Charles Goodyear was an American self-taught chemist and manufacturing engineer who developed vulcanized rubber, for which he received patent number 3633 from the United States Patent Office on June 15, 1844. Goodyear is credited with inventing the chemical process to create and manufacture pliable, moldable rubber. Goodyear's discovery of the vulcanization process followed five years of searching for a more stable rubber and stumbling upon the effectiveness of heating after Thomas Hancock, his discovery initiated decades of successful rubber manufacturing in the Lower Naugatuck Valley in Connecticut, as rubber was adopted to multiple applications, including footwear and tires. The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company is named after him. Charles Goodyear was born in New Haven, the son of Amasa Goodyear, the oldest of six children, his father was a descendant of Stephen Goodyear of London, England, one of the founders of the colony of New Haven in 1638. In 1823, Charles went to Philadelphia to learn the hardware business.
He worked industriously until he was twenty-five years old, returning to Connecticut, entered into partnership in his father’s business in Naugatuck, CT where they manufactured not only ivory and metal buttons, but a variety of agricultural supplements. On August 3, 1824 he married Clarissa Beecher. Two years the family moved to Philadelphia, there Charles Goodyear opened a hardware store; this is. His specialties were the valuable agricultural implements that his firm had been manufacturing, after the first distrust of domestically made goods had worn away—for all agricultural implements were imported from England at that time—he found himself heading a successful business; this continued to increase. Between 1829 and 1830 he broke down in health. At the same time, the failure of a number of business endeavors embarrassed his firm, they struggled on, for some time, but were obliged to fail. Between the years 1831 and 1832, Goodyear heard about gum elastic and examined every article that appeared in the newspapers relative to this new material.
The Roxbury Rubber Company, of Boston, had been for some time experimenting with the gum, believed it had found means for manufacturing goods from it. It was sending its goods all over the country, it was some of Roxbury's goods. Soon after this, Goodyear visited New York, his attention went to life preservers, it struck him that the tube used for inflation was not effective nor well-made. Therefore, upon returning to Philadelphia, he made tubes and brought them back to New York and showed them to the manager of the Roxbury Rubber Company; the manager was pleased with the ingenuity. He confessed to Goodyear that the business was on the verge of ruin, that his products had to be tested for a year before it could be determined if they were perfect or not. To their surprise, thousands of US$ worth of goods that they had determined to be of good quality were being returned, the gum having rotted, making them useless. Goodyear at once made up his mind to experiment on this gum and see if he could overcome the problems with these rubber products.
However, when he returned to Philadelphia, a creditor had him imprisoned. While there, he tried his first experiments with India rubber; the gum was inexpensive and by heating it and working it in his hands, he managed to incorporate in it a certain amount of magnesia which produced a beautiful white compound and appeared to take away the stickiness He thought he had discovered the secret, through the kindness of friends was able to improve his invention in New Haven. The first thing that he made was shoes, he used his own house for grinding and vulcanizing, with the help of his wife and children, his compound at this time consisted of India rubber and magnesia, the whole dissolved in turpentine and spread upon the flannel cloth which served as the lining for the shoes. It was not long, before he discovered that the gum treated this way, became sticky, his creditors discouraged, decided that he would not be allowed to go further in his research. Goodyear, had no mind to stop here in his experiments.
Selling his furniture and placing his family in a quiet boarding place, he went to New York and in an attic, helped by a friendly druggist, continued his experiments. His next step was to compound the rubber with magnesia and boil it in quicklime and water; this appeared to solve the problem. At once it was noticed abroad that he had treated India rubber to lose its stickiness, he received international acclamation, he seemed on the high road to success, until one day he noticed that a drop of weak acid, falling on the cloth, neutralized the alkali and caused the rubber to become soft again. This proved to him, he therefore continued experimenting, after preparing his mixtures in his attic in New York, would walk three miles to a mill in Greenwich Village to try various experiments. In the line of these, he discovered that rubber dipped in nitric acid formed a surface cure, he made many products with this acid cure which were held in high regard, he received a letter of commendation from Andrew Jackson.
