Tammy Wynette, was an American country music singer-songwriter and one of country music's best-known artists and biggest-selling female singers. Wynette was called the "First Lady of Country Music", her best-known song, "Stand by Your Man", is one of the best-selling hit singles by a woman in the history of country music. Many of her hits dealt with classic themes of loneliness and the difficulties of life and relationships. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, Wynette charted 20 number-one songs. Along with Loretta Lynn and Dolly Parton, she is credited with having defined the role of women in country music during the 1970s. Wynette's marriage to country music singer George Jones in 1969, which ended in divorce in 1975, created a country music "couple", following the earlier success of Johnny Cash and June Carter Cash. Jones and Wynette recorded a sequence of albums and singles that hit the charts throughout the 1970s and early 1980s. Tammy Wynette was born Virginia Wynette Pugh near Tremont, the only child of Mildred Faye and William Hollice Pugh.
Wynette's father was a farmer and local musician who died of a brain tumor when Wynette was nine months old. Her mother worked in an office, as a substitute school teacher, on the family farm. After her husband's death, Mildred Pugh left her daughter in the care of her own parents, Thomas Chester Russell, his wife and moved to Memphis to work in a defense plant during World War II. In 1946, Mildred Pugh married a farmer. Wynette grew up in her maternal grandparents' home, which had running water, she was raised with an aunt, Carolyn Russell, only five years older, thus more of a sister than an aunt. As a girl, Wynette taught herself to play a variety of musical instruments, left by her deceased father. Wynette attended Tremont High School. A month before graduation, several months before her 18th birthday, she wed her first husband, Euple Byrd, he was a construction worker, but had trouble keeping a job, they moved several times. Wynette worked as a waitress, a receptionist, a barmaid, in a shoe factory.
In 1963, she attended beauty college in Tupelo, where she learned to be a hairdresser. She continued to renew her cosmetology license every year for the rest of her life – just in case she had to go back to a daily job, she left her first husband, before the birth of their third daughter. That baby developed spinal meningitis, Wynette tried to earn extra money by performing at night. Euple did not support her ambition to become a country singer, according to Wynette, as she drove away he told her, "Dream on, Baby". Years he appeared at one of her concerts as she was signing autographs and asked for one, she signed it "Dream on, baby." In 1965, Wynette sang on the Country Boy Eddie Show on WBRC-TV in Birmingham, meanwhile working as a hairdresser in Midfield and this led to performances with Porter Wagoner. In 1966, she moved with her three daughters from Birmingham to Nashville, where she attempted to get a recording contract. After being turned down by all of the other record companies, she auditioned for the producer Billy Sherrill.
Sherrill was reluctant to sign her, but decided to do so after finding himself in need of a singer for "Apartment No. 9". When Sherrill heard Wynette sing it, he was impressed and decided to sign her to Epic Records in 1966. Once she was signed to Epic, Sherrill suggested. According to her 1979 memoir, Stand by Your Man, during their meeting, Wynette was wearing her long, blonde hair in a ponytail, Sherrill noted that she reminded him of Debbie Reynolds in the film Tammy and the Bachelor, he suggested "Tammy" as a possible name, so she became Tammy Wynette. Her first single, "Apartment No. 9", was released in December 1966, just missed the top 40 on the Country charts, peaking at number 44. It was followed by "Your Good Girl's Gon na Go Bad"; the song launched a string of top-ten hits that ran through the end of the 1970s, interrupted only by three singles that didn't crack the Top Ten. After "Your Good Girl's Gonna Go Bad" was a success, "My Elusive Dreams", a duet with David Houston, became her first number one in the summer of 1967, followed by "I Don't Wanna Play House" that year.
"I Don't Wanna Play House" won Wynette a Grammy award in 1967 for Best Female Country Vocal Performance, one of two wins for Wynette in that category. During 1968 and 1969, Wynette had five number-one hits – "Take Me to Your World", "D-I-V-O-R-C-E", "Stand by Your Man", "Singing My Song", "The Ways to Love a Man". "Stand by Your Man" was written in the Epic studio in just 15 minutes by Billy Sherrill and Wynette, was released at a time when the women's-rights movement was beginning to stir in the U. S; the message in the song stated that a woman should stay with her man, despite his faults and shortcomings. It stirred up controversy and was criticized and it became a lightning rod for feminists; the song became successful, reaching the top spot on the Country charts, was a top-20 pop hit, peaking at number 19 on the Billboard pop charts in 1968, Wynette's only top-40 hit as a solo artist on the pop charts. In 1969, Wynette won the Grammy award for Best Female Country Vocal Performance for "Stand by Your Man", now, according to critics, considered a "classic" or Country music "standard".
