University of Chicago
The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1890 by John D. Rockefeller, the school is located on a 217-acre campus in Chicago's Hyde Park neighborhood, near Lake Michigan; the University of Chicago holds top-ten positions in various international rankings. The university is composed of an undergraduate college as well as various graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees organized into five academic research divisions. Beyond the arts and sciences, Chicago is well known for its professional schools, which include the Pritzker School of Medicine, the Booth School of Business, the Law School, the School of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy Studies, the Divinity School and the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies; the university has additional campuses and centers in London, Beijing and Hong Kong, as well as in downtown Chicago. University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of many academic disciplines, including sociology, economics, literary criticism and the behavioralism school of political science.
Chicago's physics department and the Met Lab helped develop the world's first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction beneath the viewing stands of university's Stagg Field, a key part of the classified Manhattan Project effort of World War II. The university research efforts include administration of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory, as well as the Marine Biological Laboratory; the university is home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States. With an estimated completion date of 2021, the Barack Obama Presidential Center will be housed at the university and include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation; the University of Chicago has produced faculty members and researchers. As of 2018, 98 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university as professors, faculty, or staff, making it a university with one of the highest concentrations of Nobel laureates in the world. 34 faculty members and 18 alumni have been awarded the MacArthur "Genius Grant".
In addition, Chicago's alumni and faculty include 54 Rhodes Scholars, 26 Marshall Scholars, 9 Fields Medalists, 4 Turing Award Winners, 24 Pulitzer Prize winners, 20 National Humanities Medalists, 16 billionaire graduates and a plethora of members of the United States Congress and heads of state of countries all over the world. The University of Chicago was incorporated as a coeducational institution in 1890 by the American Baptist Education Society, using $400,000 donated to the ABES to match a $600,000 donation from Baptist oil magnate and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller, including land donated by Marshall Field. While the Rockefeller donation provided money for academic operations and long-term endowment, it was stipulated that such money could not be used for buildings; the Hyde Park campus was financed by donations from wealthy Chicagoans like Silas B. Cobb who provided the funds for the campus' first building, Cobb Lecture Hall, matched Marshall Field's pledge of $100,000. Other early benefactors included businessmen Charles L. Hutchinson, Martin A. Ryerson Adolphus Clay Bartlett and Leon Mandel, who funded the construction of the gymnasium and assembly hall, George C. Walker of the Walker Museum, a relative of Cobb who encouraged his inaugural donation for facilities.
The Hyde Park campus continued the legacy of the original university of the same name, which had closed in 1880s after its campus was foreclosed on. What became known as the Old University of Chicago had been founded by a small group of Baptist educators in 1856 through a land endowment from Senator Stephen A. Douglas. After a fire, it closed in 1886. Alumni from the Old University of Chicago are recognized as alumni of the present University of Chicago; the university's depiction on its coat of arms of a phoenix rising from the ashes is a reference to the fire and demolition of the Old University of Chicago campus. As an homage to this pre-1890 legacy, a single stone from the rubble of the original Douglas Hall on 34th Place was brought to the current Hyde Park location and set into the wall of the Classics Building; these connections have led the Dean of the College and University of Chicago and Professor of History John Boyer to conclude that the University of Chicago has, "a plausible genealogy as a pre–Civil War institution".
William Rainey Harper became the university's president on July 1, 1891 and the Hyde Park campus opened for classes on October 1, 1892. Harper worked on building up the faculty and in two years he had a faculty of 120, including eight former university or college presidents. Harper was an accomplished scholar and a member of the Baptist clergy who believed that a great university should maintain the study of faith as a central focus. To fulfill this commitment, he brought the Old University of Chicago's Seminary to Hyde Park; this became the Divinity School in the first professional school at the University of Chicago. Harper recruited acclaimed Yale baseball and football player Amos Alonzo Stagg from the Young Men's Christian Association training Shool at Springfield to coach the school's football program. Stagg was given a position on the first such athletic position in the United States. While coaching at the University, Stagg invented the numbered football jersey, the huddle, the lighted playing field.
Stagg is the namesake of the university's Stagg
Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences
The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences is an organization dedicated to the advancement of science and literature in the Netherlands. The academy is housed in the Trippenhuis in Amsterdam. In addition to various advisory and administrative functions it operates a number of research institutes and awards many prizes, including the Lorentz Medal in theoretical physics, the Dr Hendrik Muller Prize for Behavioural and Social Science and the Heineken Prizes; the academy advises the Dutch government on scientific matters. While its advice pertains to genuine scientific concerns, it counsels the government on such topics as policy on careers for researchers or the Netherlands' contribution to major international projects; the academy offers solicited and unsolicited advice to parliament, ministries and research institutes, funding agencies and international organizations. Advising the government on matters related to scientific research Assessing the quality of scientific research Providing a forum for the scientific world and promoting international scientific cooperation Acting as an umbrella organization for the institutes engaged in basic and strategic scientific research and disseminating information The members are appointed for life by co-optation.
Nominations for candidate membership by persons or organizations outside the academy are accepted. The acceptance criterion is delivered scientific achievements. Academy membership is therefore regarded as a great honor, prestigious. Besides regular members, there are corresponding members. Since a new membership system was introduced in 2011 there will be no new corresponding members; each year a maximum of sixteen members is appointed to the academy. The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences has long embraced the entire field of learning; the Royal Academy comprises two departments, consisting of around 500 members: Science Humanities and Social Sciences Both departments have their own board. The departments, in turn, are divided into sections; the highest organ in the academy is the general meeting of members, the united meeting of both departments. The president was Frits van Oostrom until 1 May 2008, after which he was succeeded by Robbert Dijkgraaf. Both van Oostrom in his leaving address and Dijkgraaf in his inaugural address have voiced their worries about the low level of funding in science in the Netherlands compared to all other western countries.
In March 2012, Hans Clevers was elected president and took office in June 2012. Latrer presidents were Wim van Saarloos. During the Kingdom of Holland, it was founded as the Koninklijk Instituut van Wetenschappen, Letterkunde en Schoone Kunsten by Lodewijk Napoleon on May 4, 1808. In 1816, after the occupation had ended, it was renamed to Koninklijk-Nederlandsch Instituut van Wetenschappen, Letteren en Schoone Kunsten. In 1851 it was disbanded and re-established as the Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen and in 1938 obtained its present name. Since 1812 the academy has resided in the Trippenhuis in Amsterdam; the institute was awarded the Gouden Ganzenveer in 1955. The following Research institutes are associated with the KNAW: Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures Data Archiving and Networked Services Huygens Instituut Fryske Akademy Hubrecht Instituut Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis Nederlands Herseninstituut Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde Meertens Instituut Nederlands Instituut voor Ecologie Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie Nederlands Instituut voor Wetenschappelijke Informatiediensten Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study in the Humanities and Social Sciences Rathenau InstituutThe Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience was established in 2005 as a merger of the Netherlands Institute for Brain Research and the Netherlands Ophthalmic Research Institute.
De Jonge Akademie is a society of younger science researchers, founded in 2005 as part of the KNAW. Ten members are elected each year for a term of five years, it was modelled after the similar German Junge Akademie, both of these academies in turn were used as models for the Global Young Academy. Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research Koninklijke Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, official website
Nobel Prize in Physics
The Nobel Prize in Physics is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who have made the most outstanding contributions for humankind in the field of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 and awarded since 1901; the first Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to physicist Wilhelm Röntgen in recognition of the extraordinary services he rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays. This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and regarded as the most prestigious award that a scientist can receive in physics, it is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death. Through 2018, a total of 209 individuals have been awarded the prize. Only three women have won the Nobel Prize in Physics: Marie Curie in 1903, Maria Goeppert Mayer in 1963, Donna Strickland in 2018. Alfred Nobel, in his last will and testament, stated that his wealth be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in the fields of physics, peace, physiology or medicine, literature.
Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last one was written a year before he died and was signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895. Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million Swedish kronor, to establish and endow the five Nobel Prizes. Due to the level of skepticism surrounding the will, it was not until April 26, 1897 that it was approved by the Storting; the executors of his will were Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, who formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobel's fortune and organise the prizes. The members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee who were to award the Peace Prize were appointed shortly after the will was approved; the prize-awarding organisations followed: the Karolinska Institutet on June 7, the Swedish Academy on June 9, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on June 11. The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the Nobel Prize should be awarded. In 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II.
According to Nobel's will, The Royal Swedish Academy of sciences were to award the Prize in Physics. A maximum of three Nobel laureates and two different works may be selected for the Nobel Prize in Physics. Compared with other Nobel Prizes, the nomination and selection process for the prize in Physics is long and rigorous; this is a key reason why it has grown in importance over the years to become the most important prize in Physics. The Nobel laureates are selected by the Nobel Committee for Physics, a Nobel Committee that consists of five members elected by The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In the first stage that begins in September, around 3,000 people – selected university professors, Nobel Laureates in Physics and Chemistry, etc. – are sent confidential forms to nominate candidates. The completed nomination forms arrive at the Nobel Committee no than 31 January of the following year; these nominees are scrutinized and discussed by experts who narrow it to fifteen names. The committee submits a report with recommendations on the final candidates into the Academy, where, in the Physics Class, it is further discussed.
The Academy makes the final selection of the Laureates in Physics through a majority vote. The names of the nominees are never publicly announced, neither are they told that they have been considered for the prize. Nomination records are sealed for fifty years. While posthumous nominations are not permitted, awards can be made if the individual died in the months between the decision of the prize committee and the ceremony in December. Prior to 1974, posthumous awards were permitted; the rules for the Nobel Prize in Physics require that the significance of achievements being recognized has been "tested by time". In practice, it means that the lag between the discovery and the award is on the order of 20 years and can be much longer. For example, half of the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar for his work on stellar structure and evolution, done during the 1930s; as a downside of this approach, not all scientists live long enough for their work to be recognized.
Some important scientific discoveries are never considered for a prize, as the discoverers die by the time the impact of their work is appreciated. A Physics Nobel Prize laureate earns a gold medal, a diploma bearing a citation, a sum of money; the Nobel Prize medals, minted by Myntverket in Sweden and the Mint of Norway since 1902, are registered trademarks of the Nobel Foundation. Each medal has an image of Alfred Nobel in left profile on the obverse; the Nobel Prize medals for Physics, Physiology or Medicine, Literature have identical obverses, showing the image of Alfred Nobel and the years of his birth and death. Nobel's portrait appears on the obverse of the Nobel Peace Prize medal and the Medal for the Prize in Economics, but with a different design; the image on the reverse of a medal varies according to the institution awarding the prize. The reverse sides of the Nobel Prize medals for Chemistry and Physics share the same design of Nature, as a Goddess, whose veil is held up by the Genius of Science.
These medals and the ones for Physiology/Medicine and Literature were designed by Erik Lindberg in 1902. Nobel laureates receive a diploma directly from the hands of the
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Shanghai Jiao Tong University is a major research university in Shanghai. Established in 1896 as Nanyang Public School by an imperial edict issued by the Guangxu Emperor, it has been referred to as "The MIT of the East" since the 1930s, it is one of the nine members of the elite C9 League, is a Chinese Ministry of Education Class A Double First Class University. The word "Jiao Tong" romanized as "Chiao Tung", means transportation or communication, it reflects the university's root — it was founded by the Ministry of Posts and Communications of the late Qing dynasty. In 1896, the Nanyang Public School was founded in Shanghai by the imperial edict of the Guangxu Emperor, under the Business and Telegraphs Office of the Qing imperial government. Four schools were established: a normal school, a school of foreign studies, a middle school, a high school. Sheng Xuanhuai, the mandarin who proposed the idea to the Guangxu Emperor, became the first president and is, along with missionary educator John Calvin Ferguson, regarded as the founder of the university.