Exposure to harsh chemicals, such as nitric acid and lead oxide, adversely affected his health, once nearly suffocated him by gas generated in his laboratory. Goodyear survived. To
Historic house museum
A historic house museum is a house, transformed into a museum. Historic furnishings may be displayed in a way that reflects their original placement and usage in a home. Historic house museums are held to a variety of standards, including those of the International Council of Museums; the International Council of Museums defines a museum as: "A museum as a non profit-making, permanent institution in the service of society and of its development, open to the public, which acquires, researches and exhibits, for purpose of study and enjoyment, the tangible and intangible evidence of people and their environment." Houses are transformed into museums for a number of different reasons. For example, the homes of famous writers are turned into writer's home museums to support literary tourism. Known as a ‘memory museum’, a term used to suggest that historic house museum contains a collection of the traces of memory of the people who once lived there, it is made up of the inhabitants’ belongings and objects – this approach is concerned with authenticity.
Some museums are organised around the social role the house had. Other historic house museums may be or reconstructed in order to tell the story of a particular area, social-class or historical period; the ‘narrative’ of the people who lived there guides this approach, dictates the manner in which it is completed. In each kind of museum visitors learn about the previous inhabitants through an explanation and exploration of Social History; the idea of a historic house museum derives from a branch of history called Social History, based on people and their way of living. It became popular in the mid-twentieth century among scholars who were interested in the history of people, as opposed to political and economical issues. Social history remains an influential branch of history. Philip J. Ethington is a Professor of history and political science, further adds to social history and its relationship to locations by saying – "All human action takes and makes place; the past is the set of places made by human action.
History is a map of these places." Following this historical movement, the concept of ‘Open Air Museums’ became prominent. These particular types of museums had interpreters in costume re-enact the lives of communities in earlier eras, which would be performed to modern audiences, they occupied large wooden architecture buildings or outdoor sites and landscapes, that were true to the era adding to authenticity. Collective memory is sometimes used in the resurrection of historic house museums; the notion of Collective Memory originated from philosopher and sociologist Maurice Halbwachs, in ‘La memoire collective’. This extended thesis examines the role of people and place, how collective memory is not only associated with the individual but is a shared experience, it focused on the way individual memory is influenced by social structures, as a way of continuing socialisation by producing memory as collective experience. "Each aspect, each detail, of this place has a meaning intelligent only to members of the group, for each portion of its space corresponds to various and different aspects of the structure and life of their society, at least of what is stable in it."An example of a site that utilizes collective memory is the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park in Japan.
It was restored and is based on the dialectics of memory, however it has the inclusion of joyous festivals to mask the turmoil. The ‘Hiroshima Traces’ text takes a look the importance of collective memory and how it is embedded in culture and place. Thus, collective memory does not only reside in a house or building, but it resonates in outdoor space – when a monumental event has occurred, such as war. "The taming of memory that can be observed in the city’s redevelopment projects reveals local mediations and manifestations of transnational as well as national structural forces."Problematic creation of collective memory occurs within historic house museums when the narrative of non-family members is dismissed, ignored, or rejected. Within the Southern United States, Plantation Museums constitute a significant portion of the museum community and contribute to the racialized collective memory of the United States; because museums are responsible for “the building of identity, cultural memory and community,” neglecting to include the narrative of ALL people who lived there is dangerous.
While some Plantation museum narratives have changed following an outcry from the public and the academy, “plantation museums reflect and contribute to racialized ways of understanding and organizing the world,” by eliminating and limiting the narrative of the enslaved inhabitants. A degree of authenticity is to be considered in the restoration and creation of a historic house museum; the space must be authentic in terms of replicating and representing the way it once stood in its original form and appear to be untouched and left in time. There are three steps when declaring if a space is authentic: Proof of identity must be presented and certified by a credible individual The attributes of the object or person must be compared to the existing knowledge about it Documentation and credentials must be used to support it and thus declare if it is authentic. There are a number of Organizations around the world that dedicate themselves to the preservation, resurrection or promotion of historic house museums.
