Radboud University Nijmegen
Radboud University Nijmegen is a public university with a strong focus on research located in Nijmegen, the Netherlands. It is situated in the oldest city of the Netherlands; the RU has seven enrolls over 19,900 students. The university features many student associations which encourage participation in extracurricular activities; the first Nijmegen University was founded in 1655 and terminated around 1680. The Radboud University Nijmegen was established in 1923 as the Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen and started out with 27 professors and 189 students, it was founded. At the time, Roman Catholics in the Netherlands were disadvantaged and occupied no higher posts in government. After fierce competition with the cities of Den Bosch, The Hague, Maastricht, Nijmegen was chosen to house the university; the subsequent Second World War hit the university hard. Many prominