organized by local Armenian committees and sent to Bordeaux and Marseille.
The committees were to be reimbursed by French government for travel expenses. The number of volunteers was an equivalent of 6 battalions, each containing 800 volunteers, another 6 battalions was planned to be formed. Armenian committees were organizing to recruit these soldiers in United States. Ninety-five percent Armenian in composition, the Legion included Ottoman Armenian refugees, former prisoners of war, permanent residents of Egypt and Europe; the majority of the soldiers were said to be recruits from the Armenian-American community or survivors of the battle of Musa Dagh who were living in refugee camps in Port Said, Egypt, at the time. After the initial training in Cyprus, the Armenian Legion was first deployed in Palestine, to help the French and British forces serving against the Ottoman and German armies. Under the command of General Edmund Allenby, the Legion, fighting in Palestine and Cilicia, won the plaudits of Clemenceau’s government and its Entente allies." The Armenian Legion assisted the British and French in winning the decisive Battle of Arara and has been credited with making General Allenby's victory possible.
Following this campaign, the Armenian Legion was deployed in Anatolia according to the initial decisions. They were active around the cities of Adana and Mersin involved in skirmishes with local civilians and unorganized Turkish militia. Armenian Legion Franco-Armenian relations French Foreign Legion
Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922)
The Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922 was fought between Greece and the Turkish National Movement during the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire after World War I between May 1919 and October 1922. It is known as the Western Front of the Turkish War of Independence in Turkey and the Asia Minor Campaign or the Asia Minor Catastrophe in Greece; the Greek campaign was launched because the western Allies British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, had promised Greece territorial gains at the expense of the Ottoman Empire defeated in World War I. The armed conflict started when the Greek forces landed in Smyrna, on 15 May 1919, they advanced inland and took control of the western and northwestern part of Anatolia, including the cities of Manisa, Balıkesir, Aydın, Kütahya and Eskişehir. Their advance was checked at the Battle of Sakarya in 1921 by forces of the Turkish national movement; the Greek front collapsed with the Turkish counter-attack in August 1922, the war ended with the recapture of Smyrna by the Turkish forces and the Great fire of Smyrna.
As a result, the Greek government accepted the demands of the Turkish national movement and returned to its pre-war borders, thus leaving East Thrace and Western Anatolia to Turkey. The Allies abandoned the Treaty of Sèvres to negotiate a new treaty at Lausanne with the Turkish National Movement; the Treaty of Lausanne recognized the independence of the Republic of Turkey and its sovereignty over Asia Minor and Eastern Thrace. Greek and Turkish governments agreed to engage in a population exchange; the geopolitical context of this conflict is linked to the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire, a direct consequence of World War I and involvement of the Ottomans in the Middle Eastern theatre. The Greeks received an order to land in Smyrna by the Triple Entente as part of the partition. During this war, the Ottoman government collapsed and the Ottoman Empire was divided amongst the victorious Entente powers with the signing of the Treaty of Sèvres on August 10, 1920. There were a number of secret agreements regarding the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I.
The Triple Entente had made contradictory promises about post-war arrangements concerning Greek hopes in Asia Minor. The western Allies British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, had promised Greece territorial gains at the expense of the Ottoman Empire if Greece entered the war on the Allied side; these included Eastern Thrace, the islands of Imbros and Tenedos, parts of western Anatolia around the city of Smyrna, which contained sizable ethnic Greek populations. The Italian and Anglo-French repudiation of the Agreement of St.-Jean-de-Maurienne signed on April 26, 1917, which settled the "Middle Eastern interest" of Italy, was overridden with the Greek occupation, as Smyrna was part of the territory promised to Italy. Before the occupation the Italian delegation to the Paris Peace Conference, 1919, angry about the possibility of the Greek occupation of Western Anatolia, left the conference and did not return to Paris until May 5; the absence of the Italian delegation from the Conference ended up facilitating Lloyd George's efforts to persuade France and the United States to support Greece and prevent Italian operations in Western Anatolia.
According to some historians, it was the Greek occupation of Smyrna that created the Turkish National movement. Arnold J. Toynbee argues: "The war between Turkey and Greece which burst out at this time was a defensive war for safeguarding of the Turkish homelands in Anatolia, it was a result of the Allied policy of imperialism operating in a foreign state, the military resources and powers of which were under-estimated. According to others, the landing of the Greek troops in Smyrna was part of Eleftherios Venizelos's plan, inspired by the Megali Idea, to liberate the large Greek populations in the Asia Minor. Prior to the Great Fire of Smyrna, Smyrna had a bigger Greek population than the Greek capital, Athens. Athens, before the Population exchange between Greece and Turkey, had a population of 473,000, while Smyrna, according to Ottoman sources, in 1910, had a Greek population exceeding 629,000. One of the reasons proposed by the Greek government for launching the Asia Minor expedition was that there was a sizeable Greek-speaking Orthodox Christian population inhabiting Anatolia that needed protection.