They include: Historic Houses Trust of New South Wales Historic Houses Association The Historic House Trust
Stan Hywet Hall and Gardens
Stan Hywet Hall & Gardens is a notable country estate, with gardens, located at 714 North Portage Path in Akron, Ohio. It is one of the largest homes in the United States. A National Historic Landmark, it is nationally significant as the home of F. A. Seiberling, co-founder of the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company; the estate was built between 1912 and 1915 for F. A. Seiberling, co-founder of the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, his wife, Gertrude Penfield Seiberling, they named their "American Country Estate" Stan Hywet, loosely translated from Old English meaning "stone quarry" or "stone hewn," to reflect the site's earlier use and the abandoned stone quarries located on the grounds of the Aveill Dairy estate. F. A. and Gertrude hired three professionals to shape the outcome of this home building project: Boston landscape designer Warren Manning, New York City interior designer Hugo Huber and Cleveland architect Charles Schneider. Schneider pitched his design as an employee of George Post & Sons, a New York City architectural firm.
Schneider left the company in 1913, but retained creative control and oversight of the building project. In April 1912, the Seiberlings, with oldest daughter Irene and architect Schneider, traveled to England to tour 20 manor homes to gather inspiration for the home's design. Three English country homes served as the inspiration for Stan Hywet: Compton Wynyates, Ockwells Manor, Haddon Hall; the long, sprawling Manor House encompasses 64,500 square feet and includes four floors and a lower level. In conceiving their dream home, the Seiberlings asked each family member what she desired. Gertrude requested a large music room, an indoor swimming pool for the boys, a private office for F. A; the house included a formal dining room that would seat up to 40 people, five guest bedrooms with adjoining full bathrooms and walk-in closets, eight live-in servants' bedrooms. Interior designer Hugo Huber worked with Gertrude Seiberling to furnish the home's interior; the pair made frequent shopping trips to New York City and Huber traveled with F.
A. and Gertrude to England in January 1915 to look at antique pieces for the home. Gertrude wanted to furnish the entire home in period appropriate Tudor antiques but F. A. argued. Huber compromised by integrating a selection of Tudor antiques with contemporary 1915 furnishings that were made to look antique and fit the overall décor of the home; the estate grounds about 1,500 acres in extent, were designed between 1911–1915 by Boston landscape architect Warren H. Manning, remain today one of the finest examples of his work. Manning sited the house at the edge of the quarry wall, overlooking a nearby valley and rolling hills in the distance. Around the home, he created a series of vistas which related the home to the environment around it, intertwining the two in a unified design; the entrance to the property, the two allées on the north and south sides of the house, provide examples of vistas created by Manning using arranged plant materials. Along the back of the house, Manning manipulated existing forest plantings, removed growth to create outlooks over miles of undisturbed countryside to capture the endless expanse of the Seiberlings' property.
Around the Manor House, Manning designed a sequence of contrasting garden spaces which situated formal garden rooms – such as the English Garden, Breakfast Room Garden, Perennial Garden, Japanese Garden and West Terrace – within the existing natural landscape. Manning used a technique of plant massing where he used predominately native plant materials, grouping deciduous trees with small ornamental trees and swaths of perennial plantings, to carve vistas and gardens giving definition and movement to his design; the garden spaces were tailored to the needs of the Seiberling family and envisioned as outdoor rooms for the family to use for relaxation and entertaining. The English garden was redesigned in 1929 by noted landscape architect Ellen Biddle Shipman; the landscape has undergone two significant restorations: the first in 1984, when a master plan was created to return the property to Warren Manning's original landscape plan, the second between 2000 and 2010, to rebuild all of the gardens and landscaping around the Manor House.
