West Indies cricket team
The West Indies cricket team, traditionally known as the Windies, is a multi-national cricket team representing the Anglophone Caribbean region and administered by Cricket West Indies. The players on this composite team are selected from a chain of fifteen Caribbean territories, which are parts of several different countries and dependencies; as of 24 June 2018, the West Indian cricket team is ranked ninth in the world in Tests, ninth in ODIs and seventh in T20Is in the official ICC rankings. From the mid-late 1970s to the early 1990s, the West Indies team was the strongest in the world in both Test and One Day International cricket. A number of cricketers who were considered among the best in the world have hailed from the West Indies: Sir Garfield Sobers, Lance Gibbs, George Headley, Brian Lara, Clive Lloyd, Malcolm Marshall, Sir Andy Roberts, Rohan Kanhai, Sir Frank Worrell, Sir Clyde Walcott, Sir Everton Weekes, Sir Curtly Ambrose, Michael Holding, Courtney Walsh, Joel Garner, Sir Viv Richards and Sir Wes Hall have all been inducted into the ICC Hall of Fame.
The West Indies have won the ICC Cricket World Cup twice, the ICC World Twenty20 twice, the ICC Champions Trophy once, the ICC Under 19 Cricket World Cup once, have finished as runners-up in the Cricket World Cup, the Under 19 Cricket World Cup, the ICC Champions Trophy. The West Indies appeared in three consecutive World Cup finals, were the first team to win back-to-back World Cups; the West Indies has hosted the 2007 Cricket World Cup and the 2010 ICC World Twenty20. The current side represents: Sovereign states Antigua and BarbudaL Barbados DominicaW GrenadaW Guyana Jamaica Saint LuciaW Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesW Trinidad and Tobago Parts of Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint KittsL NevisL British Overseas Territories AnguillaL MontserratL British Virgin IslandsL Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands Sint MaartenL Territory of the United States US Virgin IslandsLLegends L = Participant of the Leeward Islands team and member of the Leeward Islands Cricket Association W = Participant of the Windward Islands team and member of the Windward Islands Cricket Board of ControlNotes Cricket West Indies, the governing body of the team, consists of the six cricket associations of Barbados, Jamaica and Tobago, Leeward Islands and Windward Islands.
The Leeward Islands Cricket Association consists of associations of one sovereign state, the two entities of Saint Kitts and Nevis, three British Overseas Territories and two other dependencies. The Windward Islands Cricket Board of Control consists of associations of four sovereign states. Cayman Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands, other historical parts of the former West Indies Federation and now British Overseas Territories, have their own teams. National teams exist for the various islands, which, as they are all separate countries much keep their local identities and support their local favourites; these national teams take part in the Carib Beer Cup. It is common for other international teams to play the island teams for warm-up games before they take on the combined West Indies team; the population of these countries and dependencies is estimated at around 6 million, more than Scotland and the Republic of Ireland. The member associations of Cricket West Indies are: Barbados Cricket Association Guyana Cricket Board Jamaica Cricket Association Trinidad & Tobago Cricket Board Leeward Islands Cricket Association.
The WICB joined the sport's international ruling body, the Imperial Cricket Conference, in 1926, played their first official international match, granted Test status, in 1928, thus becoming the fourth Test nation. In their early days in the 1930s, the side represented the British colonies that would form the West Indies Federation plus British Guiana; the last series the West Indies played before the outbreak of the Second World War was against England in 1939. There followed a hiatus. Of the West Indies players in that first match after the war only Gerry Gomez, George Headley, Jeffrey Stollmeyer, Foffie Williams had played Test cricket. In 1948, leg spinner Wilfred Ferguson became the first West Indian bowler to take ten wickets in a Test, finishing with 11/229 in a match against England.
Ravindrasinh Anirudhsinh Jadeja known as Ravindra Jadeja, is an Indian international cricketer. He is an all-rounder, who plays as a left-handed middle-order batsman and slow left-arm orthodox bowler, he represents Saurashtra in first-class cricket and the Chennai Super Kings in the Indian Premier League. Jadeja was part of the Indian U-19 cricket team that won the World Cup in Malaysia in 2008 under the captaincy of current Indian Captain Virat Kohli, he made his ODI debut against Sri Lanka on 8 February 2009 and scored an unbeaten 60 off 77 balls in that match. However, his Test debut came four years on 13 December 2012, against England at Nagpur. Jadeja was bought for $2 million by the Chennai Super Kings at the 2012 IPL Players Auction, he was bought by the Gujarat Lions in the 2016 IPL Players Auction for ₹9.5 crores after the Chennai Super Kings were banned from the IPL for two seasons. On 22 January 2017, Jadeja became the first Indian left-arm spinner to take 150 One Day International wickets, when he dismissed Sam Billings at Eden Gardens, Kolkata.