Greeks had lived in Asia Minor since antiquity, before the outbreak of World War I, up to 2.5 million Greeks lived in the Ottoman Empire. The suggestion that the Greeks constituted the majority of the population in the lands claimed by Greece has been contested by a number of historians. Cedric James Lowe and Michael L. Dockrill argued that Greek claims about Smyrna were at best debatable, since Greeks constituted a bare majority, more a large minority in the Smyrna Vilayet, "which lay in an overwhelmingly Turkish Anatolia." Precise demographics are further obscured by the Ottoman policy of dividing the population according to religion rather than descent, language, or self-identification. On the other hand, contemporaneous British and American statistics support the point that the Greek element was the most numerous in the region of Smyrna, counting 375,000, while Muslims were 325,000. Greek Prime Minister Venizelos stated to a British newspaper that "Greece is not making war against Islam, but against the anachronistic Ottoman Government, its corrupt and bloody administration, with a view
Battle of Dumlupınar
The Battle of Dumlupınar was the last battle in the Greco-Turkish War. The battle was fought from 26 to 30 August 1922 near Kütahya in Turkey. Following the attrition battle on the Sakarya River in August–September 1921, the Greek Army of Asia Minor under General Anastasios Papoulas retreated to a defensive line extending from the town of İzmit to the towns of Eskişehir and Kara Hisâr-ı Sahib; the Greek line formed a 700 km arc stretching in a north–south direction along difficult hilly ground with high hills, called tepes, rising out of broken terrain and was considered to be defensible. A single-track railway line ran from Kara Hisâr to Dumlupınar, a fortified valley town some 30 miles west of Kara Hisâr surrounded by the mountains Murat Dağı and Ahır Dağı, thence to Smyrna on the coast; this railway was the main supply route of the Greeks. The Greek headquarters at Smyrna was incapable of communicating with the front or exercising operational control. Following the unsuccessful outcome of the Battle of Sakarya, the Greek command structure underwent many changes.
Significant forces were withdrawn from the line and redeployed in Thrace for an offensive against Istanbul, which never materialised. The remaining Greek forces were under the overall command of Lieutenant General Georgios Hatzianestis, who had replaced General Papoulas in May 1922, was regarded as mentally unstable; the morale of the Greek troops was low, as many had been under arms for several years, there was no prospect for a quick resolution of the war. Political dissent and the fact that they were occupying unfriendly territories further depressed their morale. Despite pressure to attack building up at Ankara, Mustafa Kemal, appointed Commander-in-Chief of the TBMM government and utilized the breathing space to strengthen his forces and split the Allies through adroit diplomatic moves, ensuring that French and Italian sympathies lay with Turks rather than the Greeks; this diplomatically isolated the pro-Greek British. He decided to strike the Greeks in August 1922. Knowing that Turkish forces were only adequate to mount one major offensive, he strengthened the Turkish First Army under "Sakallı" Nureddin Pasha, deployed against the southern flank of the Greek salient jutting out to Kara Hisâr.
It was a risky gamble, because if the Greek Army counter-attacked on his weakened right flank and pivoted south, his forces would be cut off. The Greek forces were organized in the "Army of Asia Minor", under Lieutenant General Georgios Hatzianestis, with a total of 220,000 men in 12 infantry and 1 cavalry division; the Army HQ was located in Smyrna. The Army of Asia Minor comprised three Corps, under Major General Nikolaos Trikoupis, Major General Kimon Digenis and Major General Petros Soumilas, it included an independent Cavalry division and smaller regiment-sized Military Commands for interior protection and anti-guerrilla operations. The total Greek front spanned for 713 km; each Greek corps had 4 divisions. Ι Corps consisted of the 4th, 5th and 12th divisions. II Corps consisted of the 7th, 9th and 13th divisions. III Corps consisted of 10th, 11th and the "Independent" divisions; each Greek division had 2 -- 8 -- 42 artillery pieces. Although numerically strong, the Greeks were deficient on heavy artillery and cavalry.
The Turkish forces were organized in the Western Front, under Mustafa Kemal Pasha, with a total of 208,000 men in 18 infantry and 5 cavalry divisions. For the purposes of the offensive the Western Front HQ was located on Koca Tepe hill, some 15 km south of Kara Hisâr close to the battle lines; the Western Front consisted of the First Army under Mirliva Nureddin Pasha, based on Kocatepe hill, the Second Army under Mirliva Yakub Shevki Pasha based in Doğlat, the Kocaeli Group under Colonel Halid Bey and the V Cavalry Corps under Mirliva Fahreddin Pasha. For the purpose of the offensive, the Turkish command redistributed its forces, reinforcing the First Army; the First Army consisted of the II Corps and the IV Corps. The Second Army consisted of the III Corps, the VI Corps and the independent 1st and 61st infantry divisions; the Kocaeli Group consisted of the 18th infantry division plus additional infantry and cavalry units. The V Cavalry Corps consisted of the 2nd and 14th cavalry divisions; each Turkish infantry division consisted of one assault infantry battalion, 3 three-battalion infantry regiments and 12 artillery pieces, with an average total strength of 7,500 men.
