Frankfurt (Oder)

Frankfurt is a town in Brandenburg, located on the west side of the Oder River, on the Germany-Poland border, about 80 kilometres east of Berlin. Until the end of World War II, the city of Słubice, was a part of Frankfurt; until 1990 Frankfurt an der Oder was part of East Germany. At the end of the 1980s, the city reached a population peak with more than 87,000 inhabitants; the number dropped below 70,000 in 2002 and was just above 60,000 in 2010. The city's recorded history began in the 13th century as a Polish settlement. Throughout its history it was part of Poland, the Bohemian Crown and Germany, including East Germany; the official name Frankfurt and the older Frankfurt an der Oder are used to distinguish it from the larger city of Frankfurt am Main. Prior to 1249, a settlement named; the Piast duke Henry the Bearded granted Zliwitz staple rights in 1225. In 1226 construction of the St. Nicolaus Church began. In 1249 the settlement became part of the Margraviate of Brandenburg; the town of Frankfurt received its charter in 1253 at the Brandendamm.

The early settlers lived on the western banks of the Oder. In the late Middle Ages, the town dominated the river trade between Szczecin. In years 1373-1415 along with Brandenburg it was part of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown. In 1430, Frankfurt joined the Hanseatic League. In April 1631, during the Thirty Years' War, Frankfurt was the site of the Battle of Frankfurt an der Oder between the Swedish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire. After a two-day siege, Swedish forces, supported by Scottish auxiliaries, stormed the town and destroyed lots of buildings, eg. the Georgen Hospital. The result was a Swedish victory; the city was occupied by the Russian Imperial Army during the Seven Years' War, in August 1759, in the prelude to the battle of Kunersdorf. With the dissolution of the Margraviate of Brandenburg during the Napoleonic Wars, Frankfurt became part of the Province of Brandenburg in 1815. In the 19th century, Frankfurt played an important role in trade. Centrally positioned in the Kingdom of Prussia between Berlin and Posen, on the river Oder with its heavy traffic, the town housed the second-largest annual trade fair of the German Reich, surpassed only by that in Leipzig.

There was no fighting for the town in 1945 during World War II though the town was declared a fortress in an attempt to block the Red Army's route to Berlin. The nearly empty town was burned down; the postwar German-Polish border ran along the Oder, separating the Dammvorstadt on the eastern bank - which became the Polish town of Słubice - from the rest of Frankfurt. While part of communist East Germany, Frankfurt was administered within Bezirk Frankfurt, it became part of the reconstituted state of Brandenburg with German reunification in 1990. Today, Słubice have friendly relations and run several common projects and facilities. Poland joined the European Union on 1 May 2004, implemented the Schengen Agreement on 21 December 2007 leading to the removal of permanent border controls. In the post-communist era, Frankfurt has suffered from low economic growth, its population has fallen from around 87,000 at the time of German reunification in 1990. 1. FC Frankfurt is the town's local football team.

In March 2008, the Jewish community of Frankfurt celebrated its first Torah dedication since the Holocaust. The procession of the new Torah scroll began from the spot where the town's Frankfurter Synagogue stood prior to World War II, 500 meters from Germany's current border with Poland. Celebrants marched with the scroll into the town's Chabad-Lubavitch centre, where they danced with the Torah, donated by members of the Chabad-Lubavitch community in Berlin; the city was known in Polish as Słubice. The Margraviate of Brandenburg's first university was Frankfurt's Alma Mater Viadrina, founded in 1506 by Joachim I Nestor, Elector of Brandenburg. An early chancellor, Bishop Georg von Blumenthal, was a notable opponent of the Protestant Reformation, as he remained a Catholic. Frankfurt trained the noted archbishop Albert of Brandenburg around 1510, who became a vocal opponent of the Reformation; the university attracted many Polish students. It was closed in 1811, its assets divided between two new universities founded under King Frederick William III: Frederick William University of Berlin, presently Humboldt University.

The university was refounded in 1991 with a European emphasis as the Viadrina European University, in close cooperation with the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań. The Frankfurt Bahnhof is a station served by the Berlin-Warszawa Express and has regular regional connections to Magdeburg and Cottbus. Within the city, there is a network of five tram lines. Frankfurt, being located on the border to Poland, plays a special role in connection with German–Polish relations and European integration; the European University Viadrina has one of its buildings in Poland, in the neighbouring town of Słubice. The university has a number of projects and initiatives dedicated to bringing Poland and Germany together, offers its students pro bono Polish courses. Another project that contributes to German–Polish integration in Frankfurt is the Fforst House, a German-

Moore Reserve

Moore Reserve is a 14.2 hectare park surrounded by the Sydney suburbs of Oatley and Hurstville Grove. It is the second largest public space in the Municipality of Kogarah. Part of the north west arm, Moore Reserve was created in the 1960s by infilling with mud dredged from Oatley Bay. At the time the existing natural waterway, Renown Creek, was destroyed and replaced by concrete pipes. An artificial wetland was constructed in 2001 which uses natural processes to treat 95% of all stormwater runoff from the 125 hectare catchment before it enters Oatley Bay. Moore Reserve has the following features: The reserve has a large parking area. There are large open fields. There is an outdoor fitness play set. There is a long path. There are a couple of different sized swing sets, climbing equipment and other children’s play sets, lots of grass and tall trees, picnic tables and BBQ facilities. Lovely views of Oatley Bay from the designated viewing platform. Waterfront access to Oatley Bay, including a boat ramp and small beach.

Lots of room to run around. Oatley Point Reserve Oatley Pleasure Grounds Parks in Sydney Renown Park, New South Wales Moore Reserve Constructed Wetland, Kogarah NSW Moore Reserve wetlands, Google Maps: Moore Reserve


Phyllonoma is a genus consisting of 4 species of trees and shrubs. Phyllonoma is the sole genus in the family Phyllonomaceae. Phyllonoma species are native to Central America, they can be recognized by the structure of their flowers. The APG II classification places them in the order Aquifoliales, along with the hollies and Helwingiaceae. In the Cronquist classification this family does not exist: the genus Phyllonoma is included in the family Grossulariaceae. Aquifoliales - Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, consulted 2007-02-04. Dulongiaceae, Watson, L. and Dallwitz, M. J. 1992 onwards. The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations and information retrieval. Version: 29 July 2006. Phyllonomaceae from NCBI-Taxonomy Phyllonomaceae, USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network -. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Maryland. Consulted 2007-02-04