In March 2017, he became the top ranked bowler in the world leaving behind Ravichandran Ashwin who held that position for a long time. Ravindra Jadeja was born on 6 December 1988, his father Anirudh was a watchman for a private security agency. His father wanted him to become an Army officer but his interest was in Cricket, he was scared of his father in his childhood, his mother Lata died in an accident in 2005 and the trauma of his mother's death made him quit cricket. His sister Naina is a nurse, he lives in Jamnagar. Ravindra Jadeja got engaged to Rivaba Solanki on 5 February 2016, they were blessed with a baby girl on 8 June 2017 and they named her Nidhyana Jadeja made his first Under-19 appearance for India in 2005 at the age of 16. He was picked in the Indian squad for the 2006 U/19 Cricket World Cup in Sri Lanka. India finished runners-up with Jadeja impressing in the final against Pakistan with a haul of 3 wickets, he was the vice-captain of the victorious Indian team at the 2008 U/19 Cricket World Cup.
He played a crucial role with the ball in the tournament, taking 10 wickets in 6 games at an average of 13. Jadeja made his first-class debut in the 2006–07 Duleep Trophy, he plays for Saurashtra in the Ranji Trophy. In 2012, Jadeja became the eighth player in history, the first Indian player, to score three first-class triple centuries in his career, joining Don Bradman, Brian Lara, Bill Ponsford, Wally Hammond, WG Grace, Graeme Hick and Mike Hussey, his first came in early November 2011 against Orissa. His second came in November 2012 against Gujarat, his third came against Railways in December 2012. Jadeja reached this milestone at the young age of only 23. Jadeja caught the attention of the national selectors with his strong all-round showing in the 2008–09 Ranji Trophy – 42 wickets and 739 runs – and was picked for the ODI series in Sri Lanka, his international debut came in the final match of the series on 8 February 2009 where he scored 60*, although India lost the match. In the 2009 World Twenty20, Jadeja was criticised for not scoring fast enough in India's loss to England.
After the incumbent all-rounder Yusuf Pathan suffered a loss of form, Jadeja took his place at No. 7 in the ODI team in late 2009. In the third ODI against Sri Lanka in Cuttack on 21 December 2009, Jadeja was awarded the man of the match award following a haul of four wickets, his best bowling is 4–32. He made a comeback into the Indian ODI side in the third ODI against England at The Oval in London. Arriving at the crease with India 58–5 after 19 overs, he scored 78, adding 112 with skipper Mahendra Singh Dhoni and 59 off only 5.1 overs with Ravichandran Ashwin to help his side reach 234–7 in 50 overs. He took 2–42 from his 9 overs and was named "player of the match", but England won the rain-affected game, his performance in the fourth ODI at Lord's was mixed: he gave away four crucial overthrows with a poor throw from the boundary, but took a brilliant catch on the boundary off the last ball. In the second T20I of the Australian tour in February 2012, Jadeja had figures of 1/16 in 3 overs and effected two run outs in the Australian innings.
India went on to win the game and Jadeja was awarded Man of the Match for his fielding effort. After his impressive performance at the start of Ranji Trophy season 2012–13, when he scored two 300+ scores in 4 matches, he was called up to join the 15-member India Test team to play the fourth Test against England at Nagpur. In his Test debut against England at Nagpur, he bowled 70 overs and picked 3/117. During the second ODI in the India-England series at Kochi, Jadeja smashed 61 off just 37 balls, which took India to a total of 285. In the second innings, he bowled a remarkable spell of 2 for 12 in 7 overs, helping India beat England by 127 runs and level the series 1–1; this performance earned Jadeja the Man of the Match award. In the historic 4–0 home Test series win against Australia in February–March 2013, Jadeja took 24 wickets, dismissing the Australian captain Michael Clarke five out of six times in the series which cemented his place in the team as an all-rounder, despite not contributing much with the bat.
His seven-wicket haul, including a five-for in the second innings of the final Test match, earned him the Man of the Match award. He played an important role for India in lifting the ICC Champions Trophy 2013, he was the highest wicket taker of the tournament with 12 wickets. He made 33* with bat a
Fast bowling is one of two main approaches to bowling in the sport of cricket, the other being spin bowling. Practitioners of pace bowling are known as fast bowlers, quicks, or pacemen, they can be referred to as a seam bowler or a'fast bowler who can swing it' to reflect the predominant characteristic of their deliveries. Speaking, a pure swing bowler does not need to have a high degree of pace, though dedicated medium-pace swing bowlers are seen at Test level these days; the aim of fast bowling is to deliver the ball in such a fashion as to cause the batsman to make a mistake. The bowler achieves this by making the hard cricket ball deviate from a predictable, linear trajectory at a speed that limits the time the batsman has to compensate for it. For deviation caused by the ball's stitching, the ball bounces off the pitch and deflects either away from the batsman's body, or inwards towards them. Swing bowlers on the other hand use the seam of the ball but in a different way. To'bowl swing' is to induce a curved trajectory of the cricket ball through the air.
Swing bowlers use a combination of seam orientation, body position at the point of release, asymmetric ball polishing, variations in delivery speed to affect an aerodynamic influence on the ball. The ability of a bowler to induce lateral deviation or'sideways movement' make it difficult for the batsman to address the flight of the ball accurately. Beyond this ability to create an unpredictable path of ball trajectory, the fastest bowlers can be potent by delivering a ball at such a rate that a batsman fails to react either or at all. A typical fast delivery has a speed in the range of 137–153 km/h, it is possible for a bowler to concentrate on speed when young, but as fast bowlers mature they pick up new skills and tend to rely more on swing bowling or seam bowling techniques. Most fast bowlers specialise in one of these two areas and are sometimes categorised as swing or seam bowler. However, this classification is not satisfactory because the categories are not mutually exclusive and a skilled bowler bowls a mixture of fast, swinging and cutting balls—even if he prefers one style to the others.
For simplicity, it is common to subdivide fast bowlers according to the average speed of their deliveries, as follows. There is a degree of subjectivity in the usage of these terms. For comparison, most spin bowlers in professional cricket bowl at average speeds of 70 to 90 km/h. Shoaib Akhtar, Brett Lee, Shaun Tait, Jeff Thomson and Mitchell Starc have clocked over 160 km/h and are categorised as "Ultra Fast" bowlers although bowling at speeds lower than this mark. While Steven Finn is classified as a fast-medium bowler by Cricinfo, he can bowl at around 145 km/h, with his fastest clocked at 151.9 km/h, making him the 10th fastest amongst active bowlers as of 3 January 2015 The first thing a fast bowler needs to do is to grip the ball correctly. The basic fast bowling grip to achieve maximum speed is to hold the ball with the seam upright and to place the index and middle fingers close together at the top of the seam with the thumb gripping the ball at the bottom of the seam; the image to the right shows the correct grip.
The first two fingers and the thumb should hold the ball forward of the rest of the hand, the other two fingers should be tucked into the palm. The ball is held quite loosely so. Other grips are possible, result in different balls – see swing and seam bowling below; the bowler holds their other hand over the hand gripping the ball until the latest possible moment so that the batsman cannot see what type of ball is being bowled. A fast bowler needs to take a longer run-up toward the wicket than a spinner, due to the need to generate the momentum and rhythm required to bowl a fast delivery. Fast bowlers measure their preferred run up in strides, mark the distance from the wicket, it is important for the bowler to know how long the run-up is because it must terminate behind the popping crease. A bowler who steps on or beyond this has bowled a no-ball, which affords the batsman immunity from dismissal, adds one run to the batting team's score, forces the bowler to bowl another ball in the over. At the end of the run-up the bowler brings his lead foot down on the pitch with the knee as straight as possible.
This can be dangerous due to the pressure it places on the joint. Knee injuries are not uncommon amongst fast bowlers: for example, the English pace bowler David Lawrence was sidelined for many months after splitting his kneecap in two; the pressure on the leading foot is such that some fast bowlers cut the front off their shoes to stop their toes from being injured as they are pressed against the inside of the shoe. The bowler brings the bowling arm up over their head and releases the ball at the height appropriate to where they want the ball to pitch. Again, the arm must be straight though this is a stipulation of the laws of cricket rather than an aid to speed. Bending the elbow and "chucking" the ball would make it too easy for the bowler to aim at the batsman's wicket and get them out. Fast bowlers tend to have an action that leaves them either side-on or chest-on at the end of the run up. A chest-on bowler has chest and hips aligned towards the batsman at the instant of back foot contact, while a side-on bowler has chest and hips aligned at ninety degrees to the batsman at the instant of back foot contact.
West Indian bowler Malcolm Marshall was a c
Frank Worrell Trophy
The Frank Worrell Trophy is awarded to the winner of the West Indies–Australia Test match series in cricket. The trophy is named after Frank Worrell, the first black captain of the West Indies, it was first awarded at the end of the 1960–61 series in Australia, the first Test of which ended in a tie. The Australian Cricket Board of Control and Don Bradman commissioned former Test cricketer and professional jeweller Ernie McCormick to create a perpetual trophy following the tie; the trophy's design incorporated a ball used in the tied Test. As of 2019, Australia hold the trophy following their 2–0 series victory in the West Indies 2015–16 tour. Australia lead in overall wins, winning 14 of the 24 series, while the West Indies have won 8, the remaining 2 ending in draws. Brian Lara is the most successful batsman in the history of the trophy, scoring 2,815 runs for the West Indies in 56 innings at an average of 52.12. He holds the record for the highest score which he made in the third Test at the Sydney Cricket Ground during the 1992–93 series.
West Indian fast bowler Courtney Walsh has taken the most wickets in the trophy, with 135 over 38 matches, at an average of 28.68, while Australia's Graham McKenzie has the best bowling figures of 8 wickets for 71 runs, achieved in the second Test of the 1968–69 series. Australian Mark Waugh has taken the most catches, with 45 in 28 matches, while West Indian Jeff Dujon is the most successful wicketkeeper, making 84 dismissals in 23 matches. Frank Worrell became the first black captain of the West Indies cricket team prior to their 1960–61 tour of Australia; the first Test of the five-match series ended in the first in the history of Test cricket. Don Bradman remarked to Australia captain Richie Benaud, "That is the greatest thing that's happened to the game". Evelyn Wellings described the Test as "the Greatest Test Match, the Greatest Cricket Match and the Greatest Game played with a ball". Despite that setback, with Benaud claiming the Australians had "thrown away a match", they went on to win the series 2–1 with one drawn Test.
Former cricketer and journalist Johnny Moyes declared the series to be "the most wonderful cricket tour Australia has known". The West Indies team received acclaim for their performances, the whole series was played in a convivial manner, the Australians, suitably impressed by Worrell, named the trophy after him. Winning the first and third Tests of the 1964–65 series, the West Indians took the trophy to the Caribbean for the first time; the following three series were all won by Australia, with the 1975–76 series ending 5–1. The West Indies sole Test victory in the latter series, at the WACA Ground in Perth, was by an innings and 87 runs, it featured an explosive innings from West Indian batsman Roy Fredericks who struck 169 from 145 deliveries and was described by former batsman Lindsay Hassett as the "greatest innings I've seen in Australia". The 1977–78 series saw the beginning of fifteen years of West Indian dominance in the trophy, but it was not without controversy; the first two Tests of that series were completed within three days, the second being notable for Graham Yallop becoming the first batsman to wear a helmet at the crease.
With the West Indies team departing to join Kerry Packer's World Series Cricket as the World Series Cricket West Indies XI, Australia managed a victory against the second-string team in the third Test but were beaten by 198 runs in the fourth. The final Test saw the West Indies eight wickets down with more than 100 runs needed when Vanburn Holder was dismissed. Although the decision was legitimate, Holder's reaction on the way back to the pavilion was interpreted otherwise, the Jamaican crowds began to riot; the match was abandoned, with two of the three umpires refusing to consider a sixth day's play, the result was declared a draw. The 1981–82 series was drawn overall, with one victory each and one draw, thus the West Indies retained the trophy. After drawing the first two Tests of the 1983–84 series, the West Indies swept the Australians aside, winning the remaining Tests, two by ten wickets and one by an innings and 36 runs, they continued their good form in the following series in Australia, with dominant wins in the first three Tests, losing the final Test to secure the trophy with a 3–1 victory.