The estate includes a conservatory and greenhouses constructed by King Construction Company of North Tonawanda, New York, specified the construction of a rectangular Palm House with a 24 foot wide greenhouse on the back with a wing on each side, for a cost of $18,330. The greenhouse space behind the Palm House was divided into a "general plant house," an "orchid house" and a "vegetable house." The original 1915 building was damaged in a wind storm in 1947. In 2000, Stan Hywet Hall & Gardens constructed a new conservatory and greenhouses based on the original historic designs; the estate grounds include two tennis courts and roque courts, horse trails, a four hole golf course, lagoons for swimming and boating, an indoor swimming pool and a gymnasium -- some of the recreational outlets available to the Seiberlings and their house guests. In 1957, the six Seiberling children donated Stan Hywet to the newly formed Stan Hywet Hall Foundation, a non-profit organization formed for the preservation of the estate.
It is now a historic house museum and country estate, open seasonally to the public, in keeping with the stone inscription above the Manor House front door, "Non nobis solum", meaning "Not for us alone". The Manor House is undergoing an extensive room-by-room restoration, funded by the successful "2nd Century Campaign" completed in 2015. Stan Hywet Hall and Gardens is open Tuesday through Sunday, fr
Spirit of America (automobile)
Spirit of America is the trademarked name used by Craig Breedlove for his land speed record-setting vehicles. Spirit of America was the first of the modern record breaking jet-propelled cars, built with a narrow streamlined fuselage, three-wheel chassis, most turbojet engine. Like most of the other competing vehicles, the engine was ex-military; the first Spirit had a General Electric J47 engine from an F-86 and was tested at Bonneville Salt Flats in 1962, where difficult handling resulted in failure. Before trying again, a new stabilizer and steerable front wheel were added. Breedlove set his first record on September 5, 1963 at Bonneville, the first man to set an average speed of over 400 mph during a land speed record attempt. At the time of Spirit of America's construction the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile rules for a land speed record required four wheels. Spirit's record was thus not recognised by the FIA; the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme did recognise it, classing Spirit as a motorcycle.
Although this controversy has been reported since as being due to the use of a jet engine, FIA rules describing a qualifying car as being "driven through its wheels", the only issue raised at the time was over the number of wheels, hence the FIM acceptance. For a period there were thus two simultaneous land speed records, the 1947 Railton Mobil Special record remaining as the FIA four-wheel Class A record, which from July 1964 went to Campbell's Bluebird. Although Bluebird used a "jet engine", it was a turboshaft that drove the wheels. Both FIA & FIM records were further extended by Art Arfons. Breedlove returned to Bonneville with Spirit and pushed the record over 500 mph, setting it at 526.277 mph on October 15, a record that stood for two weeks. In setting the new record, at the end of his second run, the Spirit lost its braking parachutes, skidding for five miles, through a row of telephone poles and crashing into a brine pond at around 200 mph. Drenched but uninjured, Breedlove climbed out of the cockpit and declared, "And now for my next act I'm going to set myself on fire."
This feat earned a place in the Guinness Book of World Records for longest skid marks. Spirit was taken to the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago as an exhibit. Spirit of America left the ground for the longest distance recorded for a ground-based vehicle, when it hit rough ground at the end of the run. A new Spirit was built over 1964–1965 to attempt to beat Arfons, dubbed Spirit of America – Sonic I a four-wheel design with a much higher rated GE J79 engine from an F-4 Phantom II, the same type as that used by Arfons' Green Monster. Another tit-for-tat with Arfons ended with Breedlove setting the record at 600.601 mph on November 15, 1965, a record that stood until 1970, broken by Gary Gabelich's The Blue Flame land speed record rocket car. The Sonic I vehicle is on display at Indianapolis Motor Speedway Hall of Fame Museum. After a lengthy break from world records Breedlove began work on a new Spirit in 1992 named the Spirit of America Formula Shell LSRV; the vehicle is 44 ft 10 in long, 8 ft 4 in wide, 5 ft 10 in high and weighs 9,000 lb, construction is on a steel tube frame with an aluminium skin body.
