Waynesboro is a borough in Franklin County, Pennsylvania, on the southern border of the state. Waynesboro is in the Cumberland Valley between Hagerstown and Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, it is part of Chambersburg, PA Micropolitan Statistical Area, part of the Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area. It is 2 miles north of the Mason–Dixon line and close to Camp David and the Raven Rock Mountain Complex; the population within the borough limits was 10,568 at the 2010 census. When combined with the surrounding Washington and Quincy Townships, the population of greater Waynesboro is 28,285; the Waynesboro Area School District serves a resident population of 32,386, according to 2010 federal census data. The region around Antietam Creek had been home to Native Americans for thousands of years prior to settlement by Anglo-Europeans in the mid-18th century. Beginning in 1751 a certain John Wallace obtained several warrants for the land on which the center of the town now stands. In 1797 John Wallace, a son of the original British settler, laid out the town of Waynesburg in what was the state of Pennsylvania in the United States.
When incorporated in 1831, the borough was given the name "Waynesboro'." It is one of several dozen towns and counties named after General Anthony Wayne, a hero of the American Revolutionary War. During the American Civil War, Waynesboro played a part in the Gettysburg Campaign in June and July 1863. In the week before the Battle of Gettysburg, Confederate Major General Jubal Early's division of Lieutenant General Richard S. Ewell's corps of the Army of Northern Virginia passed through the community on its way northward. After the battle, General Robert E. Lee rode through the border community with his retreating forces. In 1963, a book, Fifteen Days under the Confederate Flag, told of their two-week occupation. Waynesboro During the Civil War recounts the experiences of Waynesboro's residents during the war. Numerous stone grain mills are in the area: Welty's Mill, Shank's Mill, Hopewell Roller Mill and others. Most of them still standing and in use. By the early years of the 20th century, Waynesboro had become a industrial town.
It was known for the manufacture of engines, grinders, boring machines, bolt cutters and iron workers' vises, nut facers, etc. There were foundries and machine shops and manufacturers of lumber products; some local companies included Frick Company, Geiser Manufacturing, Waynesboro Knitting Mill, Connie's Sportwear, Freeman's Shoes, Landis Machine Company, Landis Tool Company. In 1900, 5,396 people lived in the town. With industrial restructuring, companies were being bought by larger foreign or domestic companies who didn't have the local employees interests in mind, costing the town many jobs, the town population declined through the 1960s and people were drawn to larger cities for work. From 2000 to 2010, there was an increase in population due to people having second homes, retiring in the area and an influx of people looking for more economical housing from the cities; this they could do because the borough is an hour drive from Washington, DC, Baltimore and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania and their associated airports.
Waynesboro is home to a historical museum depicting 18th-century farm life. It is named after two young sisters who reputedly died there in 1764 during a Native American attack; the Alexander Hamilton House, Borough Hall of the Borough of Waynesboro, Joseph J. Oller House, Royer-Nicodemus House and Farm, Welty's Mill Bridge are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Waynesboro is located at 39°45'13" North, 77°34'55" West. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 3.4 square miles. 3.4 square miles of it is none of the area is covered with water. As of the census of 2010, there were 10,568 people, 4,512 households, 2,740 families residing in the borough; the population density was 3,108.2 people per square mile. There were 4,969 housing units at an average density of 1461.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 90.6% White, 2.9% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.1% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.7% of the population. There were 4,512 households, out of which 27.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.7% were married couples living together, 14.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.3% were non-families. 32.7% of all households were made up of individuals, 12.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.91. In the borough, the population was spread out, with 23.4% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 27.7% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, 15.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.6 years. For every 100 females there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.8 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $41,155, the median income for a family was $48,379. Males had a median income of $35,754 versus $30,872 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $21,749.