The Turkish plan was to launch converging attacks with the 1st and 2nd Armies against the Greek positions around Kara Hisâr. The First Army would attack northwards, on the Greek positions southwest of Kara Hisâr, held by the Greek A' Corps; the V Cavalry Corps would assist the First Army by infiltrating through less guarded Greek positions in Kirka valley, coming behind the Greek front lines. The Second Army would attack westwards, on the Gree
Greek landing at Smyrna
The Greek landing at Smyrna was a military operation by Greek forces starting on May 15, 1919 which involved landing troops in the city of Smyrna and surrounding areas. The Allied powers sanctioned and oversaw the planning of the operation and assisted by directing their forces to take over some key locations and moving warships to the Smyrna harbor. During the landing, a shot was fired on the Greek 1/38 Evzone Regiment and significant violence ensued with Greek troops and Greek citizens of Smyrna participating; the event became important for creating the three-year-long Greek Occupation of Smyrna and was a major spark for the Greco-Turkish War. At the end of World War I and with the Armistice of Mudros that ended the Ottoman front of World War I, the allies began a series of peace talks focused on the Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire. During Paris Peace Conference, 1919 the Italians landed and took over Antalya and began showing signs of moving troops towards Smyrna; when the Italians left the meeting in protest over other issues, British Prime Minister David Lloyd George and Greek Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos pushed a concocted report in the peace negotiations alleging that the Christian populations were under direct threat to convince France and the U.
S. to support a Greek takeover of the Aidin Vilayet centered in Smyrna. Borders and terms of the Greek occupation were not decided but in early May 1919, the Allied powers supported Greek troops landing in Smyrna and moved a number of battleships into the area to prepare for the landing. While negotiations were still in progress, Venizelos informed Clemenceau of the deterioration of the situation in Aidin Vilayet, where the local governor, Nureddin Pasha, was ordering Muslim groups to commit excesses against the Greek population; the British intelligence was informed of the deterioration of law and order in the area and the Italian role in provoking this situation. In early May, Venizelos reported instances of Italian–Turkish cooperation to the Supreme Allied Council and requested that Allied vessels should be sent to Smyrna; this request, although accepted by the Council, was not carried out immediately. Under this context, the British Prime Minister and the Foreign Office were the main supporters of the Greek landing, with the purpose "to restore public order and forestall the massacres".
The Society for the Defense of Ottoman Rights in Izmir was organized to prepare for the arrival of Greek troops. Nureddin Pasha was appointed governor of the Aidin Vilayet and Aidin Area Command, supported activities of the Society for the Defense of Ottoman Rights in Izmir, but he resigned under pressure of the Allied Powers. "Kambur" Ahmed Izzet Bey was appointed as new governor on March 11, retired general Ali Nadir Pasha was appointed to the post of military commander on March 22, 1919. In the early weeks of May 1919, allied warships entered the area to prepare for the operation. British Admiral Somerset Gough-Calthorpe was the primary commander for the operation involving British, U. S. French and Greek forces. On May 11, 1919, Rear Admiral Mark L. Bristol, the Commander of US Naval Detachment in Turkish Waters), came to Izmir from Istanbul on a battleship; the British forces would occupy Karaburun and Uzunada, French forces would occupy Urla and Foça, Greek forces would occupy Yenikale fortress.
On the afternoon of May 11, 1919, the Commander of the 1st Infantry Division of the Hellenic Army, positioned in Kavala, Colonel Nikolaos Zafeiriou, received orders for the operation. The next morning, the landing force, consisting of 13,000 soldiers, as well as auxiliary personnel, 14 transport ships and escorted by 3 British and 4 Greek destroyers, headed to Smyrna. Zafeiriou's order to his soldiers, who learned about their destination only after the departure, was the following: Wherever we may go, we must know that we are going to liberate our brethren under alien rule; the enthusiasm filling our hearts is justified but any improper manifestation of this enthusiasm will be out of place. We must not forget that when we reach our destination we shall meet Turks and Europeans of other denominations. Everybody should be treated in the same way. In a little while they will become our brothers. On May 14, 1919, the Greek mission in Smyrna read a statement announcing that Greek troops would be arriving the next day in the city.