The engine is the same as in the second Spirit, a GE J79, but it is modified to burn unleaded gasoline and generates a maximum thrust of 22,650 lbf. The first run of the vehicle on October 28, 1996 in the Black Rock Desert, Nevada ended in a crash at around 675 mph. Returning in 1997 the vehicle badly damaged the engine on an early run; the British ThrustSSC twin-Rolls-Royce Spey turbofan-engined LSR car upped the record to 763 mph on 15 October 1997, became the first car to break the sound barrier. The re-engined Spirit could do no better than 676 mph. Breedlove sold the Spirit of America Formula Shell LSRV to Steve Fossett, holder of many sailing and other aviation records, the car was undergoing rebuilding in hopes of some preliminary shakedown runs in late September 2007 at Bonneville. However, Steve Fossett disappeared in early September 2007 while scouting for alternative land speed record venues in Nevada; the Spirit of America Sonic Arrow, as it was rechristened by Fossett, was rolled out on the Black Rock Desert for a photo opportunity on October 15, 2007.
The effort to run the car continued. The Beach Boys song "Spirit of America" is about his cars. List of motorized trikes
Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company is an American multinational tire manufacturing company founded in 1898 by Frank Seiberling and based in Akron, Ohio. Goodyear manufactures tires for automobiles, commercial trucks, light trucks, motorcycles, SUVs, race cars, farm equipment and heavy earth-mover machinery, it produced bicycle tires from its founding until 1976. As of 2017, Goodyear is one of the top four tire manufacturers along with Bridgestone and Continental; the company was named after inventor of vulcanized rubber. The first Goodyear tires became popular because they were detachable and required little maintenance. Goodyear is known for the Goodyear Blimp. Though Goodyear had been manufacturing airships and balloons since the early 1900s, the first Goodyear advertising blimp flew in 1925. Today it is one of the most recognizable advertising icons in America; the company is the most successful tire supplier in Formula One history, with more starts and constructors' championships than any other tire supplier.
They pulled out of the sport after the 1998 season. It is the sole tire supplier for NASCAR series. Goodyear is a former component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average; the company opened a new global headquarters building in Akron in 2013. The first Goodyear factory opened in Akron, Ohio, in 1898; the thirteen original employees manufactured bicycle and carriage tires, rubber horseshoe pads, poker chips. The company grew with the advent of the automobile. In 1901 Frank Seiberling provided Henry Ford with racing tires. In 1903, Paul Weeks Litchfield was granted a patent for the first tubeless automobile tire. By 1908 Ford was outfitting his Model T with Goodyear tires. In 1909 Goodyear manufactured its first aircraft tire. In 1916, Litchfield found land in the Phoenix area suitable for growing long-staple cotton, needed for reinforcing rubber in tires; the 36,000 acres purchased were controlled by the Southwest Cotton Company, formed with Litchfield as president. In 1924, Litchfield, as Goodyear Vice President, forged a joint venture with the German Luftschiffbau Zeppelin Company to form the Goodyear-Zeppelin Corporation.
In the late 1920s to 1940, the company worked with Goodyear to build two Zeppelins in the United States and the Goodyear-Zeppelin Corporation was created to facilitate the relationship. The partnership continued when Zeppelin was under Nazi control and only ended after World War II began. By 1926 Goodyear was the largest rubber company in the world. Only four years earlier it was forced to temporarily halt production of racing tires due to heavy competition; the popularity of the Goodyear tire on the racing circuit led to a popular demand for the return of the brand. On August 5, 1927, Goodyear had its initial public offering and was listed on the New York Stock Exchange. By 1930 Goodyear had pioneered what would become known as "tundra tires" for smaller aircraft — their so-called low inflation pressure "airwheel" aviation wheel-rim/tire sets were available in sizes up to 46 inches in diameter. For the next sixty years Goodyear grew to become a multinational corporation with multibillion-dollar earnings.
