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Grameen Foundation

Grameen Foundation, founded as Grameen Foundation USA known as "GFUSA", is a global 501 non-profit organization based in Washington DC that works to replicate the Grameen Bank microfinance model around the world through a global network of partner microfinance institutions. Its CEO is Steve Hollingworth. Grameen Foundation's mission is, "To enable the poor the poorest, to create a world without poverty."It is separate from organizations called "Grameen Foundation" in different countries, such as Grameen Foundation Australia. The Grameen Foundation was founded by author and independent consultant to nonprofit organizations Alex Counts in 1997, he established the foundation with $6,000 in seed funding from Muhammad Yunus. The mission was to facilitate the expansion of banks modeled after the Grameen Bank beyond the borders of Bangladesh and increase the access of poor people to microfinance by millions worldwide. After 18 years, he resigned from his position as president an CEO in 2015, he was replaced by former executive vice president for global programs David Edelstein.

Nobel-prize winner Professor Muhammad Yunus is founder and managing director of Grameen Bank, sat on the Board of Directors for 12 years and is now a director emeritus. Immediate past chairs of the board are Paul Maritz CEO of VMWare and a senior executive at Microsoft, Robert Eichfeld, a retired executive at Citibank; the current chair of the board is Peter Cowhey, the UC San Diego Interim Executive Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs, Qualcomm Endowed Chair in Communications and Technology Policy, the dean of the School of Global Policy and Strategy. Rather than directly administering microfinance programs, Grameen Foundation provides funds and technical assistance to local and regional microfinance institutions and other poverty-focused organizations. Grameen Foundation works with these organizations to: Help them find financing, either through loan-guarantee programs or direct funding Improve their IT systems, through Mifos, its open-source MIS software Ensure that their staff are as productive as possible, through services and consulting provided by its Human Capital Center Measure whether their efforts are reaching the poor, though its Progress out of Poverty Index Working with local and global allies, Grameen Foundation develops and distributes mobile phone-based applications to help the poor to better manage: Their health, through such programs as the Mobile Technology for Community Health initiative in Ghana Their crops, through such programs as the Community Knowledge Worker initiative in Uganda Their finances, though such programs as the Mobile Money initiative in UgandaGrameen Foundation works to help the poor receive training and benefit from small-business opportunities, further enabling them to improve their lives and break the cycle of poverty for themselves and their families.

Voted into the top 25 of world changing ideas in 2007 Members Project by American Express cardholders. Grameen Foundation forayed into open source core banking systems by launching the website mifosx; the Mifos project was formally launched by Grameen Foundation in 2006. Measuring the Impact of Microfinance: Taking Another Look. Op-Ed by Alex Counts and Jay Bakhru on increasing U. S. Aid spending on microfinance. Yunus, Muhammad. Banker to the Poor: Micro-lending and the Battle Against World Poverty. New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN 1-891620-11-8. Measuring the Impact of Microfinance: Taking Stock of What We Know. Innovate podcast series interviews Alex Counts, founder and CEO of Grameen Foundation Nokia, Grameen Collaborate for African Villages Highway Africa News Agency, November 25, 2005

Thorfinn Torf-Einarsson

Thorfinn Torf-Einarsson known as Thorfinn Skull-splitter was a 10th-century Earl of Orkney. He appears in the Orkneyinga saga and in St Olaf's Saga, as incorporated into the Heimskringla; these stories were first written down in Iceland in the early 13th century and much of the information they contain is "hard to corroborate". Thorfinn was the youngest son of Torf-Einarr, himself the son of Rognvald Eysteinsson, the first Earl of Orkney. Torf-Einarr had two other sons and Erlend who "fell in a war expedition" at an unspecified location in England along with Erik Bloodaxe. Erik's widow, Gunnhildr fled north to Orkney with her sons who used the islands as a base for summer raiding expeditions. Thorfinn had five sons: Arnfinn, Hlodvir and Skuli, their mother was Grelad, a daughter of "Earl Dungad of Caithness" and Groa, herself a daughter of Thorstein the Red. Grelad's Norse credentials were thus impressive, but it has been suggested that her connection to this "earl" of Caithness may have been more important for the Orkney earldom.