About 7.0% of families and 10.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.2% of those under age 18 and 8.4% of those age 65 or over. Fred Bear, an American bow hunter, bow manufacturer and television host Max Bishop, a second baseman who played from 1924 through 1935 for the Philadelphia Athletics John Bonamego, football head coach at Central Michigan University John Goucher, a
Frederick County, Maryland
Frederick County is located in the northern part of the U. S. state of Maryland. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the population was 240,336; the county seat is Frederick. Frederick County is included in the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area. Like other outlying sections of the Washington metropolitan area, Frederick County has experienced a rapid population increase in recent years, it borders the northeastern border of Virginia. The county is home to Catoctin Mountain Park and to the U. S. Army's Fort Detrick, it has been the home to several important historical figures like Francis Scott Key, Chris Rose, Zach Taylor, Matt Bennett, Thomas Johnson, Roger B. Taney, Barbara Fritchie; the namesake of Frederick County and its county seat is unknown, but it was either Frederick, Prince of Wales, or Frederick Calvert, 6th Baron Baltimore. Frederick County was created in 1748 by the Province of Maryland from parts of Prince George's County and Baltimore County. In 1776 following Independence, Frederick County was divided into three parts.
The westernmost portion became Washington County, named after George Washington, the southernmost portion became Montgomery County, named after another Revolutionary War general, Richard Montgomery. The northern portion remained Frederick County. In 1837 a part of Frederick County was combined with a part of Baltimore County to form Carroll County, east of current day Frederick County; the county has a number of properties on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 667 square miles, of which 660 square miles is land and 7.2 square miles is water. It is the largest county in Maryland in terms of land area. Frederick County straddles the boundary between the Piedmont Plateau Region and the Appalachian Mountains; the county's two prominent ridges, Catoctin Mountain and South Mountain, form an extension of the Blue Ridge. The Middletown Valley lies between them. Attractions in the Frederick area include the Clustered Spires, a monument to Francis Scott Key, the National Museum of Civil War Medicine, Monocacy National Battlefield and South Mountain battlefields, the Schifferstadt Architectural Museum.
Adams County, Pennsylvania Carroll County Howard County Franklin County, Pennsylvania Montgomery County Washington County Loudoun County, Virginia Catoctin Mountain Park Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Monocacy National Battlefield Frederick County has experienced a rapid increase in population in recent years, including that of minority groups. The summary statistics for Frederick County from the 2000 U. S. Census are provided to contrast with the more current data from the 2010 Census; the following table includes the total persons and self-designated ethnicity based on 2000 Census. 2000 Census total population: 195,277 Male: 96,079 Female: 99,198 Ethnicity as percent total population: White: 176,965 Black or African American: 13,605 American Indian and Alaskan: 1,083 Asian: 4,066 Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 156 Some other ethnicity: 2,434 The total of those self-identifying as Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.4%, those persons who were white alone made up 88.1%.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 233,385 people, 84,800 households, 61,198 families residing in the county. The population density was 353.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 90,136 housing units at an average density of 136.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 81.5% white, 8.6% black or African American, 3.8% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 2.9% from other races, 2.8% from two or more races. The total of those self-identifying as Hispanic or Latino origin made up 7.3%, those persons who were white alone made up 77.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 26.3% were German, 17.4% were Irish, 12.1% were English, 7.2% were Italian, 6.3% were American. Of the 84,800 households, 37.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.8% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.8% were non-families, 22.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.17.
The median age was 38.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $81,686 and the median income for a family was $95,036. Males had a median income of $62,494 versus $46,720 for females; the per capita income for the county was $35,172. About 3.2% of families and 4.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.8% of those under age 18 and 5.6% of those age 65 or over. The United States Census Bureau estimates Frederick County's population at 245,322, marking a 5.1% increase since 2010. The racial makeup was estimated to be the following in 2014: 75% White, 9.7% Black, 4.6% Asian, 0.5% Native American, 0.1% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, 2.8% Two or more races, 8.7% were Hispanic or Latino, of any race. Until 2014, Frederick County was governed by county commissioners, the traditional form of county government in the state of Maryland. Effective December 1, 2014, Frederick County transitioned to a "charter home rule government"; the voters approved this governmental change on November 6, 2012 election with 62,469 voting for the transition and 37,368 voting against.
A county executive is responsible for providing direction, supervision
Juniata County, Pennsylvania
Juniata County is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. At the 2010 census, the population was 24,636, its county seat is Mifflintown. The county was created on March 2, 1831, from part of Mifflin County and named for the Juniata River. Mountains in Juniata County include Shade Mountain. Agricultural land and forested land make up most of the county's area. Major rivers and creeks in the county include the Susquehanna River, the Juniata River, Tuscarora Creek, West Branch Mahantango Creek, it borders seven other counties. The county lies over 51 different soils. Juniata County has a low population density; the most population-dense parts of the county are the boroughs of Mifflin. The most common races in the county are black. Between 1940 and 2005, Juniata County's population grew faster than all but two other counties in Pennsylvania. Susquehanna Township had the fastest-growing population of any borough or township in the county during this time period. Livestock farming is the largest industry in the county, although there are other industries as well, including crop farming and tourism.
Manufacturing jobs are the most common jobs in the county. The county's median household income is $34,698 per year and its median family income is $39,757 per year; the poverty rate is 9.5% and the unemployment rate is 5.4%. The median house value in the county was $87,000 in 2000; the main roads in Juniata County are Pennsylvania Route 235, Pennsylvania Route 35, Pennsylvania Route 104, U. S. Route 11/U. S. Route 15, U. S. Route 22/U. S. Route 322, Pennsylvania Route 74, Pennsylvania Route 850, Pennsylvania Route 333. There are four boroughs and thirteen townships in Juniata County; the county is served by two school districts: the Juniata County School District and the Greenwood School District. There are five areas in Juniata County that are protected by the Central Pennsylvania Conservancy and 59 natural heritage sites in the county; the first European settlers arrived in Juniata County in the 1750s. The county has been part of Mifflin County and before that, part of Cumberland County. Juniata County was a part of Cumberland County and Mifflin County.
Juniata County was formed on March 1831, from parts of Mifflin County. It is named after the Juniata River; the word "juniata" itself is a Seneca word that means either "people of the standing stone" or "blue waters". The first boroughs in the county to be settled were Mifflintown and Thompsontown, which were settled in 1790. Port Royal and Mifflin were settled in 1848, respectively; the first of these borough to be incorporated was Mifflintown, on March 6, 1833. The last one to be incorporated was Thompsontown, on February 7, 1868. However, squatters arrived in the county and were removed from it earlier, by 1750 and one of the first warrants for land in the county was issued in 1755. Many of the earliest landowners in Delaware Township were speculators as opposed to settlers. There was an Indian raid in the county in 1755 and 1756, although Fort Bingham and Fort Peterson had been constructed; the Beale family was one of the earliest families to inhabit the county. More settlers arrived in the 1750s and 1760s and the first gristmill on the western side of the Juniata River was built in the county in 1767.
A public road was built in the county between Tuscarora Creek and a location near Shade Mountain in 1768. John Hamilton constructed a sawmill and gristmill on Cocalamus Creek in Delaware Township in 1776; the first known physician in the county, Dr. Ezra Doty, settled in Mifflintown in 1791; the first four townships in what would become Juniata County were formed on October 23, 1754. They were Lack Township, Aire Township, Fannett Township, Tyrone Township; these early townships had no formal boundaries. By 1913, the original townships had been divided into a total of 13 townships; the Pennsylvania Canal began serving Juniata County in 1826 and closed in 1900. The Pennsylvania Railroad reached the county in the late 1840s; the Tuscarora Valley Railroad was in the county until it closed in 1934. During Hurricane Agnes in 1972, a total of 6374 acres of Juniata County were flooded. 57 families were displaced during this flooding. Juniata County was the last county in Pennsylvania to develop a modern comprehensive plan.
It did, construct a comprehensive plan in 1974. In a 1997 survey, 66.8% of respondents found Juniata County a "very desirable" living place. In a similar survey in 2007, only 56.9% of respondents found the county a "very desirable" living place. Eight locations in Juniata County are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, they were listed between 1972 and 1986. They include the Academia Pomeroy Covered Bridge, the Tuscarora Academy, the Book Site in Beale Township; the Dimmsville Covered Bridge in Greenwood Township had been designated as a historic place, but fell into disrepair and collapsed in April 2017. Eight additional places are eligible for a listing on the National Register of Historic Places. There are five Pennsylvania Museum Commission historical markers in Juniata County, they commemorate the Tuscarora Path, the Tuscarora Academy, Patterson's Fort, Fort Bingham, Juniata County itself. The Academia Pomeroy Covered Bridge was built in 1901, it is 18 feet wide and 278 feet long, making it one of the longest remaining covered bridges in Pennsylvania.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 394 square mi
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region in the Southern United States, considered to be a part of the Middle Atlantic States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest. West Virginia is the 41st largest state by area, is ranked 38th in population; the capital and largest city is Charleston. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, after the American Civil War had begun. Delegates from some Unionist counties of northwestern Virginia decided to break away from Virginia, although they included many secessionist counties in the new state. West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, was a key border state during the war. West Virginia was the only state to form by separating from a Confederate state, the first to separate from any state since Maine separated from Massachusetts, was one of two states admitted to the Union during the American Civil War.
While a portion of its residents held slaves, most of the residents were yeomen farmers, the delegates provided for gradual abolition of slavery in the new state Constitution. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States; however the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies West Virginia as a part of the Mid-Atlantic. The northern panhandle extends adjacent to Pennsylvania and Ohio, with the West Virginia cities of Wheeling and Weirton just across the border from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, while Bluefield is less than 70 miles from North Carolina. Huntington in the southwest is close to the states of Ohio and Kentucky, while Martinsburg and Harpers Ferry in the Eastern Panhandle region are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, in between the states of Maryland and Virginia; the unique position of West Virginia means that it is included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, the Southeastern United States.
It is the only state, within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its significant logging and coal mining industries, its political and labor history, it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, rock climbing, hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various prehistoric mound builder cultures survive in the areas of present-day Moundsville, South Charleston, Romney; the artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies. They had a tribal trade system culture. In the 1670s during the Beaver Wars, the powerful Iroquois, five allied nations based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, drove out other American Indian tribes from the region in order to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a hunting ground. Siouan language tribes, such as the Moneton, had been recorded in the area. A century the area now identified as West Virginia was contested territory among Anglo-Americans as well, with the colonies of Pennsylvania and Virginia claiming territorial rights under their colonial charters to this area before the American Revolutionary War.
Some speculative land companies, such as the Vandalia Company, the Ohio Company and Indiana Company, tried to legitimize their claims to land in parts of West Virginia and present day Kentucky, but failed. This rivalry resulted in some settlers petitioning the Continental Congress to create a new territory called Westsylvania. With the federal settlement of the Pennsylvania and Virginia border dispute, creating Kentucky County, Kentuckians "were satisfied, the inhabitants of a large part of West Virginia were grateful."The Crown considered the area of West Virginia to be part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776. The United States considered this area to be the western part of the state of Virginia from 1776 to 1863, before the formation of West Virginia, its residents were discontented for years with their position in Virginia, as the government was dominated by the planter elite of the Tidewater and Piedmont areas. The legislature had electoral malapportionment, based on the counting of slaves toward regional populations, the western white residents were underrepresented in the state legislature.
More subsistence and yeoman farmers lived in the west and they were less supportive of slavery, although many counties were divided on their support. The residents of this area became more divided after the planter elite of eastern Virginia voted to secede from the Union during the Civil War. Residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the Restored Government. Most voted to separate from Virginia, the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863. In 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote. West Virginia abolished slavery by a gradual process and temporarily disenfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy. West Virginia's history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, rich natural resources; these were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, who tended to live in many small isolated communities in the mountain valleys.
A 2010 analysis of
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol