Summer Olympic Games
The Summer Olympic Games or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is a major international multi-sport event held once every four years. The most recent Olympics were held in Rio de Brazil; the International Olympic Committee oversees the host city's preparations. In each Olympic event, gold medals are awarded for first place, silver medals are awarded for second place, bronze medals are awarded for third place; the Winter Olympic Games were created due to the success of the Summer Olympics. The Olympics have increased in scope from a 42-event competition with fewer than 250 male competitors from 14 nations in 1896, to 306 events with 11,238 competitors from 206 nations in 2016; the Summer Olympics has been hosted on five continents by a total of nineteen countries. The Games have been held four times in the United States; the IOC has selected Tokyo, Japan, to host the Summer Olympics for a second time in 2020. The 2024 Summer Olympics will be held in Paris, for a third time one hundred years after the city's last Summer Olympics in 1924.
The IOC has selected Los Angeles, California, to host its third Summer Games in 2028. To date, only five countries have participated in every Summer Olympic Games – Australia, Great Britain and Switzerland; the United States leads the all-time medal table for the Summer Olympics. The United States has hosted the Summer Olympic Games four times: the 1904 Games were held in St. Louis, Missouri; the 2028 Games in Los Angeles will mark the fifth occasion on which the Summer Games have been hosted by the U. S. In 2012, the United Kingdom hosted its third Summer Olympic Games in the capital city, which became the first city to have hosted the Summer Olympic Games three times; the cities of Los Angeles and Athens have each hosted two Summer Olympic Games. In 2024, France will host its third Summer Olympic Games in its capital, making Paris the second city to have hosted three Summer Olympics. In 2028, Los Angeles will become the third city to have hosted the Games three times. Australia, France and Greece have all hosted the Summer Olympic Games twice.
The IOC has selected Tokyo, Japan, to host the 2020 Summer Olympics, when it will become the first city outside the Western world to have hosted the Summer Olympics more than once, having hosted the Games in 1964. The other countries that have hosted the Summer Olympics are Belgium, China, Finland, Mexico, South Korea, Soviet Union, Sweden. Asia has hosted the Summer Olympics three times, in Tokyo, Seoul, South Korea, Beijing, China; the Summer Olympics has been held predominantly in English-speaking countries and European nations. Tokyo will be the first city outside these regions to have hosted the Summer Olympics twice; the 2016 Games in Rio de Janeiro, were the first Summer Olympics to be held in South America and the first that were held during the local winter season. The only two countries in the Southern Hemisphere to have hosted the Summer Olympics have been Australia and Brazil. Africa has yet to host a Summer Olympics. Stockholm, has hosted events at two Summer Olympic Games, having been sole host of the 1912 Games, hosting the equestrian events at the 1956 Summer Olympics.
Amsterdam, has hosted events at two Summer Olympic Games, having been sole host of the 1928 Games and hosting two of the sailing races at the 1920 Summer Olympics. At the 2008 Summer Olympics, Hong Kong provided the venues for the equestrian events, which took place in Sha Tin and Kwu Tung; the modern Olympic Games were founded in 1894 when Pierre de Coubertin sought to promote international understanding through sporting competition. He based his Olympics on the Wenlock Olympian Society Annual Games, contested in Much Wenlock since 1850; the first edition of de Coubertin's games, held in Athens in 1896, attracted just 245 competitors, of whom more than 200 were Greek, only 14 countries were represented. No international events of this magnitude had been organised before. Female athletes were not allowed to compete, though one woman, Stamata Revithi, ran the marathon course on her own, saying "If the committee doesn't let me compete I will go after them regardless"; the 1896 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event, celebrated in Athens, from 6 to 15 April 1896.