The Ministry of Commerce assumed administration of the college in 1904, in 1905 changed the college's name to Imperial Polytechnic College of the Commerce Ministry. In 1906, the college was placed under the Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs, its name was changed to Shanghai Industrial College of the Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs; when the Republic of China was founded, the college was placed under the Ministry of Communications and its name was once again changed, this time to Government Institute of Technology of the Communications Ministry. In 1918, the Republic of China government founded the School of Management. After a merger with two other colleges in 1920, the name changed to Nan Yang College of Chiao Tung; the college achieved world renown in the 1930s, was referred to as the "Eastern MIT". In 1938, the Ministry of Education assumed administration of the university and renamed it to National Chiao Tung University, the name by which daughter institution National Chiao Tung University in Taiwan, is known to this day.
In 1943, the graduate school was founded. When the Japanese surrendered in 1945, neither the Communist Party of China nor the Kuomintang KMT trusted each other or were cooperating. After American-sponsored attempts to negotiate a coalition government failed in 1946, the Chinese Civil War resumed; the CPC defeated the Nationalists in 1949. During the evacuation, a part of faculty and alumni was taken to Taiwan by Chiang Kai-shek, founding National Chiao Tung University in Taiwan in 1958. After the Chinese Civil War, the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949. Chiao Tung lost its "National" appellation and became Chiao Tung University to reflect the fact that all universities under the new socialist state would be public. In the 1950s, the pinyin romanization system was developed in Mainland China and Chiao Tung University changed its English name to Jiao Tong University. Shanghai Second Medical University was merged into Shanghai Jiao Tong University on July 18, 2005, under the name Medical School of Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
Since the reform and opening up policy in China, SJTU has grown substantially. It is composed of five campuses, including Xuhui, Luwan and Fahua, taking up an area of about 3,225,833 square meters. In 2013, François Hollande inaugurated the SJTU-ParisTech Elite Institute of Technology, an institution based on the French engineering education system; the four founding member universities are École Polytechnique, ENSTA ParisTech, Mines ParisTech and Télécom ParisTechThe university was producer of the Academic Ranking of World Universities until 2008. Today SJTU has 31 schools, 63 undergraduate programs, 250 masters-degree programs, 203 Ph. D. programs, 28 post-doctorate programs, 11 state key laboratories and national engineering research centers. Its total enrollment of students amounts to 42,881, of which 1,598 are international students. There are 17,766 undergraduates, 24,017 masters and Ph. D. candidates. The university has more than 1,900 professors and associate professors, including 15 academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 academicians of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, 92 accredited professors and chair professors of the "Cheung Kong Scholars Program".
Internationally, SJTU is ranked among 101–150th globally by ARWU. The institution came sixth in the QS BRICS University Rankings and was 27th in the counterpart conducted by Times Higher Education. Since 2003, Shanghai Jiao Tong University has produced the Academic Ranking of World Universities which analyzes the top universities in the world on quality of faculty, research output, quality of education and performance vs. size. Its ranking is of research universities in the empirical sciences. Department of Plastic Technology Department of Sports Global Executive MBA Program Institute of Aerospace Science and Technology Research Institute of Micro/Nano Science and Technology Institute of Energy Diversified genres including Latin, Chinese Folk Dance, Chinese Classical Dance and Yang Go. Awards: Second-class prize on National University Art Competition The previous main campus was located in Xujiahui, in the Xuhui District of Shanghai a Catholic area and a site of several educational institutions.