It is that Dungad was a member of a pre-Norse era ruling family and that the marriage brought Groa's descendants within the Celtic derbfine and helped to legitimise their ambitions on the north mainland of Scotland. Thorfinn and Grelod had two daughters whose names are not known, each of whom had a son called Einar - Einar kliningr and Einar harðkjotr. Gunnhildr and her family set out for Norway, but before they left they "gave" their daughter Ragnhild Eriksdotter to Arnfinn Thorfinnsson in marriage. In the days of Thorfinn's rule, the sons of Eric Bloodaxe fled Norway and returned to Orkney where they "committed great excesses". Thorfinn Torf-Einarsson lived to be an old man and may have died c. 963 "on a bed of sickness". He is said to have been buried at the broch site at Howe of Hoxa on South Ronaldsay. According to St Olaf's Saga his sons became Earls after him but the earldom was beset by dynastic strife. Ragnhild had her husband Arnfinn killed at Murkle in Caithness and married his brother Havard "Harvest-happy" who ruled as earl for a time.

Not content with this new arrangement Ragnhild conspired with her nephew Einar kliningr, who killed Havard at the battle of Havarðsteiger near Stenness. Einar and Ragnhild fell out and the latter persuaded Einar harðkjotr to attack and kill his cousin Einar kliningr in turn. Ragnhild's ambitions were still not assuaged and this "female spider" colluded with Ljot Thorfinnson whom she married and he had the second Einar killed. Having now married three of Thorfinn's sons in succession no more is told of Ragnhild and Ljot became earl and an "excellent leader". Skuli gave allegiance to the Scots king who gave him the title Earl of Orkney but he never gained control of the islands, being killed in battle against Ljot in the Dales of Caithness at which Ljot "fought like a hero". Ljot took control of Caithness but this angered the Scots and MacBeth, the Mormaer of Moray, brought a large army north, they although outnumbered Ljot had the victory. However he died of wounds suffered there and "people thought it a great loss".

Hlodvir became earl and "ruled alone over this country". Hlodvir married Eithne, daughter of Kjarvalr, King of Ireland. Hlodvir was buried at Ham in Caithness, he was succeeded as earl by his son Sigurd. The modern Orcadian beer Skull Splitter is named after Thorfinn. Kjarvalr Írakonungr appears in the Landnámabók and has been identified as Cerball mac Dúnlainge, King of Osraige who died in 888. There is a chronological problem with Earl Hlodvir, whose son Sigurd was killed at Clontarf in 1014, marrying the daughter of a king who died more than 120 years before that. Furthermore, Thorstein "the Red" Olafsson was married to a granddaughter of Kjarvalr. Woolf concludes that the saga writers may have confused this story about the provenance of Sigurd Hlodvirsson with one about Thorstein, a close ally of Sigurd Eysteinsson. Thomson concludes that there is "no real reason to trust the details of this bloodthirsty story" about Thorfinn's children, speculates about the saga writer's intentions; the joint rulership of earls was a recurring theme in the period up to 1214 and was "inherently unstable and ended in violence".

He identifies these family feuds as being the main theme of the Orkneyinga saga, culminating in the martyrdom of St Magnus c.1115, that the writer is emphasising the doom of "kin-slaying". The connection with Erik Bloodaxe may have been made to illustrate the continuing influence of the Norwegian ruling families in Orcadian affairs, which lessened in the late 10th century when Scandinavian expeditions tended to be directed towards England "by-passing Orkney and allowing the earls greater scope for independent action". In this context Ragnhild may have been not so much the cause of the Thorfinsson's troubles as the "prize for the winner". Although he never became de facto earl, Skuli Thorfinsson's relationship with the Scots offers some insight into the politics of the north of Scotland in the late tenth century. In the Orkneyinga saga it is claimed that he requested the support of the "king of Scots" for his claim to Caithness; however it is far from certain that the kings of Scots were in a position to offer any authority so far north at this time.

The Irish annalists referred to the rulers of Moray by the title Ri Alban and it is possible that the saga writer meant the former by this term. Crawford suggests that "if the late ninth-century conquest of northern Scotland by Thorstein

Ramón González Valencia

Ramón González Valencia was a Colombian conservative, military officer and statesman. He participated in the civil wars of 1876, Colombian Civil War of 1895, the Thousand Days War. González Valencia was born in the town of Chitagá, Norte de Santander Department, on May 24, 1851, he died in the city of Pamplona, Norte de Santander Department, on October 3, 1928. Although González Valencia was a young farmer, working in agriculture and cattle rising, he enlisted in the military during the civil wars of the time, his military career began in 1876, at the battle of “Hatogrande”, the conservative revolt against President Aquileo Parra. González Valencia, during the liberal revolt against President Miguel Antonio Caro, in 1895, once again he enlists in the national army to fight for his conservative beliefs, he repeated this same action during the civil war of “the Thousand Days”. Throughout his military career he was regarded for his courageous and compassionate attitude, he was ascended to the rank of General of the Army.

