1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Franklin, North Carolina
Franklin is a town in Franklin Township, Macon County, North Carolina, United States, within the Nantahala National Forest. The population was 3,845 as of the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Macon County. Franklin is an official Appalachian Trail-friendly destination; the Franklin area is rich in gems and minerals and is known locally as the "Gem Capital of The World." Long before the first European settlers arrived to the mountains of southwestern North Carolina, they were home to the Cherokee Indian Nation. In a valley surrounded by some of the oldest mountains on earth, the Cherokee called the area, now Franklin, "Nikwasi" or "center of activity". Nikwasi was an important Cherokee town; the remains of Nikwasi Mound are still visible in downtown Franklin, marking the location of Nikwasi's townhouse. While the mound was built during the earlier Mississippian Culture, it was the spiritual center of the area. A Council House, or Town House, used for councils, religious ceremonies, general meetings, was located on top the mound, the ever-burning sacred fire, which the Cherokee had kept burning since the beginning of their culture, was located there.
Thus the mound was a most revered site. The city was named for Jesse Franklin, one of two state commissioners who surveyed and organized the town in 1820 as the county seat for what would become Macon County in 1828. Jesse Franklin served North Carolina as its 20th governor; the city of Franklin was not formally incorporated until 1855. The Veterans Memorial Board of Directors in Macon County constructed a memorial at the county's recreation park in Franklin of the same name, The Macon County Veterans Memorial Park; the purpose of the memorial is to honor the veterans of Macon County that have made incredible sacrifices throughout history to preserve individual freedoms and secure the sovereignty of the United States. Franklin is located at 35°10′52″N 83°22′54″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 3.9 square miles, of which, 3.8 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is water. The Cullasaja River from Highlands flows into the Little Tennessee River in Franklin.
As of the census of 2010, there were 3,845 people, 1,627 households, 899 families residing in the town. The population density was 911.2 people per square mile. There were 1,916 housing units at an average density of 500.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 82.3% White, 1.9% African American, 0.40% Native American, 0.63% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.49% from other races, 1.15% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13.01% of the population. There were 1,627 households out of which 24.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.7% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.7% were non-families. 40.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 22.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.08 and the average family size was 2.79. In the town, the population was spread out with 21.3% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 24.1% from 25 to 44, 23.0% from 45 to 64, 23.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 79.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 74.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $30,425. Males had a median income of $33,957 versus $27,363 for females; the per capita income for the town was $19,761. About 15.2% of families and 20.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.4% of those under age 18 and 16.2% of those age 65 or over. Franklin's rate of population growth is 12% higher than the national average. Located in the Great Smoky Mountains, Franklin is situated more than one hour from Asheville and two hours from Atlanta, Knoxville or Greenville, South Carolina. Due to its proximity to cities and its rural feel, Franklin is fast becoming a location of choice for those seeking retirement, permanent, or second homes; the 2010 cost-of-living index in Franklin: 86.7. In the summer Franklin has temperatures in the lower 80's while during the winter temperatures fall below the upper teens.
The warmest month of the year is July with an average maximum temperature of 84.50 degrees Fahrenheit, while the coldest month of the year is January with an average minimum temperature of 24.00 degrees Fahrenheit. Temperature variations between night and day tend to be moderate during summer with a difference that can reach 22 degrees Fahrenheit, moderate during winter with an average difference of 25 degrees Fahrenheit; the annual average precipitation in Franklin is 54.47 inches and rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year. The wettest month of the year is March with an average rainfall of 5.76 inches. The mountains that surround Franklin are lined with many hiking trails including the famous Appalachian Trail; the AT runs north and south only 10 miles west of Franklin and can be accessed at many locations in the area. Some 40 miles of side trails interlace with the AT in the region as well. Another, lesser known trail makes its way through area: Bartram Trail, named for American Botanist William Bartram, who documented the native flora and fauna of the area in 1775.
Bartram Trail climbs into the hills of the Franklin area, inviting hikers to follow the explorer's footsteps and discover for themselves the exuberant natural world in which he took such delight. Both the Appalachian Trail and Bartram Trail cross over Wayah Bald, one of the best known places in the Franklin area for sightseeing; the Frank
Interstate 87 (North Carolina)
Interstate 87 is a completed Interstate Highway in the U. S. state of North Carolina. Serving eastern Wake County, between Raleigh and Wendell, it is planned to continue northeast through Rocky Mount and Elizabeth City, ending in Norfolk, Virginia, it is not contiguous with Interstate 87 in New York. It is the shortest designated primary interstate highway at 12.9 miles. I-87 is a six-lane interstate highway that connects I-40, in Raleigh, to Rolesville Road, in Wendell; the speed limit for majority of the route is 70 miles per hour. The southern terminus is at the interchange of I-40 and I-440 in Southeast Raleigh, at I-40 exit 301/I-440 exit 16. I-87 north follows I-440 west for 2 miles before exiting the Beltline at exit 14 to follow the US 64/US 264 freeway, known locally as the Knightdale Bypass. Following the Bypass south of Knightdale, I-87 has interchanges with two local roads before meeting the current eastern terminus of I-540. Two more local roads follow before the I-87 designation ends at a complex interchange with US 64 Bus./Knightdale Boulevard/Wendell Boulevard and Rolesville Road.