Most buildings on campus were influenced by American architecture, while the main gate, built in 1935, is of traditional Chinese style reflecting the University's earlier status as the "Imperial Polytechnic College". The approaches to the main gate were via a series of marble
Theoretical physics is a branch of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize and predict natural phenomena. This is in contrast to experimental physics; the advancement of science depends on the interplay between experimental studies and theory. In some cases, theoretical physics adheres to standards of mathematical rigour while giving little weight to experiments and observations. For example, while developing special relativity, Albert Einstein was concerned with the Lorentz transformation which left Maxwell's equations invariant, but was uninterested in the Michelson–Morley experiment on Earth's drift through a luminiferous aether. Conversely, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for explaining the photoelectric effect an experimental result lacking a theoretical formulation. A physical theory is a model of physical events, it is judged by the extent. The quality of a physical theory is judged on its ability to make new predictions which can be verified by new observations.
A physical theory differs from a mathematical theorem in that while both are based on some form of axioms, judgment of mathematical applicability is not based on agreement with any experimental results. A physical theory differs from a mathematical theory, in the sense that the word "theory" has a different meaning in mathematical terms. A physical theory involves one or more relationships between various measurable quantities. Archimedes realized that a ship floats by displacing its mass of water, Pythagoras understood the relation between the length of a vibrating string and the musical tone it produces. Other examples include entropy as a measure of the uncertainty regarding the positions and motions of unseen particles and the quantum mechanical idea that energy are not continuously variable. Theoretical physics consists of several different approaches. In this regard, theoretical particle physics forms a good example. For instance: "phenomenologists" might employ empirical formulas to agree with experimental results without deep physical understanding.
"Modelers" appear much like phenomenologists, but try to model speculative theories that have certain desirable features, or apply the techniques of mathematical modeling to physics problems. Some attempt to create approximate theories, called effective theories, because developed theories may be regarded as unsolvable or too complicated. Other theorists may try to unify, reinterpret or generalise extant theories, or create new ones altogether. Sometimes the vision provided by pure mathematical systems can provide clues to how a physical system might be modeled. Theoretical problems that need computational investigation are the concern of computational physics. Theoretical advances may consist in setting aside old, incorrect paradigms or may be an alternative model that provides answers that are more accurate or that can be more applied. In the latter case, a correspondence principle will be required to recover the known result. Sometimes though, advances may proceed along different paths. For example, an correct theory may need some conceptual or factual revisions.
However, an exception to all the above is the wave–particle duality, a theory combining aspects of different, opposing models via the Bohr complementarity principle. Physical theories become accepted if they are able to make correct predictions and no incorrect ones; the theory should have, at least as a secondary objective, a certain economy and elegance, a notion sometimes called "Occam's razor" after the 13th-century English philosopher William of Occam, in which the simpler of two theories that describe the same matter just as adequately is preferred. They are more to be accepted if they connect a wide range of phenomena. Testing the consequences of a theory is part of the scientific method. Physical theories can be grouped into three categories: mainstream theories, proposed theories and fringe theories. Theoretical physics began at least 2,300 years ago, under the Pre-socratic philosophy, continued by Plato and Aristotle, whose views held sway for a millennium. During the rise of medieval universities, the only acknowledged intellectual disciplines were the seven liberal arts of the Trivium like grammar and rhetoric and of the Quadrivium like arithmetic, geometry and astronomy.
During the Middle Ages and Renaissance, the concept of experimental science, the counterpoint to theory, began with scholars such as Ibn al-Haytham and Francis Bacon. As the Scientific Revolution gathered pace, the concepts of matter, space and causality began to acquire the form we know today, other sciences spun off from the rubric of natural philosophy, thus began the modern era of theory with the Copernican paradigm shift in astronomy, soon followed by Johannes Kepler's expressions for planetary orbits, which summarized the meticulous observations of Tycho Brahe.
