Pope Stephen III
Pope Stephen III was the Pope from 7 August 768 to his death in 772. Stephen was a Benedictine monk. In the midst of a tumultuous contest by rival factions to name a successor to Pope Paul I, Stephen was elected with the support of the Roman officials, he summoned the Lateran Council of 769 which sought to limit the influence of the nobles in papal elections. The Council opposed iconoclasm. A Greek born in Sicily, Stephen III was the son of a man named Olivus. Coming to Rome during the pontificate of Pope Gregory III, he was placed in the monastery of St. Chrysogonus, where he became a Benedictine monk. During the pontificate of Pope Zachary, he was ordained a priest, after which the pope decided to keep him to work at the Lateran Palace. Stephen rose to high office in the service of successive popes, was at the bedside of the dying Pope Paul I as powerful factions began manoeuvring to ensure the election of their own candidate in late June 767; the next year was consumed by the rival claims of antipopes Constantine II and Philip, who were forced out of office by the efforts of Christophorus, the Primicerius of the notaries, his son Sergius, the Treasurer of the Roman church.
With the capture of Constantine II, Christophorus set about organising a canonical election, on 1 August he summoned not only the Roman clergy and army, but the people to assemble before the Church of St. Adrian in the area of the old Comitium. Here the combined assembly elected Stephen as pope, they proceeded to the Church of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, where they acclaimed Stephen as pope-elect, escorted him to the Lateran Palace. At this point, supporters of the pope-elect Stephen began brutally to attack key members of Constantine’s regime, including Constantine himself, hounded through the streets of Rome, with heavy weights attached to his feet. Bishop Theodore, Constantine’s Vice-dominus, was blinded and had his tongue cut out, while Constantine’s brother, was blinded. After Constantine was dethroned on 6 August, Stephen was consecrated pope on the following day, 7 August 768. Retributions continued after the consecration of Stephen. On the orders of the papal Chartularius, Constantine was removed from his monastic cell and left on the streets of Rome with specific instructions that no-one should aid him.
On a charge of conspiring to kill Christophorus and many other nobles, with the intent of handing over the city to the Lombards, the priest Waldipert, the prime mover in the elevation of the Antipope Philip, was arrested and soon died of his wounds. The role of Stephen III in these events is somewhat obscure. According to the historian Horace Mann, Stephen was an impotent observer, that the responsible agent was in reality the Chartularius, Gratiosus. However, according to Louis Marie DeCormenin, Stephen was the key person responsible for issuing the orders, took great delight in destroying his rival and his supporters. A middle position was taken by the historian Ferdinand Gregorovius, who observed that Stephen, while he may not have instigated or ordered the atrocities, did not seek to prevent them either, either through self-interest or the weakness of his position. What is clear however, is that the recent creation of the Papal States had seen the traditional rivalries of the ruling families of Rome transformed into a murderous desire to control this new temporal power in Italy, dragging the papacy with it.
With Constantine’s supporters dealt with, Stephen wrote to the Frankish king, Pepin the Short, notifying him of his election, asking for a number of bishops to participate in a council he was seeking to hold to discuss the recent confusion. As Pepin had died, it was Charlemagne and Carloman I who agreed to send twelve bishops to participate in the Lateran Council of 769; the council saw the final condemnation of Constantine II, beaten and had his tongue removed before being returned to his monastic cell. All clerical appointments made by Constantine were declared void, it set about establishing strict rules for papal elections, thereby restricting the involvement of the nobility in subsequent elections. The rulings of the Council of Hieria were rejected, the practice of devotion to icons was confirmed. In 770, Stephen was asked to confirm the election of a layperson, as Archbishop of Ravenna. However, Michael, in league with the Lombard king Desiderius, the Duke of Rimini had imprisoned Leo, elected first.