It acquired their rival Kelly-Springfield Tire in 1935. During World War II Goodyear manufactured F4U Corsair fighter planes for the U. S. Military. Goodyear ranked 30th among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts. WWII forced the dissolution of the Goodyear-Zeppelin partnership in December 1940. By 1956 they operated a nuclear processing plant in Ohio. In 1944, Goodyear created a subsidiary in Mexico in a joint venture with Compañía Hulera, S. A. de C. V. Compañía Hulera Goodyear-Oxo, S. A. de C. V. or Goodyear-Oxo. Of the five biggest U. S. tire firms in 1970, today only Goodyear remains independent, due to the challenge posed by radial tire technology, the varied responses. At the time, the entire U. S. tire industry produced the older bias-ply technology. Estimates to fit the factories with a new set of machinery and tools for making this new product were between $600 million and $900 million; this was a substantial amount in a low margin business with sales revenue in the low billions.
The U. S. market was shifting towards the radial tire, as had been the case in Europe and Asia. In 1968, Consumer Reports, an influential American magazine, acknowledged the superiority of radial construction, first developed in 1946 by Michelin; when Charles J. Pilliod Jr. became CEO in 1974, he faced a major investment decision regarding the radial tire, which today has a market share of nearly 100%. Despite heavy criticism at the time, Pilliod invested in new factories and tooling to build the radial tire. Sam Gibara, who headed Goodyear from 1996 to 2003, has noted that without the action of Pilliod, Goodyear "wouldn't be around today."Sales for 1969 topped $3 billion, five years sales topped $5 billion and it boasted operations in thirty-four countries. In 1978 the original Akron plant was converted into a Technical Center for design. By 1985 worldwide sales exceeded $10 billion. Goodyear Aerospace, a holding that developed from the Goodyear Aircraft Company after World War II designed a supercomputer for NASA's Goddard Spaceflight Center in 1979, the MPP.
The subsidiary was sold in 1987 to the Loral Corp. as a result of restructuring. In 1987, Goodyear formed a business partnership with Canadian tire retailer Fountain Tire. In October 1986, Goodyear was a victim of a Greenmail attack. British financier James Goldsmith in conjunction with the investment group Hanson purchased 11.5% of Goodyear's outstanding common stock. They threatened to take the company over
John F. Seiberling
John Frederick Seiberling, Jr. was a United States Representative from Ohio. In 1974, he helped to establish what became the Cuyahoga Valley National Park, served on the House Judiciary Committee that held the impeachment hearings against President Richard Nixon. Born in Akron, Seiberling attended the public schools of Akron, Staunton Military Academy in Virginia, he received his A. B. from Harvard University in 1941. His parents, Lieut. John Frederick Seiberling and Henrietta McBrayer Buckler, had been wed on October 11, 1917 in Akron, Ohio, he had two sisters: Mary Gertrude Seiberling and Dorothy Buckler Lethbridge Seiberling. His paternal grandparents were Frank Seiberling, the founder of Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Gertrude Ferguson Penfield, his maternal grandparents were Mary Maddox. During World War II he served in the United States Army from 1942 to 1946, he was subsequently awarded the Legion of Merit for his participation in the Allied planning of the D-Day invasion. Seiberling received his LL.
B. from Columbia Law School in 1949. In 1950, Seiblerling went into private practice, he became an associate with a New York firm from 1949 to 1954, became a volunteer with the New York Legal Aid Society in 1950. From 1954 to 1970, he was an attorney with The Goodyear Rubber Company, he once took a leave of absence rather than cross the picket lines during a United Rubber Workers strike. During this time he was a member of the Tri-County Regional Planning Commission in Akron from 1964 to 1970. In 1970, Seiberling won the Democratic nomination for Ohio's 14th congressional district, based in Akron. Running on an anti-Vietnam War platform, he defeated 10-term Republican William H. Ayres by 12 points in a major upset, he would be reelected seven more times from this district, He never faced substantive opposition in what became a solidly Democratic district. He won each of his seven reelection bids with over 70 percent of the vote, he did not run for reelection in 1986, endorsed Akron Mayor Tom Sawyer as his successor.
After his time in Congress, Seiberling served as faculty at the law school of the University of Akron from 1992 to 1996. He participated in the 1975 Congressional delegation meetings in the Middle East that helped precipitate the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. Seiberling is noted for doubling the size of the United States National Park System, adding two-hundred million acres during his sixteen-year tenure in congress. On January 8, 2001, he was presented with the Presidential Citizens Medal by President Clinton. On Thursday, October 12, 2006, President George W. Bush signed into law H. R. 6051, which designates the Federal building and United States courthouse in Akron as the John F. Seiberling Federal Building and United States Courthouse. Seiberling's legacy is honored at 2370 Everett Road. Known as the "Founding Father" of the Cuyahoga Valley National Park, Seiberling worked tirelessly during his sixteen-year tenure in congress to fulfill a childhood dream of establishing the Cuyahoga Valley as a protected part of the National Park System.
He married Elizabeth "Betty" Behr, a Vassar graduate, in 1949. They had three sons: John B. David and Stephen. John Seiberling's cousin, Francis Seiberling, was a U. S. Representative from Ohio, his mother, Henrietta Buckler Seiberling, was a seminal figure in Alcoholics Anonymous' founding and core spiritual ideals. His paternal grandfather was founder of the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company; the family's one-time home, Stan Hywet, is now a national museum. Seiberling died of respiratory failure at his home in Copley, Ohio on August 2, 2008, his wife, died on May 23, 2017. United States Congress. "John F. Seiberling". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Nelson, Daniel, A Passion for the Land: John F. Seiberling and the Environmental Movement. (Kent: Kent State University Press, 2009. Xiv, 263 pp. ISBN 978-1-60635-036-2 University of Akron. Henrietta Buckler Seiberling, 1888-1979. Retrieved 2007-11-20 from "Akron Women's History" at https://web.archive.org/web/20130826065410/http://www3.uakron.edu/schlcomm/womenshistory/seiberling_h.htm.
Walker Snider, Jane. Profiles in Service: John & Betty Seiberling. Retrieved 2007-11-20 from "Akron Council on World Affairs" at http://www.akronworldaffairs.org/newsletter/features/seiberling.html. Www.aabibliography. Henrietta Buckler Seiberling. Retrieved 2007-11-20 from "An Illustrated Alcoholic Anonymous Bibliography" at http://www.aabibliography.com/henrietta_buckler_seiberling.htm. Jacoway, Paul. "A Tree Grows in Washington - The John Seiberling Story". - a documentary about Seiberling's involvement in creating the Cuyahoga Valley National Park and the passage of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. Appearances on C-SPAN
Goodyear is a city in Maricopa County, United States. It is a suburb of Phoenix and at the 2010 census had a population of 65,275, the third fastest-growing city in Arizona between 1990 and 2000; the 2017 population estimate was 79,858. The city is home to the Goodyear Ballpark, where the Cleveland Indians and Cincinnati Reds of Major League Baseball hold spring training. In 2008, Goodyear won the All-America City Award, sponsored by the National Civic League; the city is named after the Goodyear Rubber Company. The company cultivated extensive farmland here to grow cotton for use in their tires. Goodyear was established in 1917 with the purchase of 16,000 acres of land by the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company to cultivate cotton for vehicle tire cords. World War II was important to Goodyear in the 1940s as the current Phoenix Goodyear Airport was built, but after the war, the economy suffered. Goodyear became a town on November 19, 1946. At the time, it had 151 homes and 250 apartments, a grocery store, a barber shop, beauty shop and a gas station.
Luke Field Auxiliary #6 was built by the United States Army Air Forces in 1943. It served as a satellite airfield for Luke AAF. According to the History of Luke AFB, this airfield boasted the most facilities, it had separate buildings for crew chiefs, supply, pit latrine, crash truck shed, generator shed and a control tower. Luke AF Auxiliary #6 ceased operations by 1971; the property, in a state of complete abandonment, is owned by the State of Arizona, which has worked with developers on proposals for use. In January 1965, the Phoenix Trotting Park, a harness racing track opened, the current Interstate 10 passes north of the site; as the region lacked major roads from Phoenix to Goodyear, there was not enough business and the track closed two years later. The Park no longer stands, it was demolished in 2017; the park had been abandoned since the late 1960s. The town became a city in 1985. In the same decade, the remaining 10,000 acres of the original farmland was sold for future development; the Phoenix Goodyear Airport received its current name in 1986.
Although Goodyear was founded in 1917, the majority of construction and population growth happened after 1990. 22 communities that are completed and under construction have a total area of 20,000 acres. These communities, along with another 21 communities for future suburban development, will contain 200,000 homes, with only 25,000 built. Goodyear was affected by the 2000s American housing bubble. Since the housing market has rebounded considerably. According to Opendoor, zip code 85338 in Goodyear was the fifth most popular place in the Phoenix metro area to buy a home, based on home sales. There are a variety of home options in 2019 to accommodate families, those who are single, seniors; as the population in Goodyear grows faster than home builders and community developers are working to keep up with the demand. Estrella is the largest community in Goodyear, at 20,000 acres; the community is home to about 10,000 residents. Palm Valley, located north of Interstate 10, is 9,000 acres, with variously-sized homes.
PebbleCreek is a community for active adult living, with 45 holes of championship golf, fitness centers, restaurants. From the 1990s through the 2010s, residential development has stimulated the growth of Goodyear as a suburb of Phoenix. Goodyear's population is projected to be 358,000 by 2035. Goodyear is located at 33°27′00″N 112°21′30″W. Nearby cities include Avondale, Litchfield Park and Buckeye. Goodyear is about 17 miles west of downtown Phoenix. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 116.5 square miles, all of it land. The Gila River passes through the city; the largest master planned community is Estrella, south of the Gila River, located near the Estrella Mountains. The Estrella Mountain Regional Park covers 20,000 acres, most of that area is still desert, it contains eight trails over 30 mi in length combined, two baseball fields, a 9.5 mi track. Goodyear has a subtropical desert climate due to its location in the Sonoran Desert; the city receives somewhere around ten inches of rain annually.
The city has more than 300 sunny days per year. Winters are sunny with mild temperatures -- nighttime lows averaging between 40°F and 50°F and daytime highs ranging from 60°F to 75°F; the lowest temperature recorded in Goodyear is 16°F. Summers are hot, with daily high temperatures at or above 100°F for the entirety of June and August, as well as many days in May and September. An occasional heat wave will spike temperatures over 115°F briefly. Nighttime lows in the summer months average between 70°F and 80°F, with an occasional overnight low above 80°F not uncommon; the highest recorded temperature in Goodyear is 125°F. Snow is rare in the area, occurring once every several years. Lows in the winter dip below freezing, which may damage some desert plants such as saguaros and other cacti. In the summer, the North American Monsoon can hit the Phoenix area in the afternoon and evening, causing rain showers from a sunny morning. Dust storms are occasional during the summer; as of 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau reported.
71.9% of the city's population was White, 6.7% were Black, 1.3% were Native American, 4.3% were Asian. 27.8 % were Latino of any race. There were 25,027 housing