It was the first Olympic Games held in the Modern era. About 100,000 people attended for the opening of the games; the athletes came with most coming from Greece. Although Greece had the most athletes, the U. S. finished with the most champions. 11 Americans placed first in their events vs. the 10 from Greece
The 200 metres is a sprint running event. On an outdoor race 400 m track, the race begins on the curve and ends on the home straight, so a combination of techniques are needed to run the race. A shorter race, called the stadion and run on a straight track, was the first recorded event at the ancient Olympic Games; the 200 m places more emphasis on speed endurance than shorter sprint distances as athletes predominantly rely on anaerobic energy system during the 200 m sprint. In the United States and elsewhere, athletes ran the 220-yard dash instead of the 200 m, though the distance is now obsolete; the standard adjustment used for the conversion from times recorded over 220 yards to 200 m times is to subtract 0.1 seconds, but other conversion methods exist. Another obsolete version of this race is the 200 metres straight, run on tracks that contained such a straight; when the International Amateur Athletic Association started to ratify world records in 1912, only records set on a straight track were eligible for consideration.
In 1951, the IAAF started to recognise records set on a curved track. In 1976, the straight record was discarded; the race attracts runners from other events the 100 metres, wishing to double up and claim both titles. This feat has been achieved by men eleven times at the Olympic Games: by Archie Hahn in 1904, Ralph Craig in 1912, Percy Williams in 1928, Eddie Tolan in 1932, Jesse Owens in 1936, Bobby Morrow in 1956, Valeriy Borzov in 1972, Carl Lewis in 1984, most by Jamaica's Usain Bolt in 2008, 2012, 2016; the double has been accomplished by women seven times: by Fanny Blankers-Koen in 1948, Marjorie Jackson in 1952, Betty Cuthbert in 1956, Wilma Rudolph in 1960, Renate Stecher in 1972, Florence Griffith-Joyner in 1988, Elaine Thompson in 2016. Marion Jones finished first in both races in 2000 but was disqualified and stripped of her medals after admitting to taking performance-enhancing drugs. An Olympic double of 200 m and 400 m was first achieved by Valerie Brisco-Hooks in 1984, by Michael Johnson from the United States and Marie-José Pérec of France both in 1996.
Usain Bolt is the only man to repeat as Olympic champion, Bärbel Wöckel and Veronica Campbell-Brown are the two women who have repeated as Olympic champion. The men's world record holder is Usain Bolt of Jamaica, who ran 19.19s at the 2009 World Championships. The women's world record holder is Florence Griffith-Joyner of the United States, who ran 21.34s at the 1988 Summer Olympics. The reigning Olympic champions are Elaine Thompson; the reigning World Champions are Dafne Schippers. Races run with an aiding wind measured over 2.0 metres per second are not acceptable for record purposes. Updated 12 December 2018. Only the fastest time for each athlete is listed. A = Altitude Correct as of August 2018. Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 19.67: Usain Bolt ran 19.30, 19.32, 19.40, 19.55, 19.56, 19.57, 19.58, 19.59, 19.63, 19.66, 19.67. Yohan Blake ran 19.44, 19.54. Tyson Gay ran 19.62. Michael Johnson ran 19.66. Noah Lyles ran 19.67. Correct as of August 2018. Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 21.80: Florence Griffith-Joyner ran 21.56, 21.76, 21.77.
Merlene Ottey ran 21.66, 21.77. Marita Koch ran 21.76, 21.78. Marion Jones ran 21.76. Gwen Torrence ran 21.77. Elaine Thompson ran 21.78. Silke Gladisch ran 21.79. Updated February 2019. Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 20.22: Frankie Fredericks ran 20.10, 20.18. Wallace Spearmon ran 20.10, 20.19, 20.21. Divine Oduduru ran 20.18, 20.21. Updated 12 December 2018. Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 22.45: Irina Privalova ran 22.15, 22.16, 22.26, 22.32, 22.36, 22.41, 22.45. Merlene Ottey ran 22.24, 22.34, 22.37. Veronica Campbell-Brown ran 22.43. A Known as the World Indoor Games IAAF list of 200-metres records in XML All time 200m men records
1994 Goodwill Games
The 1994 Goodwill Games was the third edition of the multi-sport event, created by Ted Turner, held in Saint Petersburg, Russia between July 23 and August 7, 1994. The event – designed to improve Soviet Union – United States relations over the Cold War period – was awarded to Leningrad, but the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991 saw the city return to its former name within a new Russia. In total, around 2000 athletes from 56 countries participated in the 16-day event; the Russian President Boris Yeltsin opened the games at Kirov Stadium on July 23. Russia topped the medal table with 68 gold medals and 171 medals in total from the competition; the United States was the runner-up having won 37 golds and 119 medals overall, while the People's Republic of China took third place with 12 golds and 27 medals. In addition to Russia, nine other former Soviet republics won medals at the games: Ukraine and Belarus were among the top-8 in the medal table, Georgia, Latvia, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan were the other new states to medal at the games.
The hosting of the games provided a significant legacy of infrastructure within St. Petersburg. Around 500 kilometres of road was repaved and landmarks were renovated, computer equipment was installed and donated, 70 purpose-built Games buses were integrated into the city's public transport system; the prospect of a Russia more open to foreign investment sparked growth in the level of sponsorship and the games attracted 30 international sponsors. Television coverage expanded; the weightlifting events saw five world records broken as Russia lifters took a clean sweep of the gold medals. In the gymnastics competition, Alexei Nemov set a Goodwill Games record for the number of medals won at a single edition, having won four gold medals, one silver medal and one bronze. * Host nation Official website
1998 Commonwealth Games
The 1998 Commonwealth Games known as the XVI Commonwealth Games, was a multi-sport event held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This edition is marked by several unprecedented facts in the history of the event; the 1998 games were the first held in an Asian country and the last Commonwealth Games of the 20th century. This was the first time the games took place in a nation with a head of state other than the Head of the Commonwealth, the first time the games were held in a country whose majority of the population did not have English as the first language. For the first time the games included team sports; the other bid from the 1998 games came from Adelaide in Australia. Malaysia was the eighth nation to host the Commonwealth Games after Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Wales and Scotland. Around 3638 athletes from 69 Commonwealth member nations participated at the games which featured 214 events in 15 sports with 34 of them collected medals. Kuala Lumpur was selected to stage the games at the General Assembly of the Commonwealth Games Federation in Barcelona, Spain during the 1992 Summer Olympics.
The 16th Commonwealth Games opening ceremony took place on 11 September 1998 at 20:00 MST. During the ceremony 4,840 Soka Gakkai volunteers displayed coloured flip cards which depicted sporting images, flags of the Commonwealth nations and messages that heralded the first games in Asia in the 68 years since their inception; the ceremony was preceded by a pre-show concert by Malaysian pop singers such as Norzila Binti Haji Aminuddin, Shahrul Anuar Zain, Siti Roziana Binti Zain, Shaheila binti Abdul Majid, Amy Mastura Binti Suhaimi, Ning Baizura binti Sheikh Hamzah and Siti Nurhaliza Binti Tarudin, performance by local comedian Harith Iskander and 16 paratroopers who descended down the stadium. The ceremony began with the arrival of dignitaries including the Chairman of Commonwealth Games Federation Mr Michael Fennel, Prince Edward, Sultan of Brunei Hassanal Bolkiah, Prime Minister Dato Seri, Dr Mahathir Mohamad, the Yang Dipertuan Agong and Malaysian minister of Youth and Sports Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin.
This was followed by the parade of nations — 69 participating nations, led by mascot Wira and previous games' mascots. The Singaporean delegation was jeered by the crowd during the parade of nations. Came a performance about a Malaysian rainforest by 2,000 school children who dressed as birds and flowers. After the performance, the Queen's message was delivered in the Queen's Baton, which arrived in the main stadium of Kuala Lumpur on elephant-back, was run in relay to the stadium while the athletes marched in. 1978 Commonwealth Games badminton gold medal winner Sylvia Ng took the last lap with the baton and handed it off to Koh Eng Tong, a weightlifter who won a gold medal in weightlifting for Malaya in the 1950 British Empire Games, to take the final few feet to Prince Edward. Contrary to tradition, the games were opened by the Malaysian head of state, Yang di Pertuan Agong Tuanku Jaafar by striking the gong three times. A burst of fireworks and blurring of the giant bunga raya and a 16-gun salute which represents 1998 Commonwealth Games being the 16th-edition games, signified the beginning of the games.