The West Indies were superior over the next three series, winning seven Test matches to Australia's three, thereby holding the Frank Worrell Trophy from 1978 to 1993. The final and deciding Test of the 1992–93 series saw Curtly Ambrose take seven wickets for one run in 32 deliveries, reducing Australia from 85 for 2 to 119 all out. For the 1994 -- 95 series, the West Indies brought in a new manager. Despite a fourth wicket stand of 124 between Brian Lara and Carl Hooper after the West Indies had been reduced to 6 runs for 3 wickets, Australia secured a ten-wicket victory inside three days. A draw in the second Test was followed by a nine-wicket victory for the West Indies in the third; the fourth and final Test was referred to as "make or break for both teams" by the Australian bowler Paul Reiffel. Although Richie Richardson scored a century in the first innings, this was overshadowed by the Waugh brothers – Mark made 126 while Steve scored 200; the West Indies were dismissed without reaching Australia's first innings total, with Reiffel and Shane Warne taking four wickets each, the trophy went to Australia for the first time since 1976.
Australia made it back-to-back series wins with a 3–2 victory in 1996–97, yet could only draw the series in the West Indies in 1998–99. However, the 2000–01 series
Saint Michael, Barbados
The parish of St. Michael is one of eleven parishes of Barbados, it is found at the southwest portion of the island. Saint Michael has survived by name as one of the original six parishes created in 1629 by Governor Sir William Tufton; the parish is home to Bridgetown, the capital of Barbados. Bridgetown is the centre of commercial activity in Barbados, as well as a central hub for the public transport network. Other major infrastructure in St. Michael is the international seaport of Barbados—the Deep Water Harbour. Therein, a number of cruise ships arrive and depart including various lines such as Royal Caribbean and Cunard; the harbour features several sugar towers for loading locally produced sugar into transport ships, a tower for loading flour for transport. The Needham's Point Lighthouse is located in Needham's Point, Saint Michael, behind the new Hilton Barbados Hotel. Under Barbados's historical vestry system, the main parish church is sited in St Michael's Row in Bridgetown; the cathedral replaced the former parish church, located at the site of St Mary's Church.
St Michael's Cathedral was elevated to cathedral status under Bishop Coleridge, who arrived in Barbados in 1825 to head the newly created Diocese of Barbados and the Leeward Islands. Christ Church - South Saint George - East Saint James - Northwest Saint Thomas - Northeast with Christ Church: – Starts from the meeting point of the parishes of St. George, St. Michael, Christ Church and proceeds southerly along the plantation track and the boundary between the residential developments called Fort George Heights and Kent House to the boundary junction with public road called Highway R, it moves westerly along Highway R to its junction at Wildey with the Airport to West Coast Highway. It goes southerly along the Highway to merge at Clapham with the public road called Highway 6 go north-westerly along Highway 6 to its junction with the public Observatory Road moves southerly along Observatory Road to its junction with the public Fordes Road. Moving south-westerly, north-westerly and northerly along Fordes Road, Bonnett’s Road and Brittons New Road to its junction with Dalkeith Hill westerly along Dalkeith Hill to its junction with Deighton Road.
Along Dayrells Road in a south-westerly, north-westerly and westerly direction to its junction with Dalkeith Road at the Garrison continuing along Dalkeith Road south-westerly to its junction with the public road Highway 7. With St. George: – Starting from the meeting point of the parishes of St. George, St. Michael, Christ Church and proceeding in a westerly and northerly direction along the plantation track to its junction at lower Birneys with the public road Highway 5. Northerly along Haynes Hill and Pasture Road to its junction with Monroe Road; this is the meeting point of the parishes of St. George, St. Michael, St. Thomas. With St. James: – Starting from the meeting point of the parishes of St. James, St. Thomas, St. Michael and proceeding westwards along the public road called Clermont Road to its junction with the public road called Husbands Road. With St. Thomas: – Starting from the meeting point of the parishes of St. Thomas, St. George, St. Michael and proceeding along Highway E in a south-westerly direction to the junction with the public road running from Canewood to Jackson.
