1880 United Kingdom general election
The 1880 United Kingdom general election was a general election in the United Kingdom held from 31 March to 27 April 1880. Intense rhetoric of the election was provided by the Midlothian campaign of the Liberals, led by the fierce oratory of Liberal leader William Ewart Gladstone. Gladstone vehemently attacked the foreign policy of the government of Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield, as utterly immoral; the Liberals secured one of their largest-ever majorities in the election, leaving the Conservatives a distant second. As a result of the campaign, the Liberal leaders, Lord Hartington and Lord Granville, withdrew in favour of Gladstone, who thus became Prime Minister a second time; the Conservative government was doomed by the poor condition of the British economy and the vulnerability of its foreign policy to moralistic attacks by the Liberals. Gladstone, appealing to moralistic evangelicals, led the attack on the foreign policy of Disraeli as immoral. Historian Paul Smith paraphrases the rhetorical tone which focused on attacking "Beaconsfieldism" as a:Sinister system of policy, which not involved the country in immoral and expensive external adventures, inimical to peace and to the rights of small peoples, but aimed at nothing less than the subversion of parliamentary government in favour of some simulacrum of the oriental despotism its creator was alleged to admire.
Smith notes that there was indeed some substance to the allegations, but: "Most of this was partisan extravaganza, worthy of its target's own excursions against the Whigs." Disraeli himself was now the Earl of Beaconsfield in the House of Lords, custom did not allow peers to campaign. His party was unable to deal with the rhetorical onslaught. Although he had improved the organisation of the Conservative Party, Disraeli was based in the rural gentry, had little contact with or understanding of the urban middle class, dominating his party. Besides issues of foreign policy more important thing Conservatives were unable to defend their economic record on the home front; the 1870s coincided with a long term global depression caused by the collapse of the worldwide railway boom of the 1870s, so profitable to Britain. The stress was growing by the late 1870s; the free trade system supported by both parties made Britain defenceless against the flood of cheap wheat from North America, exacerbated by the worst harvest of the century in Britain in 1879.
The party in power got the blame, Liberals emphasised the growing budget deficit as a measure of bad stewardship. In the election itself, Disraeli's party lost up and down the line in Scotland and Ireland, in the urban boroughs, his Conservative strength fell from 351 to 238, while the Liberals jumped from 250 to 353. Disraeli resigned on 21 April 1880. Spartacus: Political Parties and Election Results
Lochbuie is a settlement on the island of Mull in Scotland about 22 kilometres west of Craignure. Once known as the "Garden of Mull" the fertile land around the main village of seventeen houses is surrounded by hills with the narrow valley to the east containing both Loch Uisg and the only road to the estate; the settlement lies at the head of Loch Buie, a sea loch which contains the tidal islands of Eilean Mòr and Eilean Uamh Ghuaidhre. Frank Lockwood's Island lies in the Firth of Lorne, just offshore from the Laggan peninsula to the south; this island is named after Frank Lockwood, Solicitor General for England and Wales from 1894 to 1895 and the brother-in-law of the 21st MacLean of Lochbuie. The highest hills in the area are Ben Buie whose summit is 747 metres above sea level to the north, the Druim Fada range reaching 405 metres to the south and Craig Ben, at 698 metres to the east, overlooking Loch Spelve. A track allows walking access to Carsaig 10 kilometres to the west. There is a fine stone circle at Lochbuie, the only one on Mull, the remains of a pre-historic tomb.
Both these sites are scheduled monuments, as is Moy Castle a fourteenth-century keep, subsequently altered, is now an uninhabited 3-storey tower. It is near the imposing 18th century Lochbuie House and both buildings were once the seat of Clan Maclaine of Lochbuie. There is the medieval chapel of Caibeal Mheamhair, which may have been dedicated to St. Oran, rebuilt in the 19th century as a mausoleum for the MacLaine family. A luxurious silver brooch dating to c. 1500 was found on the estate and has been in the British Museum's collection since 1855. Lochbuie is in the Diocese of Argyll and the Isles and there is a small Episcopal church built in 1876 consecrated to the mythical St Kilda. Between 1752 and the construction of the existing mansion house the MacLaine lived in a smaller house on the estate. There is an inscription above a doorway in Lochbuie House farm square that states: "After leaving Moy Castle the Lochbuie family resided in this house from 1752 to 1789 and it was in this house that Dr. Johnson and Mr. Boswell were entertained in 1773 by John MacLaine XVII chief of Lochbuie."Samuel Johnson wrote: We came without any difficulty, at evening, to Lochbuy, where we found a true Highland Laird and haughty, tenacious of his dignity.
