United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Smith County, Kansas
Smith County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,853, its county seat is Smith Center. The county is named in memory of Maj. J. Nelson Smith, part of the 2nd Colorado Cavalry, killed in action at the Battle of Westport on October 21, 1864; the geographic center of the contiguous United States is located near Lebanon. For many millennia, the Great Plains of North America was inhabited by nomadic Native Americans. From the 16th century to 18th century, the Kingdom of France claimed ownership of large parts of North America. In 1762, after the French and Indian War, France secretly ceded New France to Spain, per the Treaty of Fontainebleau. In 1802, Spain returned most of the land to France. In 1803, most of the land for modern day Kansas was acquired by the United States from France as part of the 828,000 square mile Louisiana Purchase for 2.83 cents per acre. In 1854, the Kansas Territory was organized in 1861 Kansas became the 34th U. S. state.
In 1872, Smith County was established. The first homestead in Smith County was in 1871 and there were 3,800 inhabitants by 1875; the county grew to 15,000 people by 1889. Corn was the main crop at first but drought and grasshopper plagues hurt the crops; when hardy Winter wheat was introduced to Kansas by Russian settlers, it became the predominant crop in Smith County. The population of the county has declined since 1900 due in large part because of advanced farming techniques that require less human labor. Dr. Brewster Higley wrote the song "Home on the Range" in 1871 in a cabin 8 miles north of Athol, it became the Kansas State song. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 897 square miles, of which 895 square miles is land and 1.5 square miles is water. The county is divided into 25 townships, each of, listed below in the subdivisions section of this article; the geographic center of the 48 contiguous states is located within the county, near the city of Lebanon. The geographic center of North America is located in neighboring Osborne County.
The Solomon River runs through the southern part of the county and provides a flat basin and water for irrigated crops. There are two major highways serving the county; the main east-west route is U. S. Highway 36, which travels through Athol and Smith Center; the main north-south route is U. S. Highway 281, which intersects US-36 in Smith Center. Kansas state highways K-8, K-9 and K-180 serve other areas of the county. Webster County, Nebraska Jewell County Osborne County Rooks County Phillips County Franklin County, Nebraska As of the census of 2000, there were 4,536 people, 1,953 households, 1,322 families residing in the county; the population density was 5 people per square mile. There were 2,326 housing units at an average density of 3 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.79% White, 0.11% Black or African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.04% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, 0.49% from two or more races. 0.73% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 1,953 households out of which 25.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.60% were married couples living together, 4.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.30% were non-families. 30.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.78. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.70% under the age of 18, 4.70% from 18 to 24, 22.10% from 25 to 44, 23.60% from 45 to 64, 27.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females there were 92.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,486, the median income for a family was $36,951. Males had a median income of $25,089 versus $18,608 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,983. About 8.80% of families and 10.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.80% of those under age 18 and 9.50% of those age 65 or over.
The population distribution by township is as follows according to the 2000 census: Banner 54. Smith County is overwhelmingly Republican. No Democratic Presidential candidate has won Smith County since Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932. Since 1940 the only Democrat to win forty percent of the county’s vote has been Lyndon Johnson during his 1964 landslide, the last to pass thirty percent was Michael Dukakis during the drought-affected 1988 election Following amendment to the Kansas Constitution in 1986, the county remained a prohibition, or "dry", county until 1992, when voters approved the sale of alcoholic liquor by the individual drink with a 30 percent food sales requirement. Thunder Ridge USD 110 Kensington and western third of county. None of the cities within the county are considered governmentally independent, all figures for the townships include thos
Vehicle registration plates of Nebraska
The U. S. state of Nebraska first required its residents to register their motor vehicles in 1905. Registrants provided their own license plates for display until 1915, when the state began to issue plates. All state-issued plates were made of steel until 1947. With the exception of 1945, all plates have been issued in pairs since 1922. In 1956, the United States and Mexico came to an agreement with the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators, the Automobile Manufacturers Association and the National Safety Council that standardized the size for license plates for vehicles at 6 inches in height by 12 inches in width, with standardized mounting holes; the 1955 issue was the first Nebraska license plate. Nebraska established a county-code system for its passenger and motorcycle plates in 1922, with one- or two-digit codes assigned to each county in order of the number of registered vehicles in the county at that time; these codes remained constant through 1950. For 1951, letter codes were used.
One-letter codes were assigned to the first counties whose names began with those letters, while all other counties were assigned two-letter codes consisting of the initial letter and the next available letter in their names. There were three exceptions: Douglas County, the most populous in the state, was assigned single-letter X to increase capacity; the numeric code system was reintroduced with the codes the same as before. It remains in use to this day, except in Douglas and Sarpy Counties, which adopted an uncoded ABC 123 serial format in 2002. Nebraska license plates 1969-present
Phelps County, Nebraska
Phelps County is a county in the U. S. state of Nebraska. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 9,188, its county seat is Holdrege. The county was formed in 1873, was named for William Phelps, an early settler. In the Nebraska license plate system, Phelps County is represented by the prefix 37, it is considered part of the Kearney μSA's expansion plans. Phelps County terrain consists of low rolling hills devoted to agriculture, sloping to the east, dropping off toward the river basin along its northern boundary line; the Platte River flows eastward along the north line. The county has a total area of 540 square miles, of which 540 square miles is land and 0.6 square miles is water. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 9,747 people, 3,844 households, 2,683 families in the county; the population density was 18 people per square mile. There were 4,191 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.79% White, 0.11% Black or African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 0.79% from other races, 0.75% from two or more races.
2.26% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,844 households out of which 33.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.60% were married couples living together, 5.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.20% were non-families. 26.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.00. The county population contained 26.50% under the age of 18, 6.10% from 18 to 24, 25.80% from 25 to 44, 23.60% from 45 to 64, 18.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 96.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,319, the median income for a family was $44,943. Males had a median income of $28,962 versus $21,741 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,044. About 6.20% of families and 8.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.10% of those under age 18 and 7.70% of those age 65 or over.
Holdrege Clyde Sacramento Westmark Phelps County voters have been reliably Republican for decades. In no national election since 1936 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Phelps County, Nebraska
Kearney County, Nebraska
Kearney County is a county in the U. S. state of Nebraska. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 6,489, its county seat is Minden. The county was formed in 1860, it was named for Fort Kearny. Kearney County is part of NE Micropolitan Statistical Area. In the Nebraska license plate system, Kearney County is represented by the prefix 52; the terrain of Kearney County consists of rolling low hills devoted to agriculture. The Platte River flows eastward along the north county boundary; the county has a total area of 516 square miles, of which 516 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 6,882 people, 2,643 households, 1,902 families in the county; the population density was 13 people per square mile. There were 2,846 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.82% White, 0.16% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.99% from other races, 0.58% from two or more races.
2.34% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,643 households out of which 34.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.90% were married couples living together, 6.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.00% were non-families. 24.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.98. The county population contained 80% under the age of 18, 6.40% from 18 to 24, 27.50% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, 16.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,247, the median income for a family was $44,877. Males had a median income of $29,987 versus $20,081 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,118. About 5.50% of families and 8.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.00% of those under age 18 and 6.80% of those age 65 or over.
Minden Keene Lowell Newark Dobytown Carl Curtis – Republican in the House of Representatives Harlan County voters are Republican. In only one national election since 1936 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Kearney County, Nebraska "Kearney"; the American Cyclopædia. 1879
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may