A prison known as a correctional facility, gaol, detention center, remand center, or internment facility, is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state. Prisons are most used within a criminal justice system: people charged with crimes may be imprisoned until their trial. In simplest terms, a prison can be described as a building in which people are held as a punishment for a crime they have committed. Prisons can be used as a tool of political repression by authoritarian regimes, their perceived opponents may be imprisoned for political crimes without trial or other legal due process. In times of war, prisoners of war or detainees may be detained in military prisons or prisoner of war camps, large groups of civilians might be imprisoned in internment camps. In American English and jail are treated as having separate definitions; the term prison or penitentiary tends to describe institutions that incarcerate people for longer periods of time, such as many years, are operated by the state or federal governments.
The term jail tends to describe institutions for confining people for shorter periods of time and are operated by local governments. Outside of North America and jail have the same meaning. Common slang terms for a prison include: "the pokey", "the slammer", "the can", "the clink", "the joint", "the calaboose", "the hoosegow" and "the big house". Slang terms for imprisonment include: "behind bars", "in stir" and "up the river"; the use of prisons can be traced back to the rise of the state as a form of social organization. Corresponding with the advent of the state was the development of written language, which enabled the creation of formalized legal codes as official guidelines for society; the best known of these early legal codes is the Code of Hammurabi, written in Babylon around 1750 BC. The penalties for violations of the laws in Hammurabi's Code were exclusively centered on the concept of lex talionis, whereby people were punished as a form of vengeance by the victims themselves; this notion of punishment as vengeance or retaliation can be found in many other legal codes from early civilizations, including the ancient Sumerian codes, the Indian Manusmriti, the Hermes Trismegistus of Egypt, the Israelite Mosaic Law.
Some Ancient Greek philosophers, such as Plato, began to develop ideas of using punishment to reform offenders instead of using it as retribution. Imprisonment as a penalty was used for those who could not afford to pay their fines. Since impoverished Athenians could not pay their fines, leading to indefinite periods of imprisonment, time limits were set instead; the prison in Ancient Athens was known as the desmoterion. The Romans were among the first to use prisons as a form of punishment, rather than for detention. A variety of existing structures were used to house prisoners, such as metal cages, basements of public buildings, quarries. One of the most notable Roman prisons was the Mamertine Prison, established around 640 B. C. by Ancus Marcius. The Mamertine Prison was located within a sewer system beneath ancient Rome and contained a large network of dungeons where prisoners were held in squalid conditions, contaminated with human waste. Forced labor on public works projects was a common form of punishment.
In many cases, citizens were sentenced to slavery in ergastula. During the Middle Ages in Europe, castles and the basements of public buildings were used as makeshift prisons; the possession of the right and the capability to imprison citizens, granted an air of legitimacy to officials at all levels of government, from kings to regional courts to city councils. Another common punishment was sentencing people to galley slavery, which involved chaining prisoners together in the bottoms of ships and forcing them to row on naval or merchant vessels. From the late 17th century and during the 18th century, popular resistance to public execution and torture became more widespread both in Europe and in the United States. Under the Bloody Code, with few sentencing alternatives, imposition of the death penalty for petty crimes, such as theft, was proving unpopular with the public. Rulers began looking for means to punish and control their subjects in a way that did not cause people to associate them with spectacles of tyrannical and sadistic violence.
They developed systems of mass incarceration with hard labor, as a solution. The prison reform movement that arose at this time was influenced by two somewhat contradictory philosophies; the first was based in Enlightenment ideas of utilitarianism and rationalism, suggested that prisons should be used as a more effective substitute for public corporal punishments such as whipping, etc. This theory, referred to as deterrence, claims tha
Dublin is a city in Franklin and Union counties in the U. S. state of Ohio. The population was 41,751 at the 2010 census. Dublin is a suburb of Ohio; each year in late May or early June, the city hosts the Memorial Tournament, a stop on golf's PGA Tour. There are several other golf courses in Dublin; the Riviera Golf Club was home to the American-Italian Golf Association. Tartan Fields Golf Club hosted the LPGA's Wendy's Championship for Children from 2002 through 2006. Dublin has a public golf course financed by the Muirfield association, as well as the Jack Nicklaus-designed The Country Club of Muirfield Village. Other annual events include the July 4 music event and The July 4 Parade, a St. Patrick's Day parade, the Dublin Irish Festival, the largest 3-day Irish festival in the world. Although its earliest settlements date back to 1802, the village that became Dublin did not begin to take shape until the arrival of the Sells family from Huntingdon, Pennsylvania. Brothers Peter and Benjamin Sells purchased 400 acres of land on the west bank of the Scioto River as a gift for their brother John.