Stephen refused to confirm Michael’s election. Michael refused, the stand-off continued for over a year, until the arrival of the Frankish ambassador in Ravenna along with the Papal legates encouraged Michael’s opponents to overthrow him, send him to Rome in chains. Leo followed soon after. Throughout his pontificate, Stephen was apprehensive about the expansionist plans of the Lombards. Placing his hope in the Franks, he attempted to mediate in the quarrels between Charlemagne and Carloman, which were only helping the Lombards' cause in Italy. In 769, he helped them reconcile, pressured them to support the still infant Papal States, by reminding them of the support which their father had given the Papacy in the past, he begged them t
Pope Paschal I
Pope Paschal I was Pope from 25 January 817 to his death in 824. Paschal was a member of one of the aristocratic families of Rome, he was in charge of a monastery. He was elected pope in January 817. In 823, Paschal crowned Lothair I as King of Italy, he rebuilt a number of churches including three basilicas. According to the Liber Pontificalis, Paschal was native of Rome and son of Bonosus and Episcopa Theodora; the Liber Censuum says that Paschal was from the Massimo family, as was his predecessor Pope Stephen IV. Pope Leo III placed Paschal in charge of the monastery of St Stephen of the Abyssinians, where his responsibilities included the care of pilgrims who came to Rome. According to early modern accounts, Leo III may have elevated Paschal as the cardinal of Santa Prassede. Goodson attributes this account to a "desire to explain the attention that the pope so lavishly and prominently paid to that church in his career." Paschal became pope on 25 January 817, just one day after the sudden death of Pope Stephen IV.
This decision occurred before the sanction of the emperor Louis the Pious had been obtained, was a circumstance for which it was one of his first tasks to apologize. Paschal advised the emperor. According to the Liber Pontificalis, Pope Paschal's papal legate Theodore returned with a document titled Pactum cum Pashali pontiff, in which the Emperor congratulated Paschal, recognized his sovereignty over the Papal States and guaranteed the free election of future pontiffs; this document was challenged by historians as a forgery. At the time of Paschal's reign, Rome was "in a tumult." "Neither the papacy nor the nobles of the held control for long."Paschal gave shelter to exiled monks from the Byzantine Empire who were persecuted for their opposition to iconoclasm, invited mosaic artists to decorate churches in Rome. This is known because Byzantine Emperor Michael II wrote to Frankish King Louis the Pious in an attempt to stop it. In 822, he gave the legateship over the North to Ebbo, Archbishop of Rheims.
He licensed him to preach to the Danes, though Ebbo failed in three different attempts to convert them. Only did Saint Ansgar succeed with them. In 823, Paschal crowned and anointed Lothair I as King of Italy, which set the precedent for the pope’s right to crown kings, to do so in Rome. Although the pope himself opposed the sovereignty of the Frankish emperors over Rome and Roman territory, high officials in the papal palace Primicerius Theodore and his son-in-law Leo Nomenculator, were at the head of the party which supported the Franks. Lothair made use of his new authority to side with Farfa Abbey in its lawsuit against the Roman Curia, forcing the Papal administration to return properties, misappropriated; the decision outraged the Roman nobility, led to an uprising against the authority of the Roman Curia in northern Italy, led by Paschal’s former legate and his son Leo. The revolt was suppressed, the two leaders who were about to testify were seized at the Lateran and afterwards beheaded.
Suspicious that the deaths were to cover up the involvement of the pope in the revolt, the emperor sent two commissioners to investigate. Paschal refused to submit to the authority of the imperial court, but issued an oath in which he denied all personal complicity in the crime; the commissioners returned to Aachen, Emperor Louis let the matter drop. Paschal rebuilt three basilicas of Rome: Santa Prassede, Santa Maria in Domnica, Santa Cecilia in Trastevere. Paschal is credited with finding the body of Saint Cecilia in the Catacomb of Callixtus and translating it to the rebuild the basilica of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere. Paschal undertook significant renovations on Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore. In addition, Paschal added two oratories to Old St. Peter's Basilica, SS. Processus et Martinianus and SS. Xistus et Fabianus, which did not survive the 16th century renovation of St. Peter's. Paschal is sometimes credited with the renovation of Santo Stefano del Cacco in early modern sources, but this renovation was undertaken by Pope Paschal II.
According to Goodson, Paschal "used church-building to express the authority of the papacy as an independent state." Only six known letters written by Paschal remain. The first confirms the possessions of the Territorial Abbey of Farfa; the second and third were written to a Frankish abbot prior to and after his elevation as archbishop of Vienne. The fourth was written to Louis the Pious; the fifth confirms the privileges of the church of Ravenna. The last was written to the archbishop of Reims. After Paschal's death, the Roman Curia refused him the honour of burial within St. Peter's Basilica, he was buried in the basilica of Santa Prassede, which includes the famous Episcopa Theodora mosaic of his mother. Paschal was canonized, his feast day in the Roman calendar. List of Catholic saints List of popes This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Pope Paschal I". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Goodson, Caroline J. 2010. The Rome of Pope Paschal I: Papal Power, Urban Renovation, Church Rebuilding and Relic Translation, 817-824.
Cambridge University Press. John N. D. Kelly, Gran Dizionario Illustrato dei Papi, Edizioni Piemme S.p. A. 1989, Casale Monferrato, ISBN 88-384-1326-6 Claudio Rendina, I papi, Ed. Newton Compton, Roma, 1990 This article incorporates text fr
Counts of Tusculum
The counts of Tusculum were the most powerful secular noblemen in Latium, near Rome, in the present-day Italy between the 10th and 12th centuries. Several popes and an antipope during the 11th century came from their ranks, they created and perfected the political formula of noble-papacy, wherein the Pope was arranged to be elected only from the ranks of the Roman nobles. The Pornocracy, the period of influence by powerful female members of the family influenced papal history; the counts of Tusculum remained arbiters of Roman politics and religion for more than a century. In addition to the papal influence, they held lay power through consulships and senatorial membership. Traditionally they were anti-German in their political affiliation. After 1049, the Tusculan Papacy came to an end with the appointment of Pope Leo IX. In fact, the Tusculan papacy was responsible for the reaction known as the Gregorian reform. Subsequent events confirmed a shift in regional politics as the counts came to side with the Holy Roman Emperors against the Rome of the reformers.
In 1059 the papal-decree of Pope Nicholas II established new rules for the Papal election, therefore putting an end to the noble-papacy formula. This list is incomplete in the tenth century and the chronology and dates of the various countships are uncertain, they were only counts from about 1013, lords before. Before 924 Theophylact I until 924 Alberic I, consul son-in-law 924 – 954 Alberic II, son before 1013 Gregory I, son until 1012 Theophylact II, son of Gregory I 1012 – 1024 Romanus, brother of Theophylact II and son of Gregory I 1024 – 1032 Alberic III, brother of Theophylact II and Romanus. John XI, son of Alberic I, pope from 931 to 935 John XII son of Alberic II, pope from 955 to 964 Benedict VII, nephew of Alberic II, pope from 974 to 983 Benedict VIII, son of Gregory I, pope from 1012 to 1024 John XIX, son of Gregory I, pope from 1024 to 1032 Benedict IX, son of Alberic III, pope from 1032 to 1048 Benedict X, antipope from 1058 to 1059 According to tradition, the successors of the Tusculum counts were the Colonna family, founded by Peter, son of Gregory II and called Peter "de Columna" from his fief of Colonna, east of Rome.
Thietmar of Merseburg – Chronicle Ferdinand Gregorovius Geschichte der Stadt Rom im Mittelalter "Tusculum". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27. 1911
Carloman I Karlmann was king of the Franks from 768 until his death in 771. He was the second surviving son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon and was a younger brother of Charlemagne, his death allowed Charlemagne to begin his expansion into other kingdoms. At the age of 3, he was, together with his father, Pepin the Short, his elder brother, anointed King of the Franks and titled "Patrician of the Romans" by Pope Stephen II, who had left Rome to beg the Frankish King for assistance against the Lombards. Carloman and Charlemagne each inherited a half of the Kingdom of the Franks upon Pepin's death, his share was based in the centre of the Frankish Kingdom, with his capital at Soissons, consisted of the Parisian basin, the Massif Central, the Languedoc, Burgundy, southern Austrasia and Alemannia. It is agreed that Carloman and Charlemagne disliked each other, although the reasons behind this are unclear: some historians suggest that each brother considered himself rightfully to be the sole heir of their father – Charlemagne as the elder child, Carloman as the legitimate child.