David Jonathan Gross is an American theoretical physicist and string theorist. Along with Frank Wilczek and David Politzer, he was awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of asymptotic freedom. Gross is the Chancellor’s Chair Professor of Theoretical Physics at the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics of the University of California, Santa Barbara, was the KITP director and holder of their Frederick W. Gluck Chair in Theoretical Physics, he is a faculty member in the UC Santa Barbara Physics Department and is affiliated with the Institute for Quantum Studies at Chapman University in California. He is a foreign member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Gross was born to a Jewish family in Washington, D. C. in February 1941. His parents were Bertram Myron Gross. Gross received his bachelor's degree and master's degree from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, in 1962, he received his Ph. D. in physics from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1966, under the supervision of Geoffrey Chew.
He was a Junior Fellow at Harvard University, a Eugene Higgins Professor of Physics at Princeton University until 1997, when he began serving as Princeton's Thomas Jones Professor of Mathematical Physics Emeritus. He has received many honors, including a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship in 1987, the Dirac Medal in 1988 and the Harvey Prize in 2000, he has been a central figure in particle physics and string theory. In 1973, Professor Gross, working with his first graduate student, Frank Wilczek, at Princeton University, discovered asymptotic freedom—the primary feature of non-Abelian gauge theories—led Gross and Wilczek to the formulation of quantum chromodynamics, the theory of the strong nuclear force. Asymptotic freedom is a phenomenon where the nuclear force weakens at short distances, which explains why experiments at high energy can be understood as if nuclear particles are made of non-interacting quarks; the flip side of asymptotic freedom is that the force between quarks grows stronger as one tries to separate them.
Therefore, the closer quarks are to each other, the less the strong interaction is between them. This is the reason. QCD completed the Standard Model, which details the three basic forces of particle physics—the electromagnetic force, the weak force, the strong force. Gross was awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics, for this discovery, he has made seminal contributions to the theory of Superstrings, a burgeoning enterprise that brings gravity into the quantum framework. With collaborators he originated the "Heterotic String Theory," the prime candidate for a unified theory of all the forces of nature, he continues to do research in this field at a world center of physics. Gross, with Jeffrey A. Harvey, Emil Martinec, Ryan Rohm formulated the theory of the heterotic string; the four were whimsically nicknamed the "Princeton String Quartet."In 2003, Gross was one of 22 Nobel Laureates who signed the Humanist Manifesto. Gross is an atheist. In 2015, Gross signed the Mainau Declaration 2015 on Climate Change on the final day of the 65th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting.
The declaration was signed by a total of 76 Nobel Laureates and handed to then-President of the French Republic, François Hollande, as part of the successful COP21 climate summit in Paris. David's first wife was Shulamith, they have two children. His second wife is Jacquelyn Savani, he has a stepdaughter in California. He has three brothers including, Samuel R. Gross, professor of law, Theodore Gross, a playwright. NSF Graduate Fellowship Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Fellow J. J. Sakurai Prize of the American Physical Society MacArthur Foundation Fellowship Prize Dirac Medal, International Center for Theoretical Physics Oscar Klein Medal, Royal Swedish Academy Harvey Prize, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology High Energy and Particle Physics Prize, European Physical Society Grande Médaille d'Or de l'Académie des sciences, France Nobel Prize in Physics Recipient Golden Plate Award, Academy of Achievement San Carlos Boromero Award, University of San Carlos, Philippines Honorary Doctorate in Science, the University of Cambodia Richard E. Prange Prize, University of Maryland Medal of Honor, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia Nobel citation ArXiv papers Webpage at the Kavli Institute David Gross on INSPIRE-HEP BBC synopsis on the award Interviews
American Physical Society
The American Physical Society is the world's second largest organization of physicists. The Society publishes more than a dozen scientific journals, including the prestigious Physical Review and Physical Review Letters, organizes more than twenty science meetings each year. APS is a member society of the American Institute of Physics; the American Physical Society was founded on May 20, 1899, when thirty-six physicists gathered at Columbia University for that purpose. They proclaimed the mission of the new Society to be "to advance and diffuse the knowledge of physics", in one way or another the APS has been at that task since. In the early years the sole activity of the APS was to hold scientific meetings four per year. In 1913, the APS took over the operation of the Physical Review, founded in 1893 at Cornell University, journal publication became its second major activity; the Physical Review was followed by Reviews of Modern Physics in 1929 and by Physical Review Letters in 1958. Over the years, Phys.