In 1808, John Sells brought his family to the region, by 1810 he had begun to survey lots for the new village with his partner, an Irish gentleman named John Shields. According to historians, Shields is responsible for naming the town after his birthplace: "If I have the honor conferred upon me to name your village, with the brightness of the morn, the beaming of the sun on the hills and dales surrounding this beautiful valley, it would give me great pleasure to name your new town after my birthplace, Ireland." By 1833, Dublin contained only one store. In 1970, Dublin was still a small town with only 681 residents. However, the construction of Interstate 270 facilitated a population boom, spearheaded by the acquisition of major corporate headquarters such as Ashland Inc and Wendy's International. In addition, the growth of the Muirfield Village Golf Club and its residential subdivision attracted numerous affluent citizens to the growing suburb. Dublin was declared a city in 1987, after reaching a population of 5,000 residents.
As part of this boom Dublin expanded its area, annexing parts of Washington, Perry and Jerome townships. Dublin is located at 40°6′33″N 83°8′25″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.80 square miles, of which 24.44 square miles is land and 0.36 square miles is water. The Scioto River passes through Dublin. In this area the river and its tributaries cut deep gorges through the limestone bedrock, the riverbed is stony; some of these tributaries feature waterfalls. Located on the Glaciated Allegheny Plateau, Dublin has flat topography. There are numerous ravines surrounding the tributaries of the Scioto River, which make for steep cliffs in some areas. Elevations range from 780 feet above sea level where the Scioto River leaves the city at Hayden Run Road, while the high point is 1000 feet at Glacier Ridge Metro Park. Being a modern American suburb, the city is accessed by car. In addition to Interstate 270, U. S. Highway 33, State Route 161, State Route 745 pass through the city.
There is a 77-mile network of bike trails. Long term plans include expanding the trails further, as well as connecting them to the regional trail system to facilitate travel to downtown Columbus. COTA provides limited service in the southeast part of the city. Routes 56 and 58 provide express service from the commercial areas around Frantz and Rings Roads to Downtown Columbus during rush hour periods. Dublin is home to the headquarters of a number of companies, including Cardinal Health, IGS Energy, Stanley Steemer, Wendy's and Online Computer Library Center. Pacer International, a larger intermodal logistics provider, was headquartered in Dublin until its acquisition by XPO Logistics on March 31, 2014. Other organizations with significant operations include Ashland Inc. Nationwide Insurance and CenturyLink. Dublin Methodist Hospital, part of the OhioHealth system, opened in January 2008. According to the City's 2016 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are: According to a 2012 estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $114,183, the median income for a family was $138,590.
Males had a median income of $75,279 versus $43,903 for females. The per capita income for the city was $41,122. About 2.1% of families and 2.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.7% of those under age 18 and 4.0% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 41,751 people, 14,984 households, 11,656 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,708.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 15,779 housing units at an average density of 645.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 80.5% White, 1.8% African American, 0.1% Native American, 15.3% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.8% of the population. As of 2010, the Asian population is: 6.9% Indian, 3.1% Chinese, 2.6% Japanese, 1.3% Korean, 0.2% Vietnamese. There were 14,984 households of which 45.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 69.5% were married couples living together, 5.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 22.2% were non-families.
18.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.21. The median age in
Ohio's 12th congressional district
Ohio's 12th congressional district is a United States congressional district in central Ohio, covering Delaware County, Morrow County, Licking County, along with parts of Franklin, Marion and Richland counties. The district includes communities north and east of Columbus including Zanesville and Dublin. On January 15, 2018, the district's representative Pat Tiberi resigned. A special election was held on August 7, 2018 to fill the vacancy for the remainder of Tiberi's term, which ends on November 6, 2018. At the special election, the Republican candidate was Troy Balderson, endorsed by President Trump, the Democratic candidate was Danny O’Connor. On August 24, Balderson was declared winner of the special election, which witnessed a significant swing away from the Republican Party. From 2003 to 2013 the district included eastern Columbus, including most of its African-American neighborhoods; the district took in most of its northern suburbs, including Westerville. It was one of two districts. For most of the time from the 1980s to the 2000s, it was considered to be less Republican than the 15th, in part due to its large black population.