Smith reports that this news was "received with great emotion" by the Greek population of the city while thousands of Turkish residents gathered in the hill that night lighting fires and beating drums in protest. Translations of proclamations issued by the Turks during this occasion, showed that the intention was not purely pacific resistance; the same night, several hundred prisoners Turks, were released from a prison, with the complicity of the Ottoman authorities and Italian major in charge of the prison. Some of them armed purchased arms from a depot near the barracks; the Greek occupation of Smyrna started the following day, where thousands were gathered on the seafront, waving Greek flags on the docks where the Greek troops were expected to arrive. The Metropolitan of Smyrna, Chrysostomos of Smyrna blessed the first troops as they arrived at 08:00. A colonel, who had neither the will nor the prestige to force himself relentlessly on his men, was in charge of the operation and neither the appointed High Commissioner nor high-ranking military individuals were there for the landing resulting in miscommunication and a breakdown of discipline.
Most this resulted in the 1/38 Evzone Regiment landing north of where they were to take up their post. As a result, they had to march south passing a large part of the Greek c
Second Battle of İnönü
The Second Battle of İnönü was a battle fought between March 23 and April 1, 1921 near İnönü in present-day Eskişehir Province, Turkey during the Greco-Turkish War known as the western front of the larger Turkish War of Independence. It marked a turning point in the Greco-Turkish War and the Turkish War of Independence of which it was a part, as Greek forces had been victorious over irregular Turkish forces and suffered their first major defeat in Asia minor. After the First Battle of İnönü, where Miralay İsmet Bey fought against a Greek detachment out of occupied Bursa, the Greeks prepared for another attack aiming the towns of Eskisehir and Afyonkarahisar with their inter-connecting rail-lines. Ptolemaios Sarigiannis, staff officer in the Army of Asia Minor, made the offensive plan. Meanwhile, the London Conference was held between February 21 and March 11, 1921; the Turkish side was not able to extract the concessions it demanded and thus the hostilities resumed again in March. The Greeks were determined to make up for the setback they suffered in January and prepared a much larger force, outnumbering Mirliva İsmet's troops.
The Greeks had grouped their forces in Uşak, İzmit and Gebze. Against them, the Turks had grouped their forces at northwest of Eskişehir, east of Dumlupınar and Kocaeli. Participating in this battle were Turkish Western and Southern Fronts, Kocaeli Group and Kastamonu Command. Greek forces were from their Army of I and III Army Corps. Sarigiannis was in the Conference of London when the Greek attack began, with General Konstantinos Pallis, Chief of Staff of the Army of Asia Minor, to have made some changes in the initial offensive plan; the battle began with a Greek assault on the positions of İsmet's troops on March 23, 1921. It took them four days to reach İnönü due to delaying action of the Turkish front; the better-equipped Greeks pushed back the Turks and took the dominant hill called Metristepe on the 27th. A night counter-attack by the Turks failed to recapture it. Meanwhile, on March 24, Greek I Army Corps took Kara Hisâr-ı Sâhib after running over Dumlupınar positions. On 31 March İsmet attacked again after receiving reinforcements, recaptured Metristepe.
In a continuation battle in April, Refet Pasha retook the town of Kara Hisâr. The Greek III Army Corps retreated. While the battle marked a turning point in the war, following the battles of İnönü there was a stalemate, as the Turks had missed their chance to encircle and destroy the Greek army, which retreated in good order. There were casualties on both sides, neither side was in a position or state of mind to make more advances. Most this was the first time the newly formed Turkish standing army faced their enemy and proved themselves to be a serious and well led force, not just a collection of rebels; this was a much needed victory for Mustafa Kemal Pasha, as his opponents in Ankara were questioning his delay and failure in countering the rapid Greek advances in Anatolia. This battle forced the Allied capitals to take note of the Ankara Government and within the same month they ended up sending their representatives there for talks. France and Italy became supportive of Ankara government in short order.
The Greeks were determined to defeat the Turkish nationalists and end their resistance though and prepared for a bigger showdown at the battles of Kütahya–Eskişehir and Sakarya
The Koçgiri Rebellion or Koçkiri Rebellion was an Alevi Kurdish uprising, in the overwhelmingly militant Koçgiri region. While waged by the Kızılbaş Koçgiri tribe, it was suggested by members of an organisation known as the Society for the Rise of Kurdistan; the commander of the Central Army Nureddin Pasha sent a force of some 3,000 cavalrymen and irregulars including Topal Osman's battalions. Rebels were crushed by June 17, 1921. Before repressed the revel, Nurettin Pasha said: In Turkey, we cleaned up people who speak "zo", I'm going to clean up people who speak "lo" by their roots; the brutality of the repression made the Grand National Assembly decide to put Nureddin Pasha on trial. Although Nureddin Pasha was dismissed on November 3, 1921 and recalled to Ankara, Mustafa Kemal Pasha intervened and prevented a trial; the Repression of the Koçgiri Rebellion, 1920-1921