United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Moonshine was a slang term for high-proof distilled spirits that were produced illicitly, without government authorization. In recent years, moonshine has been legalized in various countries and has become a commercial product. Legal in the United States since 2010, moonshine is defined as "clear, unaged whiskey" made with corn mash as its main ingredient. Liquor control laws in the United States always applied to moonshine, with efforts accelerated during the total ban on alcohol production mandated under the Eighteenth Amendment of the Constitution. Since the amendment's repeal and moonshine's recent legalization, the laws focus on evasion of taxation on spirits or intoxicating liquors. Applicable laws are enforced by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives of the US Department of Justice. Enforcement agents were once known colloquially as "revenooers". Moonshine is known by many nicknames in English, including white liquor, white lightning, mountain dew, hooch, shiney, white whiskey, mash liquor.
Other languages and countries have their own terms for moonshine. The word "moonshine" is believed to be derived from the term "moonrakers" used for early English smugglers and illegal Appalachian distillers who produced and distributed whiskey; when it was illegal in the United States, moonshine distillation was done at night to avoid discovery. It was prominent in the Appalachian area. White whiskey most entered the Appalachian region in the late 18th century to early 1800s. Scots-Irish immigrants from the province of Ulster in the north of Ireland brought their recipe for uisce beatha, Gaelic for "water of life"; the settlers made their whiskey without aging it, and, the recipe that became traditional in the Appalachian area. By the early 20th century, moonshine became a key source of income for many Appalachian residents because the limited road network made it difficult and expensive to transport corn crops; as a study of farmers in Cocke County, observes: "One could transport much more value in corn if it was first converted to whiskey.
One horse could haul ten times more value on its back in whiskey than in corn." Moonshiners in Harlan County, like Maggie Bailey, made the whiskey to sell in order to provide for their families. Others, like Amos Owens, from Rutherford County, North Carolina, Marvin "Popcorn" Sutton from Maggie Valley, North Carolina, sold moonshine to nearby areas. Sutton's life was covered in a documentary on the Discovery Channel called "Moonshiners"; the bootlegger once said. In modern usage, the term "moonshine" still implies the liquor is produced illegally, the term is sometimes used on the labels of legal products to market them as providing a forbidden drinking experience. Once distilled, drivers called bootleggers smuggled the moonshine across the region in specially-adapted cars, which were ordinary on the outside but modified with souped-up engines, extra interior room and heavy-duty shocks to coddle the jars of illicit alcohol. After Prohibition ended, the out-of-work drivers kept their skills sharp through organized races, which led to the formation of the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing.
Poorly produced moonshine can be contaminated from materials used in the construction of the still. Stills employing automotive radiators as condensers are dangerous. Radiators used as condensers could contain lead at the connections to the plumbing. Using these methods resulted in blindness or lead poisoning in those who consumed tainted liquor; this was an issue during Prohibition. Consumption of lead-tainted moonshine is a serious risk factor for saturnine gout, a painful but treatable medical condition that damages the kidneys and joints. Although methanol is not produced in toxic amounts by fermentation of sugars from grain starches, contamination is still possible by unscrupulous distillers using cheap methanol to increase the apparent strength of the product. Moonshine can be made both more palatable and less dangerous by discarding the "foreshot" – the first few ounces of alcohol that drip from the condenser; because methanol vaporizes at a lower temperature than ethanol it is believed that the foreshot contains most of the methanol, if any, from the mash.