However, redistricting after the 2010 census drew nearly all of the 15th's black constituents into the 3rd District, while the 15th was pushed into more exurban and Republican areas north and east of the capital. It has been in Republican hands since 1920, except for an eight-year stretch in the 1930s and a two-year term in 1980 where the Democratic Party held the seat. In the 2004 presidential election George W. Bush narrowly won the district against John Kerry, 51% to 49%. However, in the 2008 presidential election, Democratic candidate Barack Obama won the 12th district by a margin of 53% to 46%. After the 2011 redistricting cycle, the district has since been won in larger margins by Republican presidential candidates; the following chart shows historic election results. Georgia's 6th congressional district Ohio's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, the tenth most densely populated; the state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, the first under the Northwest Ordinance. Ohio is known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, Ohioans are known as "Buckeyes". Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transmogrifying to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status as both a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected. Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP, is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan. Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic expansion; because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River, much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, West Virginia on the southeast.
Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows: Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid. Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U. S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia, the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp; this glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests; the rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state.
In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region." This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and the Mississippi; the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton; as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for ca
The Appalachian Plateau is a series of rugged dissected plateaus located on the western side of the Appalachian Mountains. The Appalachian Mountains are a mountain range that run down the entire east coast of the United States; the Appalachian Plateau is the northwestern part of the Appalachian Mountains, stretching from New York to Alabama. The plateau is a second level United States physiographic region, covering parts of the states of New York, Ohio, West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee and Georgia; the formation of the plateau began during the Paleozoic Era. Regional uplift during this time caused the area to rise altogether without changing the topography of the land; the eastern side of the plateau appears as a mountain range. This false appearance is due to a steep slope on the eastern side known as the Allegheny Front; the eastern edge is the highest part of the Appalachian Plateau. In Pennsylvania, the altitude ranges from 1,750 to 3,000 feet and continues to rise toward West Virginia, where the elevation is around 4,800 feet.
From West Virginia to Tennessee, the elevation lowers to 3,000 feet and continues slanting downward to 1,000 feet in Alabama. On the western side of the plateau, the elevation is 900 feet in Ohio, increasing to about 2,000 feet in Kentucky. From Kentucky the elevation drops down to 500 feet in northwestern Alabama; the plateau has a slight slant towards the northwest, making it higher on the eastern side. A large portion of the plateau is a coalfield, formed 320 million years ago during the Pennsylvanian Age; the plateau was subjected to glaciation during the Pleistocene ice age. As a result, the topography of this section of the plateau is flat in comparison to the rest of the physiographic province; this portion of the plateau is marked with evidence of a glaciated past including bogs and small hills of sand and gravel. The topography of the rest of the plateau was created from stream erosion; the result is a rugged landscape, unlike many other plateaus, that includes many narrow stream valleys surrounded by steep ridges.
The region in Kentucky is known as the Eastern Kentucky Coalfield. It covers around 30 % of Kentucky's land. Major sections include the Allegheny Plateau, the Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains, with the highest peaks located in the Cumberland Mountains. A physiographic region is a large portion of land, grouped together by several factors; each region has similar geology and groups of plants and animals. There are eight physiographic regions in the United States; each region is divided into provinces, there are 25 provinces in the United States. Each region is divided into sections, creating 85 different physio-graphic sections in the United States; the Appalachian Plateau is a province of the physiographic region of the Appalachian Highlands. The Appalachian Plateau province is divided into seven physio-graphic sections: Mohawk, Southern New York, Allegheny Mountains, Cumberland Plateau, the Cumberland Mountains; each section is classified under the Appalachian Plateau province because of its similarities in geologic makeup and wildlife.
The Appalachian Plateau falls under the classification of Appalachian Highlands because of those similar characteristics. The rock underlying the Appalachian Plateau consists of a base of Precambrian rock, overlain by sedimentary rock from the Paleozoic Era. On top of the basement is a thick layer 20,000 feet, of a mixture of Cambrian and Middle Silurian rock; this rock consists of shale and sandstone. Above this layer is the Upper Silurian evaporate basin, or basin of chemically formed sedimentary rocks; the Plateau fold belt consists of structurally complex Paleozoic strata which were thrust faulted over the younger evaporates. When the Appalachian mountains were formed, the plateau was lifted. Ridges and valleys all die down underneath the plateau. There are multiple valleys throughout the region which consist of exposed areas of limestone and shale. Archaeologists have evidence that Native Americans lived in the Appalachian region more than twelve thousand years ago. Human artifacts were collected near the Meadowcroft Rockshelter in southern Pennsylvania that were at least sixteen thousand years old.
