Mainz is the capital and largest city of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The city is located on the Rhine river at its confluence with the Main river, opposite Wiesbaden on the border with Hesse. Mainz is an independent city with a population of 206,628 and forms part of the Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region. Mainz was founded by the Romans in the 1st Century BC during the Classical antiquity era, serving as a military fortress on the northernmost frontier of the Roman Empire and as the provincial capital of Germania Superior. Mainz became an important city in the 8th Century AD as part of the Holy Roman Empire, becoming the capital of the Electorate of Mainz and seat of the Archbishop-Elector of Mainz, the Primate of Germany. Mainz is famous as the home of Johannes Gutenberg, the inventor of the movable-type printing press, who in the early 1450s manufactured his first books in the city, including the Gutenberg Bible. Before the 20th century, the city was known in English as Mentz and in French as Mayence.
Mainz was damaged during World War II, with more than 30 air raids destroying about 80 percent of the city's center, including most of the historic buildings. Today, Mainz is a center of wine production. Mainz is located on the 50th latitude, on the left bank of the river Rhine, opposite the confluence of the Main with the Rhine; the population in the early 2012 was 200,957, an additional 18,619 people maintain a primary residence elsewhere but have a second home in Mainz. The city is part of the Rhein Metro area comprising 5.8 million people. Mainz can be reached from Frankfurt International Airport in 25 minutes by commuter railway. Mainz is a river port city as the Rhine which connects with its main tributaries, such as the Neckar, the Main and the Moselle and thereby continental Europe with the Port of Rotterdam and thus the North Sea. Mainz's history and economy are tied to its proximity to the Rhine handling much of the region's waterborne cargo. Today's huge container port hub allowing trimodal transport is located on the North Side of the town.
The river provides another positive effect, moderating Mainz's climate. After the last ice age, sand dunes were deposited in the Rhine valley at what was to become the western edge of the city; the Mainz Sand Dunes area is now a nature reserve with a unique landscape and rare steppe vegetation for this area. While the Mainz legion camp was founded in 13/12 BC on the Kästrich hill, the associated vici and canabae were erected in direction to the Rhine. Historical sources and archaeological findings both prove the importance of the military and civilian Mogontiacum as a port city on the Rhine. Mainz experiences an oceanic climate; the Roman stronghold or castrum Mogontiacum, the precursor to Mainz, was founded by the Roman general Drusus as early as 13/12 BC. As related by Suetonius the existence of Mogontiacum is well established by four years though several other theories suggest the site may have been established earlier. Although the city is situated opposite the mouth of the Main, the name of Mainz is not from Main, the similarity being due to diachronic analogy.
Main is from the name the Romans used for the river. Linguistic analysis of the many forms that the name "Mainz" has taken on make it clear that it is a simplification of Mogontiacum; the name appears to be Celtic and it is. However, it had become Roman and was selected by them with a special significance; the Roman soldiers defending Gallia had adopted the Gallic god Mogons, for the meaning of which etymology offers two basic options: "the great one", similar to Latin magnus, used in aggrandizing names such as Alexander magnus, "Alexander the Great" and Pompeius magnus, "Pompey the great", or the god of "might" personified as it appears in young servitors of any type whether of noble or ignoble birth. Mogontiacum was an important military town throughout Roman times due to its strategic position at the confluence of the Main and the Rhine; the town of Mogontiacum grew up between the river. The castrum was the base of Legio XIV Gemina and XVI Gallica, XXII Primigenia, IV Macedonica, I Adiutrix, XXI Rapax, XIV Gemina, among others.
Mainz was a base of a Roman river fleet, the Classis Germanica. Remains of Roman troop ships and a patrol boat from the late 4th century were discovered in 1982/86 and may now be viewed in the Museum für Antike Schifffahrt. A temple dedicated to Isis Panthea and Magna Mater is open to the public; the city was the provincial capital of Germania Superior, had an important funeral monument dedicated to Drusus, to which people made pilgrimages for an annual festival from as far away as Lyon. Among the famous buildings were a bridge across the Rhine; the city was the site of the assassination of emperor Severus Alexander in 235. Alemanni forces under Rando sacked the city in 368. From the last day of 405 or 406, the Siling and Asding Vandals, the Suebi, the Alans, other Germanic tribes crossed the Rhine at Mainz. Christian chronicles relate that the bishop, was put to death by the Alemannian Crocus; the way was open to the invasion of Gaul. Throughout the changes of time, the Roman castrum never seems to have been permanently abandoned as a military installation, a testimony to Roman military judgemen
Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template. The earliest non-paper products involving printing include cylinder seals and objects such as the Cyrus Cylinder and the Cylinders of Nabonidus; the earliest known form of printing as applied to paper was woodblock printing, which appeared in China before 220 AD. Developments in printing technology include the movable type invented by Bi Sheng around 1040 AD and the printing press invented by Johannes Gutenberg in the 15th century; the technology of printing played a key role in the development of the Renaissance and the scientific revolution, laid the material basis for the modern knowledge-based economy and the spread of learning to the masses. Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns, used throughout East Asia, it originated in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and on paper. As a method of printing on cloth, the earliest surviving examples from China date to before 220 A.
D. The earliest surviving woodblock printed fragments are from China, they are of silk printed with flowers in three colours from the Han Dynasty. They are the earliest example of woodblock printing on paper and appeared in the mid-seventh century in China. By the ninth century, printing on paper had taken off, the first extant complete printed book containing its date is the Diamond Sutra of 868. By the tenth century, 400,000 copies of some sutras and pictures were printed, the Confucian classics were in print. A skilled printer could print up to 2,000 double-page sheets per day. Printing spread early to Korea and Japan, which used Chinese logograms, but the technique was used in Turpan and Vietnam using a number of other scripts; this technique spread to Persia and Russia. This technique was transmitted to Europe via the Islamic world, by around 1400 was being used on paper for old master prints and playing cards. However, Arabs never used this to print the Quran because of the limits imposed by Islamic doctrine.
Block printing, called tarsh in Arabic, developed in Arabic Egypt during the ninth and tenth centuries for prayers and amulets. There is some evidence to suggest that these print blocks made from non-wood materials tin, lead, or clay; the techniques employed are uncertain and they appear to have had little influence outside of the Muslim world. Though Europe adopted woodblock printing from the Muslim world for fabric, the technique of metal block printing remained unknown in Europe. Block printing went out of use in Islamic Central Asia after movable type printing was introduced from China. Block printing first came to Europe as a method for printing on cloth, where it was common by 1300. Images printed on cloth for religious purposes could elaborate; when paper became easily available, around 1400, the technique transferred quickly to small woodcut religious images and playing cards printed on paper. These prints produced in large numbers from about 1425 onward. Around the mid-fifteenth-century, block-books, woodcut books with both text and images carved in the same block, emerged as a cheaper alternative to manuscripts and books printed with movable type.
These were all short illustrated works, the bestsellers of the day, repeated in many different block-book versions: the Ars moriendi and the Biblia pauperum were the most common. There is still some controversy among scholars as to whether their introduction preceded or, the majority view, followed the introduction of movable type, with the range of estimated dates being between about 1440 and 1460. Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letterpunches. Movable type allowed for much more flexible processes than block printing. Around 1040, the first known movable type system was created in China by Bi Sheng out of porcelain. Bi Sheng used clay type, which broke but Wang Zhen by 1298 had carved a more durable type from wood, he developed a complex system of revolving tables and number-association with written Chinese characters that made typesetting and printing more efficient. Still, the main method in use there remained woodblock printing, which "proved to be cheaper and more efficient for printing Chinese, with its thousands of characters".
Copper movable type printing originated in China at the beginning of the 12th century. It was used in large-scale printing of paper money issued by the Northern Song dynasty. Movable type spread to Korea during the Goryeo dynasty. Around 1230, Koreans invented a metal type movable printing using bronze; the Jikji, published in 1377, is the earliest known metal printed book. Type-casting was adapted from the method of casting coins; the character was cut in beech wood, pressed into a soft clay to form a mould, bronze poured into the mould, the type was polished. The Korean form of metal movable type was described by the French scholar Henri-Jean Martin as "extremely similar to Gutenberg's". Eastern metal movable type was spread to Europe between the late 14th century and the early 15th century. Around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg introduced the first movable type printing system in Europe, he advanced innovations in casting type based on a matrix and hand mould, adaptations to the screw-press, the use of an oil-based ink, the creation of a softer and more absorbent paper.
Gutenberg was the first to create his type pieces from an alloy of lead, antimony and bismuth – the same components still used today. Johannes Gutenberg started work on his printing press around 1436, in partnership with Andreas Dritzeh
An academy is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership. Academia is the worldwide group composed of professors and researchers at institutes of higher learning; the name traces back to Plato's school of philosophy, founded 385 BC at Akademia, a sanctuary of Athena, the goddess of wisdom and skill, north of Athens, Greece. The word comes from the Academy in ancient Greece, which derives from Akademos. Outside the city walls of Athens, the gymnasium was made famous by Plato as a center of learning; the sacred space, dedicated to the goddess of wisdom, had been an olive grove, hence the expression "the groves of Academe". In these gardens, the philosopher Plato conversed with followers. Plato developed his sessions into a method of teaching philosophy and in 387 BC, established what is known today as the Old Academy. By extension academia has come to mean the cultural accumulation of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations and its practitioners and transmitters.
In the 17th century, British and French scholars used the term to describe types of institutions of higher learning. Before Akademia was a school, before Cimon enclosed its precincts with a wall, it contained a sacred grove of olive trees dedicated to Athena, the goddess of wisdom, outside the city walls of ancient Athens; the archaic name for the site was Hekademia, which by classical times evolved into Akademia and was explained, at least as early as the beginning of the 6th century BC, by linking it to an Athenian hero, a legendary "Akademos". The site of Akademia was sacred to other immortals. Plato's immediate successors as "scholarch" of Akademia were Speusippus, Polemon and Arcesilaus. Scholarchs include Lacydes of Cyrene, Carneades and Philo of Larissa. Other notable members of Akademia include Aristotle, Heraclides Ponticus, Eudoxus of Cnidus, Philip of Opus and Antiochus of Ascalon. After a lapse during the early Roman occupation, Akademia was refounded as a new institution of some outstanding Platonists of late antiquity who called themselves "successors" and presented themselves as an uninterrupted tradition reaching back to Plato.
However, there cannot have been any geographical, economic or personal continuity with the original Academy in the new organizational entity. The last "Greek" philosophers of the revived Akademia in the 6th century were drawn from various parts of the Hellenistic cultural world and suggest the broad syncretism of the common culture: Five of the seven Akademia philosophers mentioned by Agathias were Syriac in their cultural origin: Hermias and Diogenes, Isidorus of Gaza, Damascius of Syria, Iamblichus of Coele-Syria and even Simplicius of Cilicia; the emperor Justinian closed the school in AD 529, a date, cited as the end of Antiquity. According to the sole witness, the historian Agathias, its remaining members looked for protection under the rule of Sassanid king Khosrau I in his capital at Ctesiphon, carrying with them precious scrolls of literature and philosophy, to a lesser degree of science. After a peace treaty between the Persian and the Byzantine empire in 532 guaranteed their personal security, some members found sanctuary in the pagan stronghold of Harran, near Edessa.
One of the last leading figures of this group was Simplicius, a pupil of Damascius, the last head of the Athenian school. It has been speculated. After his exile, may have travelled to Harran, near Edessa. From there, the students of an Academy-in-exile could have survived into the 9th century, long enough to facilitate the Arabic revival of the Neoplatonist commentary tradition in Baghdad. In ancient Greece, after the establishment of the original Academy, Plato's colleagues and pupils developed spin-offs of his method. Arcesilaus, a Greek student of Plato established the Middle Academy. Carneades, another student, established the New Academy. In 335 BC, Aristotle refined the method with his own theories and established the Lyceum in another gymnasium; the library of Alexandria in Egypt was frequented by intellectuals from Africa and Asia studying various aspects of philosophy and mathematics. The University of Timbuktu was a medieval university in Timbuktu, present-day Mali, which comprised three schools: the Mosque of Djinguereber, the Mosque of Sidi Yahya, the Mosque of Sankore.
During its zenith, the university had an average attendance of around 25,000 students within a city of around 100,000 people. In China a higher education institution Shang Xiang was founded by Shun in the Youyu era before the 21st century BC; the Imperial Central Academy at Nanjing, founded in 258, was a result of the evolution of Shang Xiang and it became the first comprehensive institution combining education and research and was divided into five faculties in 470, which became Nanjing University. In the 8th century another kind of institution of learning emerged, named Shuyuan, which were privately owned. There were thousands of Shuyuan recorded in ancient times; the degrees from them varied from one to another and those advanced Shuyuan such as Bailudong Shuyuan and Yuelu Shuyuan can be classified as higher institutions of learning. Taxila or Takshashila, in ancient India, modern-day Pakistan, was an early centre of learning, near present-day Islamabad in the city of Taxila, it is considered as one
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Peace Prize of the German Book Trade
The Peace Prize of the German Book Trade is an international peace prize given yearly at the Frankfurt Book Fair in the Paulskirche in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It has been awarded by the Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels since 1950 and the winner is remunerated with €25,000. According to its statute, “he foundation is committed to peace and understanding among all peoples and nations of the world; the Peace Prize promotes international tolerance by acknowledging individuals who have contributed to these ideals through their exceptional activities in the fields of literature and art. Prize winners are chosen without any reference to their national, racial or religious background."Traditionally, the President of Germany and leading political and diplomatic persons attend the ceremony and ZDF TV covers the event. Source: 2018 – Aleida and Jan Assmann 2017 – Margaret Atwood 2016 – Carolin Emcke 2015 – Navid Kermani 2014 – Jaron Lanier 2013 – Svetlana Alexievich 2012 – Liao Yiwu 2011 – Boualem Sansal 2010 – David Grossman 2009 – Claudio Magris 2008 – Anselm Kiefer 2007 – Saul Friedländer 2006 – Wolf Lepenies 2005 – Orhan Pamuk 2004 – Péter Esterházy 2003 – Susan Sontag 2002 – Chinua Achebe 2001 – Jürgen Habermas 2000 – Assia Djebar 1999 – Fritz Stern 1998 – Martin Walser 1997 – Yaşar Kemal 1996 – Mario Vargas Llosa 1995 – Annemarie Schimmel 1994 – Jorge Semprún 1993 – Friedrich Schorlemmer 1992 – Amos Oz 1991 – György Konrád 1990 – Karl Dedecius 1989 – Václav Havel 1988 – Siegfried Lenz 1987 – Hans Jonas 1986 – Władysław Bartoszewski 1985 – Teddy Kollek 1984 – Octavio Paz 1983 – Manès Sperber 1982 – George F. Kennan 1981 – Lev Kopelev 1980 – Ernesto Cardenal 1979 – Yehudi Menuhin 1978 – Astrid Lindgren 1977 – Leszek Kołakowski 1976 – Max Frisch 1975 – Alfred Grosser 1974 – Frère Roger, prior of Taizé 1973 – Club of Rome 1972 – Janusz Korczak 1971 – Marion Gräfin Dönhoff 1970 – Alva Myrdal and Gunnar Myrdal 1969 – Alexander Mitscherlich 1968 – Léopold Sédar Senghor 1967 – Ernst Bloch 1966 – Augustin Bea and W. A. Visser't Hooft 1965 – Nelly Sachs 1964 – Gabriel Marcel 1963 – Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker 1962 – Paul Tillich 1961 – Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan 1960 – Victor Gollancz 1959 – Theodor Heuss 1958 – Karl Jaspers 1957 – Thornton Wilder 1956 – Reinhold Schneider 1955 – Hermann Hesse 1954 – Carl Jacob Burckhardt 1953 – Martin Buber 1952 – Romano Guardini 1951 – Albert Schweitzer 1950 – Max Tau Peace Prize of the German Book Trade
Age of Enlightenment
The Age of Enlightenment was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, the "Century of Philosophy". Some consider Descartes' 1637 statement "I think" to have sparked the period. Others cite the publication of Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica. French historians traditionally date the Enlightenment from 1715 to 1789, from the beginning of the reign of Louis XV until the French Revolution. Most end it with the turn of the 19th century. Philosophers and scientists of the period circulated their ideas through meetings at scientific academies, Masonic lodges, literary salons, coffeehouses and in printed books and pamphlets; the ideas of the Enlightenment undermined the authority of the monarchy and the Church and paved the way for the political revolutions of the 18th and 19th centuries. A variety of 19th-century movements, including liberalism and neo-classicism, trace their intellectual heritage to the Enlightenment; the Enlightenment included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary source of knowledge and advanced ideals such as liberty, toleration, constitutional government and separation of church and state.
In France, the central doctrines of the Enlightenment philosophers were individual liberty and religious tolerance, in opposition to an absolute monarchy and the fixed dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church. The Enlightenment was marked by an emphasis on the scientific method and reductionism, along with increased questioning of religious orthodoxy—an attitude captured by the phrase Sapere aude; the Age of Enlightenment was preceded by and associated with the scientific revolution. Earlier philosophers whose work influenced the Enlightenment included Bacon, Descartes and Spinoza; the major figures of the Enlightenment included Beccaria, Hume, Montesquieu, Adam Smith, Voltaire. Some European rulers, including Catherine II of Russia, Joseph II of Austria and Frederick II of Prussia, tried to apply Enlightenment thought on religious and political tolerance, which became known as enlightened absolutism. Benjamin Franklin visited Europe and contributed to the scientific and political debates there and brought the newest ideas back to Philadelphia.
Thomas Jefferson followed European ideas and incorporated some of the ideals of the Enlightenment into the Declaration of Independence. One of his peers, James Madison, incorporated these ideals into the United States Constitution during its framing in 1787; the most influential publication of the Enlightenment was the Encyclopédie. Published between 1751 and 1772 in thirty-five volumes, it was compiled by Diderot, d'Alembert and a team of 150 scientists and philosophers, it helped spread the ideas of the Enlightenment across Europe and beyond. Other landmark publications were Voltaire's Dictionnaire Letters on the English; the ideas of the Enlightenment played a major role in inspiring the French Revolution, which began in 1789. After the Revolution, the Enlightenment was followed by the intellectual movement known as Romanticism. René Descartes' rationalist philosophy laid the foundation for enlightenment thinking, his attempt to construct the sciences on a secure metaphysical foundation was not as successful as his method of doubt applied in philosophic areas leading to a dualistic doctrine of mind and matter.
His skepticism was refined by John Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding and David Hume's writings in the 1740s. His dualism was challenged by Spinoza's uncompromising assertion of the unity of matter in his Tractatus and Ethics; these laid down two distinct lines of Enlightenment thought: first, the moderate variety, following Descartes and Christian Wolff, which sought accommodation between reform and the traditional systems of power and faith, second, the radical enlightenment, inspired by the philosophy of Spinoza, advocating democracy, individual liberty, freedom of expression and eradication of religious authority. The moderate variety tended to be deistic, whereas the radical tendency separated the basis of morality from theology. Both lines of thought were opposed by a conservative Counter-Enlightenment, which sought a return to faith. In the mid-18th century, Paris became the center of an explosion of philosophic and scientific activity challenging traditional doctrines and dogmas.
The philosophic movement was led by Voltaire and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who argued for a society based upon reason as in ancient Greece rather than faith and Catholic doctrine, for a new civil order based on natural law, for science based on experiments and observation. The political philosopher Montesquieu introduced the idea of a separation of powers in a government, a concept, enthusiastically adopted by the authors of the United States Constitution. While the Philosophes of the French Enlightenment were not revolutionaries and many were members of the nobility, their ideas played an important part in undermining the legitimacy of the Old Regime and shaping the French Revolution. Francis Hutcheson, a moral philosopher, described the utilitarian and consequentialist principle that virtue is that which provides, in his words, "the greatest happiness for the greatest numbers". Much of what is incorporated in the scientific method
Johann Fust or Faust was an early German printer. Fust was born to burgher family of Mainz. Members of the family held many religious offices; the name was written "Fust" until 1506, when Peter Schöffer, in dedicating the German translation of Livy to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, called his grandfather "Faust." Thenceforward the family assumed this name. The Fausts of Aschaffenburg, an old and quite distinct family, placed Johann Fust in their pedigree. Johann's brother Jacob, a goldsmith, was one of the burgomasters in 1462, when Mainz was stormed and sacked by the troops of Count Adolf II of Nassau, in the course of which he seems to have been killed. There is no evidence for the theory that Johann Fust was a goldsmith, but he appears to have been a money-lender or banker; because of his connection with Johann Gutenberg, he has been called the inventor of printing, the instructor as well as the partner of Gutenberg. Some see him as a patron and benefactor who saw the value of Gutenberg's discovery and supplied him with means to carry it out, whereas others portray him as a speculator who took advantage of Gutenberg's necessity and robbed him of the profits of his invention.
Whatever the truth, the Helmasperger document of November 6, 1455, shows that Fust advanced money to Gutenberg to carry on his work, that Fust, in 1455, brought a suit against Gutenberg to recover the money he had lent, claiming 2026 guilders for principal and interest. It appears that he had not paid in the 300 guilders a year which he had undertaken to furnish for expenses, etc. and, according to Gutenberg, had said that he had no intention of claiming interest. The suit was decided in Fust's favour, November 6, 1455, in the refectory of the Barefooted Friars of Mainz, when Fust swore that he himself had borrowed 1550 guilders and given them to Gutenberg. There is no evidence that Fust, as is supposed, removed the portion of the printing materials covered by his mortgage to his own house, carried on printing there with the aid of Peter Schöffer of Gernsheim, who in about 1455 married Fust's only daughter Christina, their first publication was the Psalter, August 14, 1457, a folio of 350 pages, the first printed book with a complete date, remarkable for the beauty of the large initials printed each in two colours and blue, from types made in two pieces.
New editions of the Psalter were with the same type in 1459, 1490, 1502 and 1516. Fust and Schöffer's other works include: Guillaume Durand, Rationale divinorum officiorum, folio, 160 leaves the Clementine Constitutions, with the gloss of Johannes Andreae, 51 leaves Biblia Sacra Latina, folio 2 vols. 242 and 239 leaves, 48 lines to a full page the Sixth Book of Decretals, with Andreae's gloss, December 17, 1465, folio 141 leaves Cicero. De officiis, 88 leaves. Johann Fust and Peter Schöffer carried on a partnership after Fust sued and won a case against Johann Gutenberg in 1455 for the right to take back his loans that he offered Gutenberg years earlier. Many rumors came to light about why Fust turned his back on Gutenberg a year before the 42-Line Bible was to be completed. Many people believe that Fust turned on Gutenberg because he wanted to take the spotlight and tell people that the 42-Line Bible was his own work. Peter Schöffer was an associate of Fust that worked as an apprentice to Gutenberg during the making of the 42-Line Bible.
Schöffer took Fust's side when the court case was presented to Gutenberg and subsequently had his name join Fust's on the completed copies of the Bible. The twist is that Schöffer ended up marrying Fust’s only daughter, years later; this presents a whole new theory that suggests Schöffer and Fust were closer than many may think and Schöffer was sent to work with Gutenberg by Fust in an effort to claim "insider" knowledge about the printing press before Fust and Schöffer would leave Gutenberg high and dry. There are facts to say that Fust and Schöffer had this planned all along before the loans were handed over to Gutenberg; this theory states Gutenberg was, in fact, doomed from the start, never to have a chance at the 42-Line Bible to be advertised as his own work. He seems to have fallen victim to a partnership that did not come about as a spur of the moment decision thanks to a court case, but instead as a well thought-out ruse in order to claim fame and power, it is to be noted that Johann Fust was not much of a printer but more of a businessman and a salesman.
Fust loaned 800 guilders to Johannes Gutenberg with. Another large sum of money was handed over from Fust to Gutenberg. At this point, Fust felt as if he needed to be included as a partner on the project since he had now invested so much into it. There were all but three Bibles left to be completed. On November 6, 1455, Fust demanded 2,026 guilders from Gutenberg, he revealed in court that he had to borrow the money he gave to finance Gutenberg at 6% in order to give the loan. All in all Gutenberg ended up having to pay 1,200 guilders to Fust along with all of the completed Bibles, unfinished books, his workshop. From that point on Gutenberg was hardly heard from again and Fust went into partnership with Peter Schöffer. Schöffer had learned all the fine skills of printing from Gutenberg; this meant that Schöffer would be able