However, research shows this is not the case, methanol is present until the end of the distillation run. Despite this, distillers will collect the foreshots until the temperature of the still reaches 80 degrees celsius. Additionally, the head that comes after the foreshot contains small amounts of other undesirable compounds, such as acetone and various aldehydes. Alcohol concentrations at higher strengths are therefore dangerous to handle; this is true during the distilling process when vaporized alcohol may accumulate in the air to dangerous concentrations if adequate ventilation is not provided. A quick estimate of the alcoholic strength, or proof, of the distillate is achieved by shaking a clear container of the distillate. Large bubbles with a short duration indicate a higher alcohol content, while smaller bubbles that disappear more indicate lower alcohol content. A more reliable method is to use an hydrometer. A hydrometer is used during and after the fermentation process to determine the potential alcohol percent of the moonshine, whereas an alcoholmeter is used after the product has
Sherwood Anderson was an American novelist and short story writer, known for subjective and self-revealing works. Self-educated, he rose to become a successful copywriter and business owner in Cleveland and Elyria, Ohio. In 1912, Anderson had a nervous breakdown that led him to abandon his business and family to become a writer. At the time, he moved to Chicago and was married three additional times, his most enduring work is the short-story sequence Winesburg, which launched his career. Throughout the 1920s, Anderson published several short story collections, memoirs, books of essays, a book of poetry. Though his books sold reasonably well, Dark Laughter, a novel inspired by Anderson's time in New Orleans during the 1920s, was his only bestseller. Sherwood Berton Anderson was born on September 13, 1876, in Camden, Ohio, a farming town with a population of around 650, he was the third of seven children born to Emma Jane and former Union soldier and harness-maker Irwin McLain Anderson. Considered reasonably well-off financially—Anderson's father was seen as an up-and-comer by his Camden contemporaries, the family left town just before Sherwood's first birthday.
Reasons for the departure are uncertain. The Andersons headed north to Caledonia by way of a brief stay in a village of a few hundred called Independence. Four or five years were spent in years which formed Anderson's earliest memories; this period inspired his semi-autobiographical novel Tar: A Midwest Childhood. In Caledonia Anderson's father began drinking excessively, which led to financial difficulties causing the family to leave the town. With each move, Irwin Anderson's prospects dimmed; that job was short-lived, for the rest of Sherwood Anderson's childhood, his father supported the family as an occasional sign-painter and paperhanger, while his mother took in washing to make ends meet. As a result of these misfortunes, young Sherwood became adept at finding various odd jobs to help his family, earning the nickname "Jobby."Though he was a decent student, Anderson's attendance at school declined as he began picking up work, he left school for good at age 14 after about nine months of high school.
From the time he began to cut school to the time he left town, Anderson worked as a "...newsboy, errand boy, cow-driver, stable groom, printer's devil, not to mention assistant to Irwin Anderson, Sign Painter..." in addition to assembling bicycles for the Elmore Manufacturing Company. In his teens, Anderson's talent for selling was evident, a talent he would draw on it in a successful career in advertising; as a newsboy he was said to have convinced a tired farmer in a saloon to buy two copies of the same evening paper. With the exception of work, Anderson's childhood resembled that of other boys his age. In addition to participating in local events and spending time with his friends, Anderson was a voracious reader. Though there were only a few books in the Anderson home, the youth read by borrowing from the school library, the personal libraries of a school superintendent and John Tichenor, a local artist, who responded to Anderson's interest. By Anderson's 18th year in 1895, his family was on shaky ground.
His father had started to disappear for weeks. Two years earlier, in 1893, Sherwood's elder brother, had left Clyde for Chicago. On May 10, 1895, his mother succumbed to tuberculosis. Sherwood, now on his own, boarded at the Harvey & Yetter's livery stable where he worked as a groom—an experience that would translate into several of his best-known stories. Two months before his mother's death, in March 1895, Anderson had signed up with the Ohio National Guard for a five-year hitch while he was going steady with Bertha Baynes, an attractive girl and the inspiration for Helen White in Winesburg, he was working a secure job at the bicycle factory, but his mother's death precipitated. He settled in Chicago around late 1896 or spring/summer 1897, having worked a few small-town factory jobs along the way. Anderson moved to a boardinghouse in Chicago owned by a former mayor of Clyde, his brother Karl was studying at the Art Institute. Anderson moved in with him and found a job at a cold-storage plant.
In late 1897, Karl moved away, Anderson relocated to a two-room flat with his sister and two younger brothers newly come from Clyde. Money was tight—Anderson earned "two dollars for a day of ten hours"— but with occasional support from Karl, they got by. Following the example of his Clyde confederate and lifelong friend Cliff Paden and Karl, Anderson took up the idea of furthering his education by enrolling in night school at the Lewis Institute, he attended several classes including "New Business Arithmetic" earning marks that placed him second in the class. It was there that Anderson heard lectures on Robert Browning, Alfred Tennyson, was first introduced to the poetry of Walt Whitman. Soon, Anderson's first stint in Chicago would come to an end as the United States prepared to ent
Bedford County, Virginia
Bedford County is a United States county located in the Piedmont region of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Its county seat is the town of Bedford, an independent city from 1968 until rejoining the county in 2013. Bedford County was created in 1753 from parts of Lunenburg County, several changes in alignment were made until the present borders were established in 1786; the county was named in honor of an English statesman and fourth Duke of Bedford. Bedford County is part of Virginia Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 census, Bedford's population was 68,676. The county population has nearly doubled since 1980; the Piedmont area had long been inhabited by indigenous peoples. At the time of European encounter Siouan-speaking tribes lived in this area. Bedford County was established by European Americans on December 13, 1753 from parts of Lunenburg County. In 1756, a portion of Albemarle County lying south of the James River was added; the county is named for John Russell, the fourth Duke of Bedford, a Secretary of State of Great Britain.