Sir Robert Gordon Menzies, was an Australian politician who twice served as Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1939 to 1941 and again from 1949 to 1966. He played a central role in the creation of the Liberal Party of Australia, defining its policies and its broad outreach, he is Australia's longest-serving prime minister, serving over 18 years in total. Menzies became one of Melbourne's leading lawyers, he was Deputy Premier of Victoria from 1932 to 1934, transferred to federal parliament, subsequently becoming Attorney-General and Minister for Industry in the government of Joseph Lyons. In April 1939, following Lyons's death, Menzies was elected leader of the United Australia Party and sworn in as prime minister, he authorised Australia's entry into World War II in September 1939, in 1941 spent four months in England to participate in meetings of Churchill's war cabinet. On his return to Australia in August 1941, Menzies found that he had lost the support of his party and resigned as prime minister.
He subsequently helped to create the new Liberal Party, was elected its inaugural leader in August 1945. At the 1949 federal election, Menzies led the Liberal–Country coalition to victory and returned as prime minister, his appeal to the home and family, promoted via reassuring radio talks, matched the national mood as the economy grew and middle-class values prevailed. After 1955, his government received support from the Democratic Labour Party, a breakaway group from the Labor Party. Menzies won seven consecutive elections during his second term retiring as prime minister in January 1966, his legacy has been debated, but his government is remembered today for its development of Canberra, its expanded post-war immigration scheme, its emphasis on higher education, its national security policies, which saw Australia contribute troops to the Korean War, the Malayan Emergency, the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation, the Vietnam War. Robert Gordon Menzies was born on 20 December 1894 at his parents' home in Victoria.
He was the fourth of five children born to James Menzies. Menzies was the first Australian prime minister to have two Australian-born parents: his father was born in Ballarat and his mother in Creswick, his grandparents on both sides had been drawn to Australia by the Victorian gold rush. His maternal grandparents were born in Cornwall, his paternal grandfather named Robert Menzies, was born in Renfrewshire and arrived in Melbourne in 1854. The following year he married the daughter of a cobbler from Fife. Menzies was proud of his Scottish heritage, preferred his surname to be pronounced in the traditional Scottish manner rather than as it is spelled; this gave rise to his nickname "Ming", expanded to "Ming the Merciless" after the comic strip character. His middle name was given in honour of Charles George Gordon; the Menzies family had moved to Jeparit, a small Wimmera township, in the year before Robert's birth. At the 1891 census, the settlement had a population of just 55 people, his elder siblings had been born in Ballarat, where his father was a locomotive painter at the Phoenix Foundry.
Seeking a new start, he moved the family to Jeparit to take over the general store, which "survived rather than prospered". During Menzies's childhood, three of his close relatives were elected to parliament, his uncle Hugh was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly in 1902, followed by his father in 1911, while another uncle, Sydney Sampson, was elected to the federal House of Representatives in 1906. Each of the three represented rural constituencies, were defeated after a few terms. Menzies's maternal grandfather John Sampson was active in the trade union movement, he was the inaugural president of the Creswick Miners' Association, which he co-founded with future Labor MP William Spence, was prominent in the Amalgamated Miners' Association. Growing up, Menzies and his siblings "had the normal enjoyments and camaraderies of a small country town", he began his formal education in 1899 at a single-teacher one-room school. When he was about eleven, he and his sister were sent to Ballarat to live with his paternal grandmother.
In 1906, Menzies began attending the Humffray Street State School in Bakery Hill. The following year, aged 13, he ranked first in the state-wide scholarship examinations; this feat financed the entirety of his secondary education, which had to be undertaken at private schools as Victoria did not yet have a system of public secondary schools. In 1908 and 1909, Menzies attended a small private school in Ballarat Central, he and his family moved to Melbourne in 1910. Menzies was "not interested in and incompetent at sport", but excelled academically. In his third and final year at Wesley he won a £40 exhibition for university study, one of 25 awarded by the state government. In 1913, Menzies entered the Melbourne Law School, he won a variety of prizes and scholarships during his time as a student, graduating as a Bachelor of Laws in 1916 and a Master of Laws in 1918. He did, fail Latin in his first year. One of his prize-winning essays, The Rule of Law During the War, was published as a brochure with an introduction by Harrison Moore, the law school dean.
In 1916, Menzies was elected president of the Student Representatives' Council and editor of the Melbourne University Mag
C. L. R. James
Cyril Lionel Robert James, who sometimes wrote under the pen-name J. R. Johnson, was a Trinidadian historian and socialist, his works are influential in various theoretical and historiographical contexts. His work is a staple of subaltern studies, he figures as a pioneering and influential voice in postcolonial literature. A tireless political activist, James is the author of the 1937 work World Revolution outlining the history of the Communist International, which stirred debate in Trotskyist circles, his history of the Haitian Revolution, The Black Jacobins, is a seminal text in the literature of the African Diaspora. Characterised by one literary critic as an "anti-Stalinist dialectician", James was known for his autodidactism, for his occasional playwriting and fiction – his 1936 book Minty Alley was the first novel by a black West Indian to be published in Britain — and as an avid sportsman, he is famed as a writer on cricket, his 1963 book, Beyond a Boundary, which he himself described as "neither cricket reminiscences nor autobiography", is named as the best single book on any sport written.
Born in Tunapuna, Trinidad a British Crown colony, C. L. R. James was the first child of Elizabeth James and Robert Alexander James, a schoolteacher. In 1910 he won a scholarship to Queen's Royal College, the island's oldest non-Catholic secondary school, in Port of Spain, where he became a club cricketer and distinguished himself as an athlete, as well as beginning to write fiction. After graduating in 1918 from QRC, he worked there as History in the 1920s. Together with Ralph de Boissière, Albert Gomes and Alfred Mendes, James was a member of the anticolonialist "Beacon Group", a circle of writers associated with The Beacon magazine, in which he published a series of short stories. In 1932, James left Trinidad for the small town of Nelson in Lancashire, England, at the invitation of his friend, West Indian cricketer Learie Constantine, who needed his help writing his autobiography Cricket and I. James had brought with him to England the manuscript of his first full-length non-fiction work based on his interviews with the Trinidad labour leader Arthur Andrew Cipriani, published with financial assistance from Constantine in 1932.
During this time James took a job as cricket correspondent with the Manchester Guardian. In 1933 he moved to London; the following year he joined a Trotskyist group. Louise Cripps, one of its members, recalled: "We felt our work could contribute to the time when we would see Socialism spreading." James had begun to campaign for the independence of the West Indies while in Trinidad. An abridged version of his Life of Captain Cipriani was issued by Leonard and Virginia Woolf's Hogarth Press in 1933 as the pamphlet The Case for West-Indian Self Government, he became a champion of Pan-Africanism, was named Chair of the International African Friends of Abyssinia renamed the International African Friends of Ethiopia – a group formed in 1935 in response to the Italian fascist invasion of Ethiopia. Leading members included Jomo Kenyatta and Chris Braithwaite; when the IAFE was transformed into the International African Service Bureau in 1937, James edited its newsletter and the World, its journal, International African Opinion.
The Bureau was led by his childhood friend George Padmore, who would be a driving force for socialist Pan-Africanism for several decades. Both Padmore and James wrote for the New Leader, published by the Independent Labour Party, which James had joined in 1934, finding its anticommunist socialism compatible with his views. In 1934, James wrote a three-act play about the Haitian revolutionary Toussaint L'Ouverture, staged in London's West End in 1936 and starred Paul Robeson, Orlando Martins, Robert Adams and Harry Andrews; the play went on to become the first production from Talawa Theatre Company in 1986, coinciding with the overthrow of Baby Doc Duvalier. That same year saw the publication in London by Secker & Warburg of James's novel, Minty Alley, which he had brought with him in manuscript from Trinidad, it was the first novel to be published by a black Caribbean author in the UK. Amid his frenetic political activity, James wrote what are his best known works of non-fiction: World Revolution, a history of the rise and fall of the Communist International, critically praised by Leon Trotsky, George Orwell, E. H. Carr and Fenner Brockway.
James went to Paris to research this work, where he met Haitian military historian Alfred Auguste Nemours. In 1936, James and his Trotskyist Marxist Group left the ILP to form an open party. In 1938, this new group took part in several mergers to form the Revolutionary Socialist League; the RSL was a factionalised organisation. When James was invited to tour the United States by the leadership of the Socialist Workers' Party the US section of the Fourth International, to facilitate its work among black workers, one Trotskyist, John Archer, encouraged him to leave in the hope of removing a rival. James's relationship with Loui