Lochbuy has, like the other insular Chieftains, quitted the castle that sheltered his ancestors, lives near it, in a mansion not spacious or splendid. I have seen no houses in the Islands much to be envied for convenience or magnificence, yet they bare testimony to the progress of arts and civility, as they shew that rapine and surprise are no longer dreaded, are much more commodious than the ancient fortresses; the area's most noted modern residents have been George Sassoon and Siegfried's wife, the former Hester Gatty. The 8,900 hectares Lochbuie Estate run by the Corbett family since 1921, is a sporting estate and a cattle farm. Self-catering cottages are available and both sea-fishing. Scenes for the 1945 film I Know Where I'm Going! Directed by Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger were shot at Lochbuie, a group of 40 fans visited to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the film's release in 2005. Lochbuie Estate website Estate map Photos taken during the filming of I Know Where I'm Going! at Lochbuie
Vanity Fair (UK magazine)
The second Vanity Fair was a British weekly magazine, published from 1868 to 1914. Subtitled "A Weekly Show of Political and Literary Wares", it was founded by Thomas Gibson Bowles, who aimed to expose the contemporary vanities of Victorian society; the first issue appeared in London on 7 November 1868. It offered its readership articles on fashion, current events, the theatre, social events and the latest scandals, together with serial fiction, word games and other trivia. Bowles wrote much of the magazine himself under various pseudonyms, such as "Jehu Junior", but contributors included Lewis Carroll, Arthur Hervey, Willie Wilde, P. G. Wodehouse, Jessie Pope and Bertram Fletcher Robinson. Thomas Allinson bought the magazine in 1911 from Frank Harris, by which time it was failing financially, he failed to revive it and the final issue of Vanity Fair appeared on 5 February 1914, after which it was merged into Hearth and Home. A full-page, colour lithograph of a contemporary celebrity or dignitary appeared in most issues, it is for these caricatures that Vanity Fair is best known and today.
Subjects included artists, royalty, scientists, actors, religious personalities, business people and scholars. More than two thousand of these images appeared, they are considered the chief cultural legacy of the magazine, forming a pictorial record of the period, they were produced by an international group of artists, including Max Beerbohm, Sir Leslie Ward, the Italians Carlo Pellegrini, Melchiorre Delfico, Liborio Prosperi, the Florentine artist and critic Adriano Cecioni, the French artist James Tissot, the American Thomas Nast. List of Vanity Fair artists List of Vanity Fair caricatures The Rowers of Vanity Fair Wikibook gives a history of the magazine with focus on sportsmen Vanity fair cartoons, UK: National Portrait Gallery
King's Lynn (UK Parliament constituency)
King's Lynn was a constituency in Norfolk represented continually in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1298 until it was abolished for the February 1974 general election. The Parliamentary Borough of King's Lynn, known as Lynn or Bishop's Lynn prior to 1537, returned two Members of Parliament until 1885, when its representation was reduced to one member by the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, it was abolished as a Borough under the Representation of the People Act 1918 and was reconstituted as a Division of the Parliamentary County of Norfolk, absorbing the bulk of the abolished North Western Division. It was abolished for the February 1974 general election, being replaced by the re-established constituency of North West Norfolk. Sir Robert Walpole, the first Prime Minister, was an MP for the constituency for the entirety of his parliamentary career, from 1702 to 1742. 1918-1950: The Municipal Borough of King's Lynn, the Urban Districts of New Hunstanton and Walsoken, the Rural Districts of Docking, Freebridge Lynn, King's Lynn, Marshland, in the Rural District of Downham the civil parishes of Wiggenhall St Germans, Wiggenhall St Mary the Virgin, Wiggenhall St Mary Magdalen, Wiggenhall St Peter.1950-1974: The Municipal Borough of King's Lynn, the Urban District of New Hunstanton, the Rural Districts of Docking, Freebridge Lynn, Marshland.
Minor changes to the boundary with South West Norfolk to align with boundaries of local authorities, rationalised. Marginal changes to county boundaries with Isle of Ely and Parts of Holland. Canning resigned after being appointed the United Kingdom's ambassador to Turkey, causing a by-election. Cavendish-Scott-Bentinck's death caused a by-election. Jocelyn's death caused a by-election. Stanley was appointed Secretary of State for the Colonies. Stanley was appointed President of the Board of Control for the Affairs of India, requiring a by-election. Stanley was appointed Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. Stanley succeed to the peerage, causing a by-election. Representation reduced to one member Bourke's resignation on appointment as Governor of Madras caused a by-election. General Election 1914/15 Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place from 1914 and by the end of this year, the following candidates had been selected.
The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place from 1939 and by the end of this year, the following candidates had been selected. British parliamentary election results 1918–1949. Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X; the Constitutional Year Book for 1913 J E Neale, The Elizabethan House of Commons Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "K"
Public speaking is the process or act of performing a speech to a live audience. Public speaking is understood as formal, face-to-face speaking of a single person to a group of listeners. Traditionally, public speaking is considered to be apart of the art of persuasion; the act can accomplish particular purposes including to inform, to persuade, to entertain. Additionally, differing methods and rules can be utilized according to the speaking situation. Public speaking developed in Rome and Latin America. Prominent thinkers in these countries influenced the development and evolutionary history of public speaking; this art form has been impacted by the contributions of women. Technology continues to transform the art of public speaking through new available technology such as videoconferencing, multimedia presentations, other nontraditional forms. Public speaking can serve the purpose of transmitting information, telling a story, motivating people to act or some combination of those; this type of speech is deliberately structured with three general purposes: to inform, to persuade and to entertain.
Knowing when public speaking is most effective and how it is done properly is a key part in understanding the importance of it. Public speaking for business and commercial events is done by professionals; these speakers can be contracted independently, through representation by a speakers bureau, or by other means. Public speaking plays a large role in the professional world. Although there is evidence of public speech training in ancient Egypt, the first known piece on oratory, written over 2,000 years ago, came from ancient Greece; this work elaborated on principles drawn from the practices and experiences of ancient Greek orators. Aristotle was one of the first recorded teachers of oratory to use definitive models, his emphasis on oratory led to oration becoming an essential part of a liberal arts education during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The classical antiquity works written by the ancient Greeks capture the ways they taught and developed the art of public speaking thousands of years ago.
In classical Greece and Rome, rhetoric was the main component of composition and speech delivery, both of which were critical skills for citizens to use in public and private life. In ancient Greece, citizens spoke on their own behalf rather than having professionals, like modern lawyers, speak for them. Any citizen who wished to succeed in court, in politics or in social life had to learn techniques of public speaking. Rhetorical tools were first taught by a group of rhetoric teachers called Sophists who are notable for teaching paying students how to speak using the methods they developed. Separately from the Sophists, Socrates and Aristotle all developed their own theories of public speaking and taught these principles to students who wanted to learn skills in rhetoric. Plato and Aristotle taught these principles in schools that they founded, The Academy and The Lyceum, respectively. Although Greece lost political sovereignty, the Greek culture of training in public speaking was adopted identically by the Romans.
In the political rise of the Roman Republic, Roman orators copied and modified the ancient Greek techniques of public speaking. Instruction in rhetoric developed into a full curriculum, including instruction in grammar, preliminary exercises, preparation of public speeches in both forensic and deliberative genres; the Latin style of rhetoric was influenced by Cicero and involved a strong emphasis on a broad education in all areas of humanistic study in the liberal arts, including philosophy. Other areas of study included the use of wit and humor, the appeal to the listener's emotions, the use of digressions. Oratory in the Roman empire, though less central to political life than in the days of the Republic, remained significant in law and became a big form of entertainment. Famous orators became like celebrities in ancient Rome—very wealthy and prominent members of society; the Latin style was the primary form of oration until the beginning of the 20th century. After World War II, the Latin style of oration began to grow out of style as the trend of ornate speaking became seen as impractical.
This cultural change had to do with the rise of the scientific method and the emphasis on a "plain" style of speaking and writing. Formal oratory is much less ornate today than it was in the Classical Era. Despite the shift in style, the best-known examples of strong public speaking are still studied years after their delivery. Among these examples are: Pericles' Funeral Oration in 427 BCE addressing those who died during the Peloponnesian War Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address in 1863 Sojourner Truth's identification of racial issues in "Ain't I a Woman? Mahatma Gandhi's message of nonviolent resistance in India, which in turn inspired Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech at the Washington Monument in 1963. Throughout the 18th and 19th century, women were banned to speak publicly in the courtroom, the senate floor, the pulpit, it was improper for women to be heard in a public setting. An exception to this custom was the Quaker religion that allowed women to public speak in meetings of the church.
Frances Wright was known as one of the first female public speakers of the united states. She advocated for equal education for women and men through the press. African American Maria Stewart said to be the second female speaker of the United States, lectured in Boston in front of both men and women just 4 years after Wri
Lord Charles Beresford
Charles William de la Poer Beresford, 1st Baron Beresford, styled Lord Charles Beresford between 1859 and 1916, was a British admiral and Member of Parliament. Beresford was the second son of John Beresford, 4th Marquess of Waterford, thus despite his courtesy title as the younger son of a Marquess, he was still eligible to enter the House of Commons, he combined the two careers of the navy and a member of parliament, making a reputation as a hero in battle and champion of the navy in the House of Commons. He was a well-known and popular figure who courted publicity known to the British public as "Charlie B", he was considered by many to be a personification of John Bull, indeed was accompanied by his trademark, a bulldog. His career was marked by a longstanding dispute with Admiral of the Fleet Sir John Fisher, over reforms championed by Fisher introducing new technology and sweeping away traditional practices. Fisher senior to Beresford and more successful, became a barrier to Beresford's rise to the highest office in the navy.
Beresford rose to occupy the most senior sea commands, the Mediterranean and Channel fleets, but failed in his ambition to become First Sea Lord. Beresford was born in Curraghmore, the second of five brothers, his older brother John joined the Life Guards, succeeding to the family estate and titles in 1866 on the death of their father. William joined the 9th Lancers, was awarded the VC in the Anglo-Zulu War and became military secretary to several viceroys of India. Marcus joined the 7th Hussars, became an equerry to King George V and in charge of the King's racehorses; the youngest brother, became a rancher in Canada. His family traced their ancestry to Englishmen who had invaded Ireland in the reign of James I and stayed to rule, their estate covered 100,000 acres at Curraghmore near Waterford in South East Ireland, had stables for 100 horses and employed 600 people. The family enjoyed hunting, to the extent that his uncle was killed in a riding accident, his brother was crippled in another, he himself managed ten broken bones at various times.
Beresford had a reputation for kindness to his men, saying'Any smart action performed by an officer or man should be appreciated publicly by signal... Everyone is grateful for appreciation'. At 46 and as captain, he took part in inter-ship rowing competitions, he married Ellen Jeromina Gardner, daughter of Richard Gardner and Lucy Mandesloh, on 25 June 1878 at London, England. They had two daughters, the Hon. Eileen Teresa Lucy de la Poer Beresford and the Hon. Kathleen Mary de la Poer Beresford. Beresford had been captivated by the sight of the Channel Fleet at age twelve, joined the Royal Navy in 1859 aged 13, following preparatory education at Stubbington House School, he started his training as a cadet at the naval training academy HMS Britannia completing his passing-out examination in March 1861. He was appointed a midshipman on the flagship of the Mediterranean fleet, the steam three-decker HMS Marlborough. Beresford described Marlborough as "the smartest and happiest ship that floated".
Beresford left Marlborough in early 1863, was appointed to HMS Defence in the summer of 1863. Defence was one of four new ironclads serving in the Channel Squadron. Beresford got into debt, his father consulted Admiral Eden, who arranged for Beresford's transfer in mid-1864 to the steam-corvette HMS Clio, where Beresford would be the senior midshipman, which it was hoped would develop his sense of responsibility. In 1865 Clio visited the Kingdom of Hawaii. Beresford and Sumner became friends, continued their friendship through correspondence. In 1865, Beresford was transferred to the steam-corvette HMS Tribune, commanded by Lord Gilford and was one of the smartest ships in the navy at the time. Beresford was promoted to acting sub-lieutenant in January 1866. A month Beresford was transferred to the steam-frigate HMS Sutlej, the flagship of the Pacific Squadron. Beresford passed his seamanship examination to qualify for lieutenant on board Sutlej, which he left in 1866. Beresford did a gunnery course on a hulk in Portsmouth harbour.
Beresford broke a bone in his foot whilst dismounting a gun on Excellent, an injury that caused him pain for the rest of his life. Beresford joined HMS Research still as a sub-lieutenant in 1867, in the summer of 1868 was one of the sub-lieutenants on the royal yacht Victoria and Albert. Beresford joined the steam-frigate HMS Galatea, commanded by Queen Victoria's son the Duke of Edinburgh, toured the world, witnessed executions in Japan and got tattooed. On a visit to the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1869, Beresford met Nancy Sumner again, he proposed to her, but she refused due to their social and racial differences. He entered Parliament as a Conservative in 1874, representing County Waterford and retained his seat until 1880; some difficulties arose with the Lords of the Admiralty, who objected to a junior officer debating the navy publicly in the House of Commons. Beresford's parliamentary career was saved by the intervention of the Prime Minister, Benjamin Disraeli, who feared the loss of the seat to an opposition party, should Beresford be forced to resign.