In 1782, Campbell County was formed from eastern Bedford County and the county seat was moved from New London to Liberty. In 1786, the portion of Bedford County south of the Staunton River was taken with part of Henry County to form Franklin County; the town of Bedford became an independent city in 1968, remained the county seat. On September 14, 2011, the Bedford City Council voted to transition into a town, ending its independent city status; the supervisors of Bedford County voted to accept the town of Bedford as part of the county when it loses city status. The town of Bedford once more became part of Bedford County on July 1, 2013. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 769 square miles, of which 753 square miles is land and 16 square miles is water. Rockbridge County – north Amherst County – northeast Lynchburg, Virginia – east Campbell County – southeast Pittsylvania County – south Franklin County – southwest Roanoke County – west Botetourt County – northwest Blue Ridge Parkway Jefferson National Forest James River Face Wilderness Smith Mountain Lake State Park US 221 US 460 US 501 SR 24 SR 43 SR 122 As of the census of 2000, there were 60,371 people, 23,838 households, 18,164 families residing in the county.
The population density was 80 people per square mile. There were 26,841 housing units at an average density of 36 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 92.18% White, 6.24% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.20% from other races, 0.74% from two or more races. 0.74% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 28.2% were of American, 15.6% English, 11.0% German and 9.6% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 23,838 households out of which 32.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.40% were married couples living together, 7.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.80% were non-families. 20.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.89. In the county, the population's age distribution was: 24.00% under the age of 18, 5.80% from 18 to 24, 29.90% from 25 to 44, 27.50% from 45 to 64, 12.80% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 99.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $43,136, the median income for a family was $49,303. Males had a median income of $35,117 versus $23,906 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,582. About 5.20% of families and 7.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.30% of those under age 18 and 10.50% of those age 65 or over. District 1: Bill Thomasson District 2: Edgar Tuck District 3: Charla Bansley District 4: John Sharp District 5: Tommy Scott * District 6: Andy Dooley District 7: Kevin S. Willis Clerk of the Circuit Court: Cathy C. Hogan Commissioner of the Revenue: Julie Creasy Commonwealth's Attorney: Wes Nance Sheriff: Michael J. "Mike" Brown Treasurer: Kim Snow Bedford County is represented by Republicans David R. Suetterlein and Stephen D. "Steve" Newman in the Virginia Senate. S. House of Representatives.
Bedford County was an agricultural economy. While agriculture is still an important factor in the county's economy, Bedford County has significant residential development to serve Lynchburg and Smith Mountain Lake. Tourism and retail are becoming more significant with some new industry near Forest and New London. Bedford voted for George Wallace, an Independent for President in 1968. Beale ciphers, the key to a supposed treasure buried somewhere in the county and which has attracted treasure hunters since the 19th century National D-Day Memorial Peaks of Otter Poplar Forest Smith Mountain Lake Bedford Museum & Genealogical Library Bedford Big Island Forest Montvale Colonel Chaffin, little person who toured the United States and was billed as the "Virginia Dwarf". Erik Estrada, an American actor, voice actor, subsequent Bedford County deputy sheriff, known for his co-starring lead role in the police drama te
Rocky Mount, Virginia
Rocky Mount is a town in and the county seat of Franklin County, United States. The town is part of the Roanoke Metropolitan Statistical Area, had a population of 4,799 as of the 2010 census, it is located in the Roanoke Region of Virginia. Although Robert Hill built a block house in the 1740s, the first English colonists arrived here in 1760, they named Rocky Mount for a steep cliff near the town; the area consisted of two adjacent villages, Rocky Mount and Mount Pleasant. Washington Iron Furnace was built by James Callaway and Jeremiah Early on what is now Main Street outside what is now the historic district, operated by Calloway's heirs and Peter Saunders until damaged by a flood in 1850, with rebuilding stopped by the Civil War; the first court session was held at Rocky Mount in 1786 following the Revolutionary War, in Callaway's home until he deeded land to the town on which to build the courthouse. Rocky Mount had a post office in 1795; the town was divided into lots in 1804. Jeremiah's son John Early represented the county in the Virginia House of Delegates and served as sheriff as well as operated a plantation nearby.