The Commonwealth Games flag was brought into the stadium raised to the theme song of the Games Forever As One written by local composer, Goh Boon Hoe. Malaysian bowler Shalin Zulkifli take the oath on behalf of the athletes; the ceremony concluded with a 40-minute performance, titled "Aur di Tebing" with the theme'Unity towards Progress', conveyed through dance and intricate human graphics. 2,000 performers swirled and danced carrying trays of bunga emas on their heads during a mass silat display. The show told the Malaysian history from ancient Malacca to the present development in Malaysia, its political and technological achievements as well as its people's vision of peace and unity and lifestyle; the logo of the 1998 Commonwealth Games is an image of the national flower of Malaysia, the hibiscus, the first games logo to introduce the colour yellow. The red, blue and yellow colours represents the colours of the Malaysian national flag and Malaysia as a confident, dynamic nation; the yellow pollens represent the six regions of the world that includes the 68 Commonwealth member nations.
The official mascot of the 1998 Commonwealth Games is an orangutan named Wira. It is said that the orangutan is the largest and the most intelligent primate in Asia which lives in the tropical rainforests of Malaysia; the adoption of orangutan as a games' mascot is to represent the friendly personality of Malaysia as the games' host as well as the charm and sporting ability of the participating athletes. The host nation achieved its best-ever haul of ten gold medals which has since been surpassed by its achievement in the 2010 Commonwealth Games, where Malaysia won twelve gold medals; the 16th Commonwealth Games host newly introduced team sports of cricket, field hockey and rugby sevens and individuals sports of ten-pin bowling and squash, while of athletics, boxing, gymnastics, lawn bowls, shooting and weightlifting to make a total of 15 sports contested. In front of 20,000 fans at the Petaling Jaya Stadium, rugby sevens in particular were an enormous success with New Zealand collecting its 100th Commonwealth Games
1998 African Championships in Athletics
The 11th African Championships in Athletics were held in Dakar, from August 18 to August 22 at the Stade Léopold Senghor. 1998 in athletics Results - GBR Athletics
Athletics at the 1998 Commonwealth Games
At the 1998 Commonwealth Games, the athletics events were held at the National Stadium, Bukit Jalil, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from the 16–21 September 1998. * Host nation Official results Archived athletics results from official website Finals results
1991 All-Africa Games
The 5th All-Africa Games were held from September 20 to October 1, 1991, in Cairo, Egypt. Forty-three countries participated in eighteen sports. For the first time the Games were held on a four-year cycle as planned. Egypt had hoped to use the Games to showcase the city of Cairo for a possible Olympic bid; the plan fell through after organizational difficulties once again plagued the Games. A stampede of spectators trying to get in to see the Opening Ceremonies got the Games off to a bad start. Many IOC officials and dignitaries were unable to make it into the stadium in the confusion and returned to their hotels to watch the ceremony on television. African athletes had claimed seven world championships at the previous months World Athletics Championships. Only one, steeplechaser Moses Kiptanui, decided to participate in Cairo. Partisan crowds, which were granted free admission to the events by the Egyptian government, filled the stadiums throughout the games, cheering the home team to another placing at the top of the medals table.
It was Namibia's first participation in the world arena. The team proudly returned with two silver medals and seven bronze medals. * Host nation Three athletes, two female and one male, won more than one event: Frankie Fredericks, Namibia Susan Sirma, Kenya Hanan Ahmed Khaled, Egypt In addition, Nigeria won three of the four relay races. No new events were added. Men: 1. Egypt, 2. Kenya, 3. Zimbabwe, 4. Ghana, 5. Nigeria The soccer tournament was transformed to a U-23 competition, it was won by Cameroon, it was the first Games in which the host country did not win a medal. Athletics results - gbrathletics.com