Whilst an MP he continued to serve in the navy, becoming a commander in 1875. In 1874, Beresford was one of thirty-two aides chosen to accompany the Prince of Wales on
Sir Alfred Pease, 2nd Baronet
Sir Alfred Edward Pease, 2nd Baronet, was a British Liberal Party politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1885 and 1902 and who became a pioneer settler of British East Africa, now Kenya. Alfred Pease was a member of the family of Quaker industrialists, known in Britain as the Darlington Peases, he was the elder son of 1st Bt and his wife Mary Fox. His younger brother became Joseph Albert Pease, 1st Baron Gainford. Alfred was educated at Grove House School, at Trinity College, Cambridge, he began his career in the family bank, J. & J. W. Pease, of which he became both a director and partner, he held similar positions in Pease & Partners, whose subsidiary interests embraced collieries, Ironstone mines, limestone quarries, as well as iron manufacturing and construction. In the course of his years, he served as managing director, Vice-Chairman and chairman of the Owners of the Middlesbrough Estate. From 1885 until 1892 he was one of the two Liberal Members of Parliament returned for York, from 1897 until 1902 the Cleveland division of Yorkshire.
During his years in parliament, he served as a J. P. and Alderman for the North Riding of Yorkshire, a Deputy Lieutenant for Cleveland division, as well as being appointed to the Lieutenancy for the City of London He was a founder and President of the Cleveland Bay Horse Society. Pease had indicated that he was in declining health before the general election of 1900 but was pressed by his local Liberal Association to contest that election, he did so on condition that if his condition made it impossible for him to sit for the whole Parliament he would be allowed to resign, by September 1902 he referred to ill-health and asked to step down. He did so with the appointment as Steward of the Manor of Northstead on 21 October 1902. With the failure of the family business interests in 1902, he thus brought his political career to a close and amidst the wreckage sought out new opportunity, to take him to South Africa. Between 1903 and 1905, Pease served as a Resident Magistrate at Barberton in what was the Transvaal Colony, but now Mpumalanga, in South Africa, before moving to the opposite end of the continent, to explore the Sudan and the northern Sahara.
During this time he continued to write of his experiences. "The Badger". "Horse Breeding for Farmers". and "Travels and Sport in Africa". "Rachel Gurney of the Grove". "The Diaries of Edward Pease". "The Book of the Lion", "Memoir of Edmund Loder". In 1906, he leased more than 6,000 acres of prairie land in the Athi Plains region of British East Africa, southwest of present-day Nairobi. There he founded an ostrich-ranch and hunted the game, at that time plentiful on Kenya's high plateaus; the Pease property, Kitanga near Machakos was situated close to the Uganda Railway, this enabled Sir Alfred to host a number of the famous travellers who hunted during the great age of safaris. As a result, he is mentioned in many of the personal accounts of the period. Theodore Roosevelt, who enjoyed Pease's hospitality in 1909, with his son Kermit, at the start of his world-famous expedition to Africa, described Sir Alfred as'a singularly good rider and one of the best game shots I have seen.'In 1909 he became one of the founder members of the Shikar Club formed to promote the activity of hunting and shooting Big Game animals.
Specimens from Sir Alfred's animal collections can be seen at the Dorman Museum. Pease died aged 81 in 1939, the eldest son, Edward Pease, succeeded to the baronetcy. Pease married three times, his first marriage in 1880, was to his first cousin, Helen Ann Fowler, third child of Sir Robert Fowler, 1st Baronet. The marriage produced a daughter, his second marriage, in 1912, was childless. His last marriage, in 1922, was to Emily Elizabeth Smith and produced two more sons and two more daughters; the second son, Captain Christopher York Pease was killed in the last year of World War I, on 9 May 1918, was buried in the Mazingarbe Communal Cemetery Extension. A cousin from what would become the Daryngton branch, Lt. Ronald Herbert Pike Pease of the Coldstream Guards, had been killed in 1916. Christopher Pease was serving in the Yorkshire Hussars. Captain Pease was 31 when he died. Katherine Routledge was a first cousin of Pease, she visited him in Kenya in 1904, she and her husband led the Mana expedition to Easter Island from 1913–1915, during time which she carried out excavations of the island's monuments, recorded oral history of the island's past.
List of political families in the United Kingdom Alfred E. Pease collection, 1918–1964 at library.mcmaster.ca Commonwealth War Commission entry for son Christopher Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Sir Alfred Pease Works by Sir Alfred Pease, 2nd Baronet at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Sir Alfred Pease, 2nd Baronet at Internet Archive