Because the early Native Americans were hunter-gatherers living off the land, they left little material traces of their lives behind them. This is. Much like many historic Native American tribes, the early Appalachian inhabitants survived as nomads, following their food on a seasonal basis. Around this period, North America was still recuperating from its last glacial period, the climate was much different than now; the climate and habitat more resembled a tundra, with lower temperatures, numerous conifer trees, large mammals, such as mammoths and saber-toothed tigers. The climate began to warm up again, the large mammals started to disappear, the vegetation seen more today began to flourish; these climatic changes made life more sustainable for the Native Americans. They continued to invent new weapons and made advancements in agriculture until the Europeans arrived in North America. Europeans settled in North America beginning in the seventeenth century. In 1749, Jacob Martin and Steven Sewell were the first Europeans known to settle the Appalachian Plateau in what is now Pocahontas County in West Virginia.
European colonization and competition with the Native Americans resulted in high mortality due to new diseases, as well as more deaths and social disr
Benjamin Franklin was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. Franklin was a leading author, political theorist, freemason, scientist, humorist, civic activist and diplomat; as a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. As an inventor, he is known for the lightning rod and the Franklin stove, among other inventions, he founded many civic organizations, including the Library Company, Philadelphia's first fire department and the University of Pennsylvania. Franklin earned the title of "The First American" for his early and indefatigable campaigning for colonial unity as an author and spokesman in London for several colonies; as the first United States Ambassador to France, he exemplified the emerging American nation. Franklin was foundational in defining the American ethos as a marriage of the practical values of thrift, hard work, community spirit, self-governing institutions, opposition to authoritarianism both political and religious, with the scientific and tolerant values of the Enlightenment.
In the words of historian Henry Steele Commager, "In a Franklin could be merged the virtues of Puritanism without its defects, the illumination of the Enlightenment without its heat." To Walter Isaacson, this makes Franklin "the most accomplished American of his age and the most influential in inventing the type of society America would become."Franklin became a successful newspaper editor and printer in Philadelphia, the leading city in the colonies, publishing the Pennsylvania Gazette at the age of 23. He became wealthy publishing this and Poor Richard's Almanack, which he authored under the pseudonym "Richard Saunders". After 1767, he was associated with the Pennsylvania Chronicle, a newspaper, known for its revolutionary sentiments and criticisms of British policies, he pioneered and was first president of Academy and College of Philadelphia which opened in 1751 and became the University of Pennsylvania. He organized and was the first secretary of the American Philosophical Society and was elected president in 1769.
Franklin became a national hero in America as an agent for several colonies when he spearheaded an effort in London to have the Parliament of Great Britain repeal the unpopular Stamp Act. An accomplished diplomat, he was admired among the French as American minister to Paris and was a major figure in the development of positive Franco-American relations, his efforts proved vital for the American Revolution in securing shipments of crucial munitions from France. He was promoted to deputy postmaster-general for the British colonies in 1753, having been Philadelphia postmaster for many years, this enabled him to set up the first national communications network. During the revolution, he became the first United States Postmaster General, he was active in community affairs and colonial and state politics, as well as national and international affairs. From 1785 to 1788, he served as governor of Pennsylvania, he owned and dealt in slaves but, by the 1750s, he argued against slavery from an economic perspective and became one of the most prominent abolitionists.
His colorful life and legacy of scientific and political achievement, his status as one of America's most influential Founding Fathers, have seen Franklin honored more than two centuries after his death on coinage and the $100 bill and the names of many towns, educational institutions, corporations, as well as countless cultural references. Benjamin Franklin's father, Josiah Franklin, was a soaper and candlemaker. Josiah was born at Ecton, England on December 23, 1657, the son of blacksmith and farmer Thomas Franklin, Jane White. Benjamin's father and all four of his grandparents were born in England. Josiah had seventeen children with his two wives, he married his first wife, Anne Child, in about 1677 in Ecton and immigrated with her to Boston in 1683. Following her death, Josiah was married to Abiah Folger on July 9, 1689 in the Old South Meeting House by Samuel Willard. Benjamin, their eighth child, was Josiah Franklin's fifteenth tenth and last son. Abiah Folger was born in Nantucket, Massachusetts, on August 15, 1667, to Peter Folger, a miller and schoolteacher, his wife, Mary Morrell Folger, a former indentured servant.