Colbert County, Alabama
Colbert County is a county of the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census the county's population was 54,428; the county seat is Tuscumbia. Its name is in honor of Chickasaw Indian chiefs. Colbert County is part of the Florence-Muscle Shoals, AL Metropolitan Statistical Area known as "The Shoals". Colbert County was established on February 6, 1867 after it split from Franklin County over political issues after the American Civil War, it was abolished eight months on November 29, 1867 by an Alabama constitutional convention and reestablished on February 24, 1870. It is the location of Ivy Green, the birthplace of noted author Helen Keller. Colbert County is home of the towns Sheffield and Muscle Shoals where many popular musicians such as Aretha Franklin and the Rolling Stones recorded music. Colbert County is the home of the Key Underwood Coon Dog Memorial Graveyard established in 1937. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 622 square miles, of which 593 square miles is land and 30 square miles is water.
Natchez Trace Parkway Tennessee River Lauderdale County - north Lawrence County, Alabama - southeast Franklin County, Alabama - south Tishomingo County, Mississippi - west U. S. Highway 43 U. S. Highway 72 State Route 13 State Route 17 State Route 20 State Route 133 State Route 157 State Route 184 State Route 247 Natchez Trace Parkway Norfolk Southern Railway - freight lines going South and West; as of the census of 2000, there were 54,984 people, 22,461 households, 16,037 families residing in the county. The population density was 92 people per square mile. There were 24,980 housing units at an average density of 42 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 78.52% White or European American, 16.62% Black or African American, 0.37% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.34% from other races, 0.89% from two or more races. 1.12% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. According to the 2010 United States Census Bureau: 80.4% White 14.0% Black 0.4% Native American 0.7% Asian 0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 0.91% Two or more races 2.0% Hispanic or Latino There were 22,461 households out of which 30.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.00% were married couples living together, 12.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.60% were non-families.
26.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.92. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.80% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 27.80% from 25 to 44, 24.90% from 45 to 64, 15.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,954, the median income for a family was $39,294. Males had a median income of $32,112 versus $20,107 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,533. About 11.10% of families and 14.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.40% of those under age 18 and 11.90% of those age 65 or over. Muscle Shoals Sheffield Tuscumbia Cherokee Leighton Littleville
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
William B. Bankhead National Forest
The William B. Bankhead National Forest is one of Alabama's four National Forests, it is home to Alabama's only National Scenic River, the Sipsey Fork. It is located around the town of Double Springs, it is named in honor of William B. Bankhead, a longtime U. S. Representative from Alabama. Known as the "land of a thousand waterfalls", this National Forest is popular for hiking, horseback riding, boating, swimming and more. Within the forest lies the Sipsey Wilderness, with a host of wildlife and an abundance of swift streams, limestone bluffs, waterfalls. Native American relics abound in Bankhead, one of the Southern United States's premier sites for petroglyphs, prehistoric drawings, rock carvings, at sites such as the Kinlock Shelter; the forest is headquartered in Montgomery. The other National Forests in the state are Conecuh and Tuskegee. There are local ranger district offices located in Double Springs; the forest was established as Alabama National Forest on January 1918 with 66,008 acres. On June 19, 1936 it was renamed Black Warrior National Forest, which in turn was renamed William B.
Bankhead National Forest on June 6, 1942. In 1959, Executive Order 10850 removed land from the forest's boundaries. William B. Bankhead National Forest Map Highlighting the National Forest's Boundaries
Lawrence County, Alabama
Lawrence County is a county in the northern part of the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, the population was 34,339; this county has the highest number of residents who identify as Native American of any county in the state. The county seat is Moulton; the county was named after a captain in the United States Navy from New Jersey. Lawrence County is included in the Decatur, AL Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Huntsville-Decatur-Albertville, AL Combined Statistical Area. For thousands of years, this area was inhabited by differing cultures of indigenous peoples. People of the Copena culture in the Middle Woodland period built complex earthworks as part of their religious and political system, their burial mound and ceremonial platform mound, the largest in the state, are preserved at Oakville Indian Mounds Park and Museum. The museum includes exhibits on the Cherokee, an Iroquoian-speaking people who inhabited the area at the time of European encounter. Other historic Native American tribes in this state were Choctaw and Creek, who both spoke Muskogean languages.
Lawrence County was established by the legislature of the Alabama Territory on February 6, 1818. Under the Indian Removal Act of 1830, the U. S. government forced most of the members of these Southeast tribes to go west of the Mississippi River to Indian Territory to the west. They wanted to extinguish their land claims to open the area to settlement by Americans. Numerous Cherokee and mixed-race European-Cherokee descendants, sometimes called "Black Dutch", have stayed in the Lawrence County area. According to the census, the county has the highest number of self-identified Native Americans in the state; the state-recognized Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama has 4,000 enrolled members. The Cherokee Nation opposes federal recognition of this tribe. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 717 square miles, of which 691 square miles is land and 27 square miles is water. Tennessee River Sipsey Fork of the Black Warrior River Limestone County Morgan County Cullman County Winston County Franklin County Colbert County Lauderdale County William B.