Though decommissioned, a portion of this freeway was designated I-495. As of March 2019, I-495 has not been removed from existing signage, but I-87, on separate sign assemblies, has been added near existing signs. Beyond Rolesville Road, the remainder of the US 64 freeway is designated as Future I-87, as it is not at Interstate standards. Additionally, the rest of the route to the Virginia border beyond Williamston, North Carolina is not built as a freeway, it would involve upgrading or building new roads parallel to existing US highways, including US 13, US 17 and US 158; some of these upgrades are part of the DOT 10-year plan released in 2017, with upgrading of highways around Elizabeth City given a start date of 2023. The state of Virginia has no timetable to construct the northern portion of I-87 from the Virginia state line to Norfolk. A portion of I-87 named I-495, was first designated as an Interstate Highway on February 20, 2013, when the North Carolina Department of Transportation submitted a request to AASHTO in order to establish Interstate 495 as a new auxiliary route of I-95.
The proposed 44.99-mile route would begin at I-440/US 64/US 64 Business in Raleigh and would end at I-95, in Rocky Mount concurrent with US 64. On March 15, 2013, AASHTO received a modified request from NCDOT requesting the establishment of I-495 from I-440 to I-540 and Future I-495 from I-540 to I-95, it was approved, though needed an additional approval from FHWA. On December 12, 2013, the proposed section was approved by the FHWA and was added to the interstate highway system; the freeway section, the part, to be signed I-495 and continuing east to US 64 Business, was completed in 2006. From I-440 to Rolesville Road, the freeway was built to interstate standards. East of Rolesville Road, the freeway was built in sections, since 1975; this older section of freeway will be upgraded to interstate standards. Long-term plans by the Raleigh-Durham area's Regional Transportation Alliance called for extension of the interstate east of I-95 toward Elizabeth City northeastward to the Interstate 64/Interstate 464 interchange in the Norfolk-Virginia Beach metropolitan area.
The NCDOT proposed the Interstate 44 designation for the Raleigh–Norfolk High Priority Corridor consisting of portions of the I-495 and US 64 in North Carolina and US 17 in North Carolina and Virginia. The route would connect two of the largest US metro areas lacking an Interstate connection: the Research Triangle area around Raleigh and the Hampton Roads metro area around Norfolk. In November 2012, NCDOT requested the addition of the corridor to the Interstate Highway System through administrative options with the Federal Highway Administration as I-44. Congressman G. K. Butterfield introduced legislation in June 2014 to add the corridor to the Interstate Highway System through Congressional authority. An NCDOT policy paper said they were "seeking language in the reauthorization of surface transportation programs legislation to enhance the description of the Raleigh–Norfolk Corridor to include the route via Rocky Mount–Elizabeth City for clarity, to designate the entire route from Raleigh to Norfolk as a future part of the Interstate system as I-44 or I-50."
Had the I-44 designation been approved, it would have been discontinuous with the current I-44, which runs between Wichita Falls, St. Louis, Missouri. On December 14, 2015, the proposed corridor was designated as a future interstate with the passage of the Fixing America's Surface Transportation Act. Soon, several other route numbers were discussed and the RTA set their preference on two more-likely candidates: Interstate 56 if an east-west designation were chosen, or Interstate 89 if a north-south designation were chosen. I-56 is not in use, while I-89 exists in New Hampshire, far north of this corridor. For the upcoming AASHTO Special Committee on U. S. Route Numbering, NCDOT proposed I-89 for this route. On May 25, 2016, AASHTO instead approved I-87 as the number for the highway; the new I-87 would be non-contiguous with the route with the same number in New York Sta
Louisburg College is a private Methodist-affiliated two-year college in Louisburg, North Carolina. Louisburg College has its roots in two schools: Franklin Male Academy, chartered in 1787, re-chartered in 1802 but held its first recorded classes on January 1, 1805. Louisburg Female Academy opened its doors in 1815, under the direction of Harriet Partridge, making it one of the oldest institutions of higher education for women. From 1843-1856, Asher H. Ray and his wife Jane Curtis Ray were successful as principals of the female academy, which in the 1850s was called Louisburg Female Seminary. Among the courses offered by the seminary were history, algebra, chemistry, logic, Latin, Greek and calisthenics; the respected reputation of the seminary contributed to a movement to establish a female college. In 1855, the property of Louisburg Female Academy was transferred to the Louisburg Female College Company. A four-story, fifty-room brick Greek Revival-style building for the female college was constructed in 1857 on the west campus where the female academy building had stood.
