Franjo Tuđman written as Franjo Tudjman, was a Croatian politician and historian. Following the country's independence from Yugoslavia he became the first President of Croatia and served as president from 1990 until his death in 1999, he was the 9th and last President of the Presidency of SR Croatia from May to July 1990. Tuđman was born in Croatia. In his youth he fought during World War II as a member of the 10th Zagreb Corps of the Croatian Partisans. After the war he took a post in the Ministry of Defence attaining the rank of major general of the Yugoslav Army in 1960. After his military career he dedicated himself to the study of geopolitics. In 1963 he became a professor on the Zagreb Faculty of Political Sciences, he received a doctorate in history in 1965 and worked as a historian until coming into conflict with the regime. Tuđman participated in the Croatian Spring movement that called for reforms in the country and was imprisoned for his activities in 1972, he lived anonymously in the following years until the end of Communism, whereupon he began his political career by founding the Croatian Democratic Union in 1989.
HDZ won the first Croatian parliamentary elections in 1990 and Tuđman became the President of the Presidency of SR Croatia. As president, Tuđman introduced a new constitution and pressed for the creation of an independent Croatia. On 19 May 1991, an independence referendum was held, approved by 93 percent of voters. Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia on 25 June 1991. Areas with a Serb majority revolted, backed by the Yugoslav army, Tuđman led Croatia during its War of Independence. A ceasefire was signed in 1992, but the war had spread into Bosnia and Herzegovina, where Croats fought in an alliance with Bosniaks, their cooperation fell apart in late 1992 and Tuđman's government sided with Herzeg-Bosnia during the Croat-Bosniak War with the goal to reunite the Croatian people, a move that brought criticism from the international community. In March 1994, he signed the Washington Agreement with Bosnian President Alija Izetbegović that re-allied Croats and Bosniaks. In August 1995, he authorized a major offensive known as Operation Storm which ended the war in Croatia.
In the same year, he was one of the signatories of the Dayton Agreement that put an end to the Bosnian War. He was re-elected president in 1992 and 1997 and remained in power until his death in 1999. While supporters point out his role in achieving Croatian independence, critics have described his presidency as authoritarian. Surveys after Tuđman's death have shown a high favorability rating among the Croatian public. Franjo Tuđman was born on 14 May 1922 in Veliko Trgovišće, a village in the northern Croatian region of Hrvatsko Zagorje, at the time part of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes; the family moved to the house marked as his birthplace. His father Stjepan ran a local tavern and was a politically active member of the Croatian Peasant Party, he had been president of the HSS committee in Veliko Trgovišće for 16 years. Mato, Andraš and Juraj, brothers of Stjepan Tuđman, emigrated to the United States. Another brother, Valentin tried to emigrate but a travelling accident prevented him and kept him in Veliko Trgovišće, where he worked as an veterinarian.
Besides Franjo, Stjepan Tuđman had an elder daughter Danica Ana and Stjepan "Štefek". When Franjo Tuđman was 7 his mother Justina died. Tuđman's mother was a devout Catholic, unlike his stepmother, his father, like Stjepan Radić, had anticlerical attitudes and young Franjo adopted his views. As a child Franjo Tuđman served as an altar boy in the local parish. Tuđman attended elementary school in his native village from 15 September 1929 to 30 June 1933 and was an excellent student, he attended secondary school for eight years, starting in the autumn 1935. The reasons for the interruption are not clear, but it is assumed that the primary cause was an economic crisis in that period. According to some sources the local parish helped young Franjo to continue his education and his teacher proposed him to be educated to become a priest; when he was 15 his father brought him to Zagreb, where he met Vladko Maček, the president of the Croatian Peasant Party. At first young Franjo liked the HSS, but he turned towards communism.