Bankhead National Forest Norfolk Southern Railway As of the census of 2000, there were 34,803 people, 13,538 households, 10,194 families residing in the county. The population density was 50 people per square mile. There were 15,009 housing units at an average density of 22 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 77.77% White, 13.36% Black or African American, 5.36% Native American, 0.10% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.33% from other races, 3.08% from two or more races. 1.05% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. In 2000, the largest ancestry groups in Lawrence County were English 61.2%, African 13.36%, Scots-Irish 4.1% and Welsh 2.0%. There were 13,538 households out of which 34.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.50% were married couples living together, 11.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.70% were non-families. 22.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 2.99. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.70% under the age of 18, 8.40% from 18 to 24, 30.10% from 25 to 44, 23.70% from 45 to 64, 12.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,549, the median income for a family was $38,565. Males had a median income of $31,519 versus $20,480 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,515. About 13.10% of families and 15.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.80% of those under age 18 and 24.50% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 34,339 people, 13,654 households, 9,985 families residing in the county; the population density was 50 people per square mile. There were 15,229 housing units at an average density of 22 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 77.6% White, 11.5% Black or African American, 5.7% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.8% from other races, 4.3% from two or more races. 1.7% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 13,654 households out of which 29.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.7% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.9% were non-families. 24.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.95. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.2% under the age of 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 29.1% from 45 to 64, 14.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.4 males. The median income for a household in the county was $40,516, the median income for a family was $48,425.
Males had a median income of $45,787 versus $27,341 for females. The per capita income for the county was $19,370. About 10.3% of families and 13.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.3% of those under age 18 and 11.0% of those age 65 or over. Lawrence County is home to four high schools: East Lawrence High School, Hatton High School, Lawrence County High School, R. A. Hubbard High School (1
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U. S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state. Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the "Cotton State"; the state tree is the longleaf pine, the state flower is the camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery; the largest city by population is Birmingham. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana. From the American Civil War until World War II, like many states in the southern U. S. suffered economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture. Similar to other former slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era up until at least the 1970s.
Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s. During this time, urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented. Following World War II, Alabama grew as the state's economy changed from one based on agriculture to one with diversified interests; the state's economy in the 21st century is based on management, finance, aerospace, mineral extraction, education and technology. The European-American naming of the Alabama River and state was derived from the Alabama people, a Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers on the upper reaches of the river. In the Alabama language, the word for a person of Alabama lineage is Albaamo; the suggestion that "Alabama" was borrowed from the Choctaw language is unlikely. The word's spelling varies among historical sources; the first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540: Garcilaso de la Vega used Alibamo, while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu in transliterations of the term.
As early as 1702, the French called the tribe the Alibamon, with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons. Other spellings of the name have included Alibamu, Albama, Alibama, Alabamu, Allibamou. Sources disagree on the word's meaning; some scholars suggest the word comes from amo. The meaning may have been "clearers of the thicket" or "herb gatherers", referring to clearing land for cultivation or collecting medicinal plants; the state has numerous place names of Native American origin. However, there are no correspondingly similar words in the Alabama language. An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican proposed it meant "Here We Rest." This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek. Experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation. Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before the advent of European colonization. Trade with the northeastern tribes by the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period and continued until European contact.
The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from 1000 to 1600 AD, with one of its major centers built at what is now the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama. This is the second-largest complex of the classic Middle Mississippian era, after Cahokia in present-day Illinois, the center of the culture. Analysis of artifacts from archaeological excavations at Moundville were the basis of scholars' formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Contrary to popular belief, the SECC appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerican culture, but developed independently; the Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples. Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were the Cherokee, an Iroquoian language people. While part of the same large language family, the Muskogee tribes developed distinct cultures and languages. With exploration in the 16th century, the Spanish were the first Europeans to reach Alabama.
The expedition of Hernando de Soto passed through Mabila and other parts of the state in 1540. More than 160 years the French founded the region's first European settlement at Old Mobile in 1702; the city was moved to the current site of Mobile in 1711. This area was claimed by the French from 1702 to 1763 as part of La Louisiane. After the French lost to the British in the Seven Years' War, it became part of British West Florida from 1763 to 1783. After the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War, the territory was divided between the United States and Spain; the latter retained control of this western territory from 1783 until the surrender of the Spanish garrison at Mobile to U. S. forces on April 13, 1813. Thomas Bassett, a loyalist to the British monarchy during the Revolutionary era, was one of the earliest white settlers in the state