González Valencia held the offices of “Jefe Civil y Militar” of Santander Department and Minister of War during the administration of President José Manuel Marroquín, in 1901. González Valencia, in 1904, was chosen by the Colombian Conservative Party to be the running mate of Rafael Reyes as his vice-president; the Colombian Liberal Party abstained from participating in the presidential election of this year, both Reyes and González Valencia won the election. And soon after the election, their ideological differences became apparent. González Valencia was a right wing conservative and Reyes was a moderate. General Reyes, politically more ambitious than General González Valencia, could not forget the events of July 31, 1900, when Vice-President José Manuel Marroquín, with the aid of the military and the conservative party, had removed for m office President Manuel Antonio Sanclemente; because President Rafael Reyes had opened the doors to a dialogue with the liberals, this made the conservatives suspicious.

Because General González Valencia was appreciated by both, the Army and the conservative party, this made General Reyes uncomfortable. Thus, General Reyes had to contrive a plan to remove General González Valencia from the vice-presidency, he requested the intervention of two common friends of him and General González, the Ambassador of the Vatican City State, Nuncio Apostólico Monsignor Francisco Ragonessi and Don Luis Martínez Silva, to whom he expressed his concerns and intentions. General Reyes asked them to please communicate, in the best possible manner, to General González his decision. Therefore, Monsignor Francisco Ragonessi and Martínez Silva contacted General González Valencia, in Cúcuta, they conveyed the message and explained to him that General Reyes would much appreciate his “voluntary” resignation to the office he had been elected to. All three agreed to meet in an equidistant point between Bogotá and Cúcuta. On March 9, 1905, they met, as agreed, General González Valencia submitted his resignation.

General González Valencia served as Vice President under Rafael Reyes, who because of personal and professional differences, fired him and abolished the office of the vice presidency. It was not until the enactment of the Colombian Constitution of 1991 that the vice-presidency was reinstated again, he served as Interim President of Colombia from August 3, 1909 to August 7, 1910. General González Valencia, in his letter of resignation, addressed to the nation and not to General Reyes, said: “In the best interest of the country and for the high ideals of the party, I resign today voluntarily, before the nation that honored and trusted me with this high office, because of the incompatibilities between the President and the Vice-President”; the resignation was not voluntarily, in light of the demands of the “dictador de facto”. The liberal party manifested great appreciation to Monsignor Ragonessi for his valuable service in furtherance of the peace process in the nation; the political tide and public opinion changed in disfavor of General Reyes.

He handed over the office to President Interim Jorge Holguín. General Reyes, on his way out of the country, met with General González Valencia in the port of Gamarra and asked him to retake his office of Vice-President. General Reyes declined his offer, for obvious reasons. Once that General Reyes had left the country, Congress convened on July 20, 1909, elected General González Valencia as president of Colombia. General González Valencia was inaugurated on August 3, 1909, was to serve until August 6, 1910. Partido Conservador Colombiano.

1977–78 Boston Celtics season

The 1977–78 Boston Celtics season was the 32nd season of the Boston Celtics in the National Basketball Association and was linked to the Buffalo Braves season. While the Braves were struggling on the court, their owner John Y. Brown brokered a deal to take over the legendary Celtics franchise. Celtics owner Irv Levin wanted to move the franchise to California, the NBA would not allow him to take the cornerstone franchise out of Boston. NBA lawyer and future commissioner David Stern offered a compromise in which Levin and Brown would swap franchises, so that Levin could take over the Braves and move them to San Diego; the owners of the 22 franchises voted 21–1 to approve the deal, the Braves moved from Buffalo to San Diego. The deal included a 7-player trade in which the Celtics acquired Nate Archibald, Billy Knight and Marvin Barnes in exchange for Freeman Williams, Kevin Kunnert, Kermit Washington and Sidney Wicks; the Braves would not request a draft pick in the deal, allowing the Celtics to retain the draft rights to future Hall of Famer Larry Bird.

The Braves played their last game of the season in Boston. It was one of only three seasons from 1951 to 1993; this was the final season for the legendary John Havlicek. Nobody has played more seasons for the Celtics than Havlicek; this table only displays picks through two rounds

Royal Commission into Misconduct in the Banking, Superannuation and Financial Services Industry

The Royal Commission into Misconduct in the Banking and Financial Services Industry known as the Banking Royal Commission and the Hayne Royal Commission, was a royal commission established on 14 December 2017 by the Australian government pursuant to the Royal Commissions Act 1902 to inquire into and report on misconduct in the banking and financial services industry. The establishment of the commission followed revelations in the media of a culture of greed within several Australian financial institutions. A subsequent parliamentary inquiry recommended a royal commission, noting the lack of regulatory intervention by the relevant government authorities, revelations that financial institutions were involved in money laundering for drug syndicates, turned a blind eye to terrorism financing, ignored statutory reporting responsibilities and impropriety in foreign exchange trading; the Honourable Kenneth Madison Hayne, the former Justice of the High Court of Australia, served as the sole commissioner and submitted an interim report to the Governor-General of Australia on 28 September 2018, tabled in parliament by the Government on the same day.

The Royal Commission conducted seven rounds of public hearings over 68 days, called more than 130 witnesses and reviewed over 10,000 public submissions. Commissioner Hayne submitted a final report to the Governor-General on 1 February 2019 with 76 separate recommendations; the final report and the government's response to the report were made public on 4 February 2019. Michelle Grattan has characterised the incoming Abbott Liberal-National government as being "determined to weaken protections" that Labor had introduced, although she noted these attempts were defeated by the Senate crossbench. In light of an account fraud scandal at US-bank Wells Fargo, on 5 May 2014 ABC TV Four Corners, in conjunction with Fairfax journalists, broadcast an exposé of a sales-driven culture within the Commonwealth Bank's financial planning division, described as profit at all cost. Chaired by Labor Senator Mark Bishop, a subsequent Senate committee inquiry recommended a royal commission into the fraud scandal that left thousands of CBA customers millions of dollars out of pocket.

The committee reported on the performance of the Australian Investments Commission. Several days CBA chief executive Ian Narev apologised unreservedly to customers who lost money in the bank's financial planning scandal. Treasurer at the time, Joe Hockey, whose mother was impacted by the scandal, stated that the bank did not act enough to address the problem; the CBA was subsequently embroiled in other matters including money laundering for drug syndicates, turning a blind eye to terrorism financing, ignoring statutory reporting responsibilities for more than three years on more than 750,000 accounts, impropriety in foreign exchange trading. The National Australia Bank was implicated during 2015 in a series of scandals concerning financial planners where it was revealed that the NAB paid millions of dollars in compensation to hundreds of clients for what it considered was inappropriate financial planning advice by its staff between 2009 and 2015. A whistleblower claimed that there was a volatile and Machiavellian culture within NAB.

ASIC banned NAB staff who were licensed to provide financial advice. Subsequently, it was revealed that NAB were implicated in impropriety in foreign exchange trading. Westpac was implicated in allegations that it rigged one of Australia's key interest rates, the bank bill swap rate and was sued under responsible lending laws for using an automated process to decide whether peoples' home loan applications met lending criteria. Further, a Westpac banker was imprisoned for fraudulently lending millions of dollars to elderly pensioners. Following ASIC investigations, Westpac was instructed to make a donation of $3 million to Financial Literacy Australia after ASIC found that the bank's employees disclosed confidential details of their clients' orders to other foreign exchange traders. Westpac refunded $65 million to 220,000 customers after it failed to pass on benefits they should have received under package deals, including home loans, credit cards and transaction accounts, offered by the bank.

The ANZ Bank was implicated in the bank bill swap rate scandal and settled with ASIC prior to the commencement of legal proceedings. Macquarie Bank was implicated in the foreign exchange trading scandal and was instructed to donate $2 million to charity and to open up its foreign exchange arm to scrutiny after ASIC uncovered a series of breaches by its traders. Appearing before the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Economics, chief executives of the ANZ, CBA, NAB, Westpac advised that, despite consumer complaints few senior bank staff were dismissed due to misconduct. In a 2016 speech before the National Press Club, opposition leader Bill Shorten outlined his plans for a royal commission into the banking sector, should Labor win government at the 2016 federal election. Meanwhile, Liberals Warren Entsch supported calls for a royal commission. Despite an attempt launched in April 2016 to protect consumer interests, increase transparency and accountability, build trust and confidence in banks, amidst growing community concerns, in January 2017 twenty-five members of the Australian Banking Association launched Better Banking, an initiative aimed to provide improve products and culture, to provide consumers with helpful information and resources.

In April 2016 Steve Sedgwick, a former senior A