She came from a Puritan family, among the first Pilgrims to flee to Massachusetts for religious freedom, when King Charles I of England began persecuting Puritans. They sailed for Boston in 1635, her father was "the sort of rebel destined to transform colonial America." As clerk of the court, he was jailed for disobeying the local magistrate in defense of middle-class shopkeepers and artisans in conflict with wealthy landowners. Ben Franklin followed in his grandfather's footsteps in his battles against the wealthy Penn family that owned the Pennsylvania Colony. Benjamin Franklin was born on Milk Street, in Boston, Massachusetts, on January 17, 1706, baptized at Old South Meeting House, he was one of seventeen children born to Josiah Franklin, one of ten born by Josiah's second wife, Abiah Folger. Among Benjamin's siblings were his older brother James and his younger sister Jane. Josiah wanted Ben to attend school with the clergy, but only had enough money to send him to school for two years, he did not graduate.
Although "his parents talked of the church as a career" for Franklin, his schooling e
Not to be confused with Franklin County, Ohio. Franklin is a city in Warren County, United States; the population was 11,771 at the 2010 census. The Great Miami River flows through Franklin. Ohio State Routes 73, 123 and 741 pass through Franklin, while Interstate 75 passes on the east side of the city. Franklin was founded by General William C. Schenck, in 1796; the settlement was named for Benjamin Franklin. Franklin was incorporated in 1814, became a city in 1951. One of the first four post offices in Warren County was established Franklin in 1805; the first postmaster was John N. C. Schenck, brother of General Schenck; the Franklin Post Office still stands, is one of four sites in Franklin listed on the National Register of Historic Places, along with the Mackinaw Historic District. Construction of the Miami and Erie Canal occurred between 1825 and 1845; the canal followed the Great Miami River through Franklin, the boat traffic led to new commerce. The town soon had a pork slaughterhouse, barrel making factory and whiskey distillery.
Franklin's first mayor, Dr. Absalom Death, was elected at a tavern meeting in 1837. Dr. Death went on to be director of a medical college in Cincinnati. In its history, two doctors in Franklin have been named "Dr. Death". By the 1850s, the Franklin area was noted for breeding racehorses. One chestnut-colored mare, sired by Mambrino and Wood's Hambletonian, set a 3-mile harness racing record of 6:55½ in 1893. A railroad was completed with a depot in Franklin in 1872; the town continued to prosper, by 1890, five paparmaking mills were located in Franklin. The town's economy suffered a setback in 1896. A longtime and trusted teller had embezzled vast amounts of money, affecting the fortunes of many individuals and businesses; the town marshal of Franklin, George Basore, was shot and killed in 1906 while attempting to arrest an African-American man, George White. When White was arrested, a crowd of 300 gathered outside the Franklin jail intent on lynching him; the sheriff and two deputies were able to remove White and take him to nearby Lebanon for his safety.
The New York Times reported: "The whole town of Franklin is wrought up over the affair. Colored people were chased out without being given time to explain". White died the following year in the electric chair. In 1907, Franklin's fire chief, B. H. Miller, walked into the police station and shot dead one of the prisoners who had had an affair with his wife a month earlier; the town was devastated by the Great Flood in March 1913, when the banks of the Great Miami River overflowed. Franklin opened what was considered the world's first garbage recycling plant in 1971. Designed and built by the Black Clawson Company, the plant recycled metals from solid waste, used recovered paper fibers to make roofing materials. In 1989, Ronald Peters, a café owner in Franklin, was alleged to be the principal bookmaker for baseball player Pete Rose. In 2015, The Museum of Spiritual Art opened. In 2017, the City of Franklin gained national attention in the week following the racially tinged Charlottsville car attack: the city removed an obscure Confederate marker honoring Robert E. Lee that had existed along the right-of-way of the Dixie Highway for 90 years.
The marker had been dedicated in 1927 by the United Daughters of the Confederacy when the Highway was part of Franklin Township. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.34 square miles, of which 9.17 square miles is land and 0.17 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 11,771 people, 4,667 households, 3,162 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,283.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,026 housing units at an average density of 548.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.2% White, 0.9% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.6% of the population. There were 4,667 households of which 35.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.9% were married couples living together, 15.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 32.2% were non-families.
26.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.00. The median age in the city was 36.7 years. 25.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.2% male and 51.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 11,396 people, 4,553 households, 3,155 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,251.0 people per square mile. There were 4,802 housing units at an average density of 527.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.51% White, 0.82% African American, 0.12% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.32% from other races and 0.82% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.71% of the population. There are 4,553 households out of which 33.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.0% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.7% were non-families.
26.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.99. In the city the population was spread out with 26.6% under the age of 18, 9.1% from