On 5 November 1940 he was arrested during student demonstrations celebrating the anniversary of the Soviet October revolution. On 10 April 1941, when Slavko Kvaternik proclaimed the Independent State of Croatia Tuđman left school and started publishing secret newspapers with his friend Vlado Stopar, he was recruited into the Yugoslav partisans at the beginning of 1942 by Marko Belinić. His father joined the partisans and became a founder of ZAVNOH. According to Tuđman, his father was arrested by the Ustaše, one of his brothers was taken to a concentration camp, they both managed to survive, unlike the youngest brother Stjepan, killed by the Gestapo fighting for the Partisans in 1943. Tuđman was traveling between Zagreb and Zagorje using false documents which identified him as a member of the Croatian Home Guard. There he was helping to activate a partisan division in Zagorje. On 11 May 1942, while carrying Belinić's letter, he was arrested by the Ustaše, but managed to escape from the police station.
Rapala is a genus of butterflies in the tribe Deudorigini of the subfamily Theclinae of the family Lycaenidae. They are found throughout South Asia and Southeast Asia, with a few species extending to Australia and into the eastern Palaearctic region. Males of Rapala are differentiated from other genera in the Deudorigini by their genitalia, with the conjoined valvae tapering evenly to rounded apices; the male secondary sexual characters differ. In every species there is a brand above the origin of vein seven and lying wholly within space seven, clothed with small scent scales, nearly always there is an associated erectile hair tuft on the forewing dorsum beneath. All species exhibit sexual dimorphism in the colour of the upperside. Rapala arata Rapala cassidyi Rapala christopheri Rapala diopites Rapala iarbus Rapala lankana Rapala melampus Rapala manea Rapala melida Rapala nemorensis Oberthür, 1914 Rapala repercussa Leech, 1890 Rapala rhoecus Rapala schistacea Rapala scintilla Rapala selira Rapala sphinx Rapala suffusa Rapala tomokoae H. Hayashi, Schrőder & Treadaway, Rapala varuna Images representing Rapala at Consortium for the Barcode of Life "Rapala Moore, " at Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms
Erebiola butleri, or Butler's ringlet, is an elusive New Zealand endemic butterfly, discovered in 1879 by John D Enys at the alpine pass at the head of the Rakaia River. It is the only member of the genus Erebiola. Erebiola is derived from Erebus, the ancient Greek world of darkness between Earth and Hades, while the specific name, was after Arthur Gardiner Butler of the British Museum who played a major role in early descriptions of New Zealand butterflies, its Māori name is pepe pouri, which means dark moth, shares the name with the black mountain ringlet and the forest ringlet butterfly. Butler's ringlet has a wingspan of 35–43 mm, with a 40 mm average for males and a 37 mm average for females. Both males and females are smoky brown, though males tend towards the richer browns while the females tend towards the paler browns; the underside of the hindwing has wedge-shaped silvery-white marks. Both the underside and the topside of the wings have eyespots at the distal-most ends, surrounded by reddish-brown shading.
There is variation between individuals in the number of eyespots, the extent of the reddish-brown colouring around the eyespots, the silvery-white markings on the undersides of the hindwings. The egg is ivory with vertical ribbing; the larvae is similar coloured from head to tail, being yellow brown with dark and light lateral striping. A grown larvae is 20 mm long; the pupa is grey and cream with fine black spotting along the abdomen, changing to a brown on the rest of the body. The style of pupation is unknown; the egg is laid singularly on hatches after 14 days. The larvae grows from 3 mm before pupating. Pupation lasts about 21 days, it is unknown. Butler's ringlet is confined to the subalpine zone in the South Island, it has been identified at only a few sites along the main divide of the Southern Alps. It favours subalpine terraces at altitudes of 900 to 1300 m in areas of snow-tussock with Hebe and Dracophyllum shrubs, its preferred locations are damp boggy, or next to mountain lakes. It is difficult to find in areas where it has been seen, so little is known about its actual range.
Museum specimen records identified it as active from 27 December to 11 March. It is known to be able to cover great distances. Butler's ringlet appears similar to some species of the genus Erebia, was included in that genus until 1967, when Erebia butleri was reclassified as Erebiola butleri due to structural differences found between butleri and other members of the genus Erebia. Butler's ringlet is visually similar to Percnodaimon pluto; the two species may be differentiated by. Butler's ringlet prefers to fly over vegetation, settling among snow-tussock, subalpine shrubs and herbaceous flowers, whereas the black mountain ringlet tends to congregate over rock and scree