The courthouse was replaced in 1831. By 1836 the iron furnace employed 100 people and the town had about 275 residents, included 30 homes and several businesses including 3 grocery stores and a newspaper/printing office; the oldest dwelling is "Mount Pleasant", built overlooking the courthouse in 1829 for Caleb Tate. The Rocky Mount Turnpike Company incorporated in 1846 and a bank shortly afterward, but neither prospered. During the Civil War, numerous planter families from the Tidewater region sought refuge in Rocky Mount, many brought substantial numbers of slaves with them. Among these were the immediate past governor, Henry A. Wise, who settled his family here before he became a Confederate general. Jubal Anderson Early, who became a Confederate general during the war, was born on a farm nearby, served as one term in the Virginia House of Delegates representing the county and more than a decade as Commonwealth's attorney before the war resumed his legal practice here and in Lynchburg, Virginia after the war's end.
The only building constructed in that era and surviving today was constructed for Dr. Thomas Greer in 1861. Two other buildings constructed in 1850-1854 and used as law offices still survive; the town's clerk, Robert A. Scott, issued scrip to assist families of Confederate soldiers during the Civil War, the Confederate government requisitioned slaves from various county landowners to work on Richmond's defenses; the town experienced no battles, although Union Gen. George Stoneman and troops passed through the county in the war's final days. In 1867, the Freedman's Bureau under William F. DeKnight opened a Sunday school in Rocky Mount, about a third of whose residents at the time were African American, but efforts to establish a day school didn't succeed until much, one of the reasons Booker Taliaferro Washington, born enslaved in Franklin County, moved with his mother to West Virginia for his education, studied at the Hampton Institute at the other side of the state; the area's major cash crop both after the Civil War was tobacco.
In 1873, Rocky Mount incorporated as a town and absorbed the smaller village of Mount Pleasant, creating the its present boundaries. Former court clerk Robert Scott became the first mayor. Rocky Mount's population was about 400 people in 1870, 600 in 1897 and about 1100 in 1920. In 1880, the Franklin and Pittsylvania Railroad connected Rocky Mount to Danville and Lynchburg via Pittsylvania County, but the more important railroad line would not arrive for another dozen years, until three years after most of Rocky Mount burned in 1889. Industrial and commercial development began as Rocky Mount became a stop on the twisty railroad line between Roanoke and Winston-Salem, North Carolina; the Cannaday Mills was built in 1898. Schoolteacher turned merchant and entrepreneur Nathanial V. Angle built the Bald Knob furniture factory in 1903. By World War I, N. V. Angle owned a furniture and grocery stores, a lumberyard, tobacco house, agricultural implement store and the area's first Ford Dealership. Much of the historic architecture, both residential and commercial, dates from the first decades of the 20th century, although only one structure the Lodge Rooms built in 1900, remains of what had been a thriving African American community on West Court Street.
Workers needed housing, more elaborate dwellings were built for managers and professionals. Rocky Mount is halfway between Roanoke and Martinsville, which developed furniture manufacturing and textile industries early in the 20th century; the present Franklin County courthouse was constructed in 1909 and modeled on the Roanoke County courthouse in Salem, Virginia. Trinity Episcopal Church and its Rectory survived the 1889 fire, but the pre-1898 African Methodist Episcopal Church no longer exists; the Presbyterian Church managed to reopen shortly after the fire.
Roanoke is an independent city in the U. S. state of Virginia. At the 2010 census, the population was 97,032, it is located in the Roanoke Valley of the Roanoke Region of Virginia. Roanoke is the largest municipality in Southwest Virginia, is the principal municipality of the Roanoke Metropolitan Statistical Area, which had a 2010 population of 308,707, it is composed of the independent cities of Roanoke and Salem, Botetourt, Craig and Roanoke counties. Bisected by the Roanoke River, Roanoke is the commercial and cultural hub of much of Southwest Virginia and portions of Southern West Virginia; the town first called Big Lick was established in 1852 and chartered in 1874. It was named for a large outcropping of salt which drew the wildlife to the site near the Roanoke River. In 1882 it became the town of Roanoke, in 1884 it was chartered as the independent city of Roanoke; the name Roanoke is said to have originated from an Algonquian word for shell "money". The name for the river was that used by the Algonquian speakers who lived 300 miles away where the river emptied into the sea near Roanoke Island.
The native people who lived near where the city was founded did not speak Algonquian. They spoke Siouan languages and Catawban. There were Cherokee speakers in that general area who fought with the Catawba people; the city grew through annexation through the middle of the 20th century. The last annexation was in 1976; the state legislature has since prohibited cities from annexing land from adjacent counties. Roanoke's location in the Blue Ridge Mountains, in the middle of the Roanoke Valley between Maryland and Tennessee, made it the transportation hub of western Virginia and contributed to its rapid growth. During colonial times the site of Roanoke was an important hub of roads; the Great Indian Warpath which merged into the colonial Great Wagon Road, one of the most traveled roads of 18th-century America, ran from Philadelphia through the Shenandoah Valley to the future site of the City of Roanoke, where the Roanoke River passed through the Blue Ridge. The Carolina Road branched off in Cloverdale, Virginia to Boones Mill, on to the Yadkin River Valley.
The Roanoke Gap proved a useful route for immigrants to settle the Carolina Piedmont region. At Roanoke Gap, another branch of the Great Wagon Road, the Wilderness Road, continued southwest to Tennessee. In the 1850s, Big Lick became a stop on the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad which linked Lynchburg with Bristol on the Virginia-Tennessee border. After the American Civil War, William Mahone, a civil engineer and hero of the Battle of the Crater, was the driving force in the linkage of three railroads, including the V&T, across the southern tier of Virginia to form the Atlantic, Mississippi & Ohio Railroad, a new line extending from Norfolk to Bristol, Virginia in 1870. However, the Financial Panic of 1873 wrecked the AM&O's finances. After several years of operating under receiverships, Mahone's role as a railroad builder ended in 1881 when northern financial interests took control. At the foreclosure auction, the AM&O was purchased by E. W. Clark & Co. a private banking firm in Philadelphia which controlled the Shenandoah Valley Railroad under construction up the valley from Hagerstown, Maryland.
The AM&O was renamed Western Railway. Frederick J. Kimball, a civil engineer and partner in the Clark firm, headed the new line and the new Shenandoah Valley Railroad. For the junction for the Shenandoah Valley and the Norfolk and Western roads and his board of directors selected the small Virginia village called Big Lick, on the Roanoke River. Although the grateful citizens offered to rename their town "Kimball", at his suggestion, they agreed to name it Roanoke after the river; as the N&W brought people and jobs, the Town of Roanoke became an independent city in 1884. In fact, Roanoke became a city so that it earned the nickname "Magic City". Kimball's interest in geology was instrumental in the development of the Pocahontas coalfields in western Virginia and West Virginia, he pushed N&W lines through the wilds of West Virginia, north to Columbus and Cincinnati, south to Durham, North Carolina, Winston-Salem, North Carolina. This gave the railroad the route structure; the Virginian Railway, an engineering marvel of its day, was conceived and built by William Nelson Page and Henry Huttleston Rogers.
Following the Roanoke River, the VGN was built through the City of Roanoke early in the 20th century. It merged with the N&W in 1959; the opening of the coalfields made N&W Pocahontas bituminous coal world-famous. Transported by the N&W and neighboring Virginian Railway, local coal-fueled half the world's navies. Today it stokes steel mills and power plants all over the globe; the Norfolk & Western was famous for manufacturing steam locomotives in-house. It was N&W's Roanoke Shops that made the company known industry-wide for its excellence in steam power; the Roanoke Shops, with its workforce of thousands, is where the famed classes A, J, Y6 locomotives were designed and maintained. New steam locomotives were built there until 1953, long after diesel-electric had emerged as the motive power of choice for most North American railroads. About 1960, N&W was the last major railroad in the United States to convert from steam to diesel power; the presence of the railroad made Roanoke attractive to manufacturers.
American Viscose opened a large rayon plant in Southeast Roanoke in October 1917. This plant closed in 1958; when N&W converted to diesel, 2,000 railroad workers were laid off. Roanoke has a weak mayor-city manager form of government; the city
Prohibition is the act or practice of forbidding something by law. The word is used to refer to a period of time during which such bans are enforced; some kind of limitation on the trade in alcohol can be seen in the Code of Hammurabi banning the selling of beer for money. It could only be bartered for barley: "If a beer seller do not receive barley as the price for beer, but if she receive money or make the beer a measure smaller than the barley measure received, they shall throw her into the water."In the Western world, one of the great moral issues of the nineteenth century was slavery, but once that battle was won, social moralists turned to their next targets, one of, prohibition. In the early twentieth century, much of the impetus for the prohibition movement in the Nordic countries and North America came from moralistic convictions of pietistic Protestants. Prohibition movements in the West coincided with the advent of women's suffrage, with newly empowered women as part of the political process supporting policies that curbed alcohol consumption.
The first half of the 20th century saw periods of prohibition of alcoholic beverages in several countries: 1907 to 1948 in Prince Edward Island, for shorter periods in other provinces in Canada 1907 to 1992 in the Faroe Islands. Rum-running or bootlegging became widespread, organized crime took control of the distribution of alcohol. Distilleries and breweries in Canada and the Caribbean flourished as their products were either consumed by visiting Americans or illegally exported to the United States. Chicago became notorious as a haven for prohibition dodgers during the time known as the Roaring Twenties. Prohibition came to an end in the late 1920s or early 1930s in most of North America and Europe, although a few locations continued prohibition for many more years. In some countries where the dominant religion forbids the use of alcohol, the production and consumption of alcoholic beverages is prohibited or restricted today. For example, in Saudi Arabia and Libya alcohol is banned. Sale of alcohol is banned in Afghanistan.
In Bangladesh, alcohol is somewhat prohibited due to its proscription in the Islamic faith. However, the purchase and consumption is allowed in the country; the Garo tribe consume a type of rice beer, Christians in this country drink and purchase wine for their holy communion. In Brunei, alcohol consumption and sale is banned in public. Non-Muslims are allowed to purchase a limited amount of alcohol from their point of embarcation overseas for their own private consumption, non-Muslims who are at least the age of 18 are allowed to bring in not more than two bottles of liquor and twelve cans of beer per person into the country. In India alcohol is a state subject and individual states can legislate prohibition, but most states do not have prohibition and sale/consumption is available in 25 out of 29 states. Prohibition is in force in the states of Gujarat and Nagaland, parts of Manipur, the union territory of Lakshadweep. All other States and union territories of India permit the sale of alcohol.
Election days and certain national holidays such as Independence Day are meant to be dry days when liquor sale is not permitted but consumption is allowed. Some Indian states observe dry days on major religious festivals/occasions depending on the popularity of the festival in that region. Since the 1979 Islamic Revolution, the sale and consumption of alcohol is banned in Iran. All people are banned from drinking alcohol but some people trade and sell it illegally. Alcohol sales are banned in small shops and convenience stores; the consumption and brewing of, trafficking in liquor is against the law. Alcohol is banned only for Muslims in Malaysia due to its Islamic sharia law. Alcoholic products can be found in supermarkets, specialty shops, convenience stores all over the country. Non-halal restaurants typically sell alcohol; the Maldives ban the import of alcohol. Alcoholic beverages are available only to foreign tourists on resort islands and may not be taken off the resort. Pakistan allowed the free sale and consumption of alcohol for three decades from 1947, but restrictions were introduced by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto just weeks before he was removed as prime minister in 1977.
Since only members of non-Muslim minorities such as Hindus and Zoroastrians are allowed to apply for alcohol permits. The monthly quota is dependent upon one's income, but is about five bottles of liquor or 100 bottles of beer. In a country of 180 million, only about 60 outlets are allowed to sell alcohol; the Murree Brewery in Rawalpindi was once the only legal brewery. The ban is enforced by the country's Islamic Ideology Council, but it is not policed. Members of religious minorities, however sell their liquor permits to Muslims as part of a continuing black market trade in alcohol. There are only rest