Be that as it may, Pepin the Short's disposal of his kingdom appears to have exacerbated the bad relations between the pair, since it required co-operation between the pair and left both feeling cheated. Carloman's reign proved troublesome; the brothers shared possession of Aquitaine, which broke into rebellion upon the death of Pepin the Short. The two quarreled at Moncontour, near Poitiers, Carloman withdrew. This, it had been suggested, was an attempt to undermine Charlemagne's power, since the rebellion threatened Charlemagne's rule. Charlemagne crushed the rebels, whilst Carloman's behaviour had damaged his own standing amongst the Franks. Relations between the two degenerated further, requiring the mediation of their mother, who appears to have favoured Charlemagne, with whom she would live out her widowhood. In 770, his mother Bertrada began a series of diplomatic offensive to encircle Carloman. Charlemagne had married Desiderata, the daughter of the Lombard king Desiderius in Italy, which created an alliance between Charlemagne and the Lombards.
Although Pope Stephen III remained hostile to an alliance between the Franks and the Lombards in theory, in reality, he was conflicted between the threat the Lombards posed to him and the chance to dispose of the anti-Lombard Christopher the Primicerius, the dominant figure at the Papal court. These maneuvers had been favorable to the Franks in general, but posed serious threats to Carloman's position, he had been left without allies: he attempted to use his brother's alliance with the Lombards to his own advantage in Rome, offering his support against the Lombards to Stephen III and entering into secret negotiations with the Primicerius, isolated by the Franco-Lombard rapprochement. Carloman's position was rescued, however, by Charlemagne's sudden repudiation of his Lombard wife, Desiderius' daughter. Desiderius and humiliated, appears to have made an alliance with Carloman in opposition to Charlemagne and the Papacy, which took the opportunity to declare itself against the Lombards. Carloman died on 4 December 771, at the Villa of Samoussy.
At the time of his death, he and his brother Charlemagne were close to outright war, which Charlemagne's biographer Einhard attributes to the miscounsel of Carloman's advisors. Carloman was buried in Reims. Carloman had married a beautiful Frankish woman, who according to Pope Stephen III was chosen for him, together with Charlemagne's concubine, Himiltrude, by Pepin the Short. With Gerberga he had two sons, the older of whom was named Pepin after his grandfather, marking him according to Carolingian tradition as the heir of Carloman, of Pepin the Short. After Carloman's death, Gerberga expected her elder son to become King, for herself to rule as his regent. Gerberga fled with her sons and Count Autchar, one of Carloman's faithful nobles, to the court of Desiderius, who demanded of the new Pope Hadrian I that he anoint Carloman's sons as Kings of the Franks. Gerberga's flight precipitated Charlemagne's destruction of the Kingdom of the Lombards. Desiderius and his family were captured and sent to Frankish religious houses.
Lothair I or Lothar I was the Holy Roman Emperor, the governor of Bavaria, King of Italy and Middle Francia. Lothair was the eldest son of the Carolingian emperor Louis the Pious and his wife Ermengarde of Hesbaye, daughter of Ingerman the duke of Hesbaye. On several occasions, Lothair led his full-brothers Pepin I of Aquitaine and Louis the German in revolt against their father to protest against attempts to make their half-brother Charles the Bald a co-heir to the Frankish domains. Upon the father's death and Louis joined forces against Lothair in a three-year civil war; the struggles between the brothers led directly to the breakup of the Frankish Empire assembled by their grandfather Charlemagne, laid the foundation for the development of modern France and Germany. Lothair was born in 795, his father was the son of Charlemagne. Little is known of Lothair's early life, passed at the court of his grandfather Charlemagne. In 814, the elderly Charlemagne died, left his son Louis the Pious his vast empire.
The next year, now an adult, was sent to govern Bavaria in 815 for his father the new Emperor Louis the Pious. In 817, Louis the Pious drew up his Ordinatio Imperii. In this, Louis designated Lothair as his principal heir and ordered that Lothair would be the overlord of Louis' younger sons Pippin of Aquitaine and Louis the German, as well as his nephew Bernard of Italy. Lothair would inherit their lands if they were to die childless. Lothair, aged 22, was crowned joint emperor by his father at Aachen. At the same time and Bavaria were granted to his brothers Pippin and Louis as subsidiary kingdoms. Following the death of Bernard by Louis the Pious, Lothair received the Kingdom of Italy. In 821, Lothair married daughter of Hugh the Count of Tours. In 822, he assumed the government of Italy, at Easter, 5 April 823, he was crowned emperor again by Pope Paschal I, this time at Rome. In November 824, Lothair promulgated a statute, the Constitutio Romana, concerning the relations of pope and emperor which reserved the supreme power to the secular potentate, he afterwards issued various ordinances for the good government of Italy.