Rev. has subdivided into five separate sections as the fields of physics proliferated and the number of submissions grew. In more recent years, the activities of the Society have broadened considerably. Stimulated by the increase in Federal funding in the period after the Second World War, more by the increased public involvement of scientists in the 1960s, the APS is active in public and governmental affairs, in the international physics community. In addition, the Society conducts extensive programs in education, science outreach, media relations. APS has 11 topical groups covering all areas of physics research. There are 6 forums that reflect the interest of its 50,000 members in broader issues, 9 sections organized by geographical region. In 1999, APS Physics celebrated its centennial with the biggest-ever physics meeting in Atlanta. In 2005, APS took the lead role in United States participation in the World Year of Physics, initiating several programs to broadly publicize physics during the 100th anniversary of Albert Einstein's annus mirabilis.
Einstein@Home, one of the projects APS initiated during World Year of Physics, is an ongoing and popular distributed computing project. During the summer of 2005, the society conducted an electronic poll, in which the majority of APS members preferred the name American Physics Society; the poll became the motivation for a proposal of a name change promised in the leadership election that year. However, because of legal issues, the planned name change was abandoned by the APS Executive Board. To promote public recognition of APS as a physics society, while retaining the name American Physical Society, the APS Executive Board adopted a new logo incorporating the phrase "APS Physics." General use of APS Physics to refer to APS or the American Physical Society is encouraged. The new APS Physics logo was designed by Kerry G. Johnson. Marvin Cohen, APS President, said, "I like the logo. At least now when you are in an elevator at an APS meeting and someone looks at your badge, they won't ask you about sports."
The American Physical Society publishes 13 international research journals and an open-access on-line news and commentary website Physics. Physical Review Letters Reviews of Modern Physics Physical Review A: Atomic and optical physics. Physical Review B: Condensed matter and materials physics. Physical Review C: Nuclear physics. Physical Review D: Particles, fields and cosmology. Physical Review E: Statistical and soft matter physics. Physical Review X: Open access. Physical Review Applied: Experimental and theoretical applications of physics. Physical Review Fluids: Fluid dynamics. Physical Review Accelerators and Beams: Open access. Physical Review Physics Education Research: Open access. Physical Review Materials: A broad-scope international journal for the multidisciplinary community engaged in research on materials. All members of APS receive the monthly publication Physics Today, published by the American Institute of Physics; the Society publishes Inside Science, part of a news service launched in 1999 to place more science stories in the media.
Aimed at both introducing the public to new scientific research and at correcting public misconceptions about science, the publication has editorial independence from APS itself. The American Physical Society has 47 units that represent the wide range of interests of the physics community. Astrophysics Atomic, Molecular & Optical Physics: The objective of the division is the promotion of the fundamental research on atoms, simple molecules and light, their interactions; this is the oldest division of the American Physical Society. It was created in 1943; the division manages a number of prestigious awards for AMO scientists at various stages of their careers, such as the Davisson-Germer Prize in Atomic or Surface Physics, Rabi Prize in AMO Physics, Outstanding Doctoral Thesis Research in AMO Physics, Herbert P. Broida Prize, etc, it organizes annual DAMOP Meetings attended by many leading AMO researchers, both from the United States and abroad. Biological Physics: With over 2,000 members, the division is the second largest learned society in the world devoted to biological physics, following the Biophysical Society.
The objective of the division is the advancement and dissemination of knowledge on the broad interface of physics and biology. This includes st