Old Main, the central building of the Female Academy is still in use today as the administrative building of Louisburg College. Old Main was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978, it is located in the Louisburg Historic District. In August 1857, Louisburg Female College opened its doors under the management of Professor James P. Nelson. Course offerings included French, Italian, guitar, drawing and needlework; the female college continued to operate during the Civil War under presidents C. C. Andrews and James Southgate, Jr.. After the war, about 500 Union soldiers camped in the college during May and June 1865. During the administration of Dr. Turner Myrick Jones, former president of Greensboro Female College, enrollment grew to 133 students; the regular college course in 1867 included such courses as English grammar, geography, physiology, Latin, "Evidence of Christianity." After the College opened and closed several times during the 1870s and 1880s, S. D. Bagley became president in 1889.
Matthew S. Davis, who had served twenty-five years as principal of the male academy, became president of the female college in 1896 and held the office until his death in 1906, he was succeeded by his daughter, Mary Davis Allen, president until 1917. At the beginning of the twentieth century, a number of significant changes took place; the institution became known as Louisburg College, the college became linked to the Methodist Church. Washington Duke, the Durham philanthropist, had acquired ownership of the college property in the 1890s. Duke presented the property to the North Carolina Conference of the Methodist Church. Other changes in the early twentieth century included the erection of the three-story Davis Building, named in memory of Matthew S. Davis, the reorganization of the college into an institution with junior college rating. During the presidency of Arthur D. Mohn in the 1920s, Louisburg College experienced a period of building expansion; the West Wing of Main Building, the Pattie Julia Wright Dormitory, the Franklin County Building were constructed.
A disastrous fire gutted Main Building and the new West Wing in 1928. Following the fire came the Great Depression, the college was burdened with debt and a shrinking enrollment; the Reverend Armour David Wilcox, former minister of the Louisburg Methodist Church, served as president of the college from 1931 to 1937. Louisburg College became co-educational in 1931, student enrollment increased. By the end of World War II, institutional debts had been paid. Walter Patten served as president from 1939–1947 and Samuel M. Holton from 1947-1955. In 1952, Louisburg College was accredited by the Southern Association of Schools. In 1956, a planning committee of the North Carolina Conference of the Methodist Church recommended the establishment of two co-educational senior colleges and the merger of Louisburg College into one of the institutions; the college alumni and the citizens of Franklin County joined to oppose the merger. A "Keep Louisburg at Home" campaign emphasized the depth of local support for the junior college.
The Conference decided, in response to this endeavor, to retain Louisburg College as an accredited junior college. A period of revitalization and growth occurred during the administration of president Cecil W. Robbins. Student enrollment, faculty size and physical plant were increased and improved. In 1961, the college purchased the Mills High School property on the east side of Main Street. During the Robbins administration, four dormitories, a library, a cafeteria and a student center were constructed. From 1975 to 1992, Dr. J. Allen Norris, Jr. served as college president. The Board of Trustees initiated the Third Century Campaign in 1980; the $4.2 million goal of the first phase of the campaign was surpassed, resulting in the construction of the E. Hoover Taft, Jr. Classroom Building. Through the generosity of the United Methodist Men of the Raleigh District, the Clifton L. Benson Chapel and Religious Life Center was opened in 1986. A new auditorium and theater complex was constructed. During the 1986-87 school year, Louisburg College held a Bicentennial Celebration in
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
1790 United States Census
The United States Census of 1790 was the first census of the whole United States. It recorded the population of the United States as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws. In the first census, the population of the United States was enumerated to be 3,929,214. Congress assigned responsibility for the 1790 census to the marshals of United States judicial districts under an act which, with minor modifications and extensions, governed census taking until the 1840 census. "The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president." Both Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and President George Washington expressed skepticism over the results, believing that the true population had been undercounted.
If there was indeed an undercount, possible explanations for it include dispersed population, poor transportation links, limitations of contemporary technology, individual refusal to participate. Although the Census was proved statistically factual, based on data collected, the records for several states were lost sometime between 1790 and 1830. One third of the original census data have been lost or destroyed since their original documentation; these include some 1790 data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Vermont. No microdata from the 1790 population census are available, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves.
Under the direction of the current Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, marshals collected data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory. The census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. At 17.8 percent, the 1790 Census's proportion of slaves to the free population was the highest recorded by any census. Media related to 1790 United States Census at Wikimedia Commons Historic US Census data 1790 Census of Population and Housing official reports Population of 24 Urban Places: 1790