On Lothair's return to his father's court, his stepmother Judith won his consent to her plan for securing a kingdom for her son Charles, a scheme, carried out in 829, when the young prince was given Alemannia as king. Lothair, soon changed his attitude and spent the succeeding decade in constant strife over the division of the Empire with his father, he was alternately master of the Empire, banished and confined to Italy, at one time taking up arms in alliance with his brothers and at another fighting against them, whilst the bounds of his appointed kingdom were in turn extended and reduced. The first rebellion began in 830. All three brothers fought their father. In 831, their father was reinstated and he deprived Lothair of his imperial title and gave Italy to Charles; the second rebellion was instigated by Angilbert II, Archbishop of Milan, in 833, again Louis was deposed in 834. Lothair, through the loyalty of the Lombards and reconciliations, retained Italy and the imperial position through all remaining divisions of the Empire by his father.
When Louis the Pious was dying in 840, he sent the imperial insignia to Lothair, disregarding the various partitions, claimed the whole of the Empire. He was 45 years old. Negotiations with his brother Louis the German and his half-brother Charles, both of whom resisted this claim, were followed by an alliance of the younger brothers against Lothair. A decisive battle was fought at Fontenay-en-Puisaye on 25 June 841, when, in spite of his and his allied nephew Pepin II of Aquitaine's personal gallantry, Lothair was defeated and fled to Aachen. With fresh troops he began a war of plunder, but the forces of his brothers were too strong, taking with him such treasure as he could collect, he abandoned his capital to them, he met with the leaders of the Stellinga in Speyer and promised them his support in return for theirs, but Louis and the native Saxon nobility put down the Stellinga in the next years. Peace negotiations began, in June 842 the brothers met on an island in the Saône, they agreed to an arrangement which developed, after much difficulty and delay, into the Treaty of Verdun, signed in August 843.
By this, Lothair received the imperial title as well as northern Italy and a long stretch of territory from the North Sea to the Mediterranean along the valleys of the Rhine and the Rhône. He soon ceded Italy to his eldest son and remained in his new kingdom, engaging in alternate quarrels and reconciliations with his brothers and in futile efforts to defend his lands from the attacks of the Northmen and the Saracens. In 845 the count of Arles, led a rebellion in Provence; the emperor put it down and the count joined him in an expedition against the Saracens in Italy in 846. In 855 he became ill, despairing of recovery renounced the throne, divided his lands between his three sons, on 23 September entered the monastery of Prüm, where he died six days later, he was buried at Prüm, where his remains were found in 1860. It was at Prüm that Lothair was
Pope Sergius II
Pope Sergius II was Pope from January 844 to his death in 847. Born of a noble family, Sergius was educated in the schola cantorum, was ordained Cardinal-priest of the Church of Sts. Martin and Sylvester by Pope Paschal. Under Gregory IV, he became archpriest. At a preliminary meeting to designate a successor to Gregory, the name of Sergius was nominated by the aristocracy, while the people of Rome declared for the deacon John; the opposition was suppressed, with Sergius intervening to save John's life. John was, shut up in a monastery, Sergius was duly consecrated, without seeking ratification of the Frankish court; the Holy Roman Emperor Lothair I, disapproved of this abandonment of the Constitutio Romana of 824, which included a statute that no pope should be consecrated until his election had the approval of the Frankish emperor. He sent an army under his son Louis, the appointed Viceroy of Italy, to re-establish his authority; the Church and the Emperor reached an accommodation, with Sergius crowning Louis King of Lombardy, although the Pope did not accede to all the demands made upon him.
Sergius contributed to urban redevelopment in Rome, improving churches and the Lateran Basilica. He and his brother, funded their building plans by selling appointments to various church positions to the highest bidder. During his pontificate the ouskirts of Rome were ravaged, the churches of St. Peter and St. Paul were sacked by Arabs, who approached Portus and Ostia in August 846. During the raid, he looked on helplessly. Despite having been forewarned of the intentions of the raiders, Sergius is seen as having not acted adequately enough to prepare for that which eventuated. Sergius died while negotiating between two patriarchs and was succeeded by Pope Leo IV. Pope Sergius was portrayed by John Goodman in Pope Joan. List of Catholic saints List of popes This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Pope Sergius II". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Cheetham, Keepers of the Keys, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1983. ISBN 0-684-17863-X Davis, Raymond.
The Lives of the Ninth-century Popes: The Ancient Biographies of Ten Popes from A. D. 817-891. Liverpool University Press. Pp. 71–98. ISBN 978-0-85323-479-1. Mann, Horace Kinder; the Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages. Volume II. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner. Pp. 232–257. Opera Omnia by Migne Patrologia Latina with analytical indexes
Siege of Pavia (773–74)
The Siege or Battle of Pavia was fought in 773–774 in northern Italy, near Ticinum, resulted in the victory of the Franks under Charlemagne against the Lombards under king Desiderius. Charlemagne, rex Francorum, had succeeded to the throne in 768 jointly with his brother Carloman. At the time there was antagonism between not only the two ruling brothers, but between the king of the Lombards and the papacy. In 772, Pope Hadrian I expelled all the Lombard officials from the papal curia. In response, Desiderius invaded papal territory taking Otriculum, just a day's march from Rome. Hadrian called Charlemagne for assistance. Charles had produced an alliance with the Lombards by marrying one of Desiderius' daughters, Desiderata; this was taken as an insult by the Lombards. Upon the death of Carloman in 771, his own wife, Gerberge fled the kingdom with her children for reasons now unclear and sought refuge with Desiderius at Pavia. Desiderius now returned the insult to the Franks by giving her asylum, protesting that her children be allowed their share of the Kingdom of the Franks.
The relationship between Frank and Lombard now broke down and the pope took full advantage. His embassy landed at Marseilles and travelled to Thionville, where they delivered this message: Charlemagne ascertained the truth of Desiderius' aggressions and the threat he posed to his own Frankish realm and marched his troops towards Italy in the early summer of 773. Charles' army had 10,000–40,000 troops. At the foot of the mountains, Charles' army met the fortifications of Desiderius, but scouting forces found an alternate route. A cavalcade was sent to attack the defenders from the flank and, with Bernard's forces approaching from the east, the Lombards fled to fortified Pavia; the Frankish troops marched on to begin the siege of Pavia by September. The entire Frankish army was capable of wholly surrounding the Lombard capital, they had brought no siege engines, however. The Lombards too had failed in their preparations: the city was poorly stocked with food and the surrounding countryside was now in the hands of the Franks.
Desiderius remained in Pavia, but Adelchis, his son, had left to stronger Verona to guard over the family of Carloman. Charles led a small force to besiege Verona. Adelchis fled in fear to Constantinople and the city and Carloman's family were taken. Charles began to subdue the whole region around Pavia in the early months of 774. Charles visited the pope in Rome at Easter. No other Lombard dukes or counts made any attempt at relief and Desiderius made no strong counterattack. In the tenth month of the siege, famine was hitting Pavia hard and Desiderius, realising that he was left on his own, opened the gates to Charles and surrendered on some Tuesday in June. After the victory, Charlemagne had himself declared rex Langobardorum, from that time onwards he was to be called King of the Franks and Lombards; this was unique in the history of the Germanic kingdoms of the Dark Ages: a ruler taking the title of the conquered. Charles was forging what could be called an "empire", he was allying himself closely with the church as its protector.
His recognition of temporal papal authority in central Italy laid the foundation for mediaeval Papal power. The decline of the Lombard state had been swift and the changes wrought in Italy by the Frankish conquest were great. Many Franks entered into positions of power and authority in Italy, though many Lombards, on account of their willingness to make peace with Charles, retained their positions; as Paul K. Davis writes, "The defeat and consequent destruction of the Lombard monarchy rid Rome of its most persistent threat to papal security, laying the groundwork for the Holy Roman Empire." Bachrach, B.. Charlemagne’s Early Campaigns: A Diplomatic and Military Analysis. Leiden: Brill Publishers. ISBN 978-90-04-22410-0. Balzaretti, Ross. "Charlemagne in Italy". History Today. 46: 28–34. Tangl, Georgine. "Karls des Großen Weg über die Alpen". QFIAB. 37: 1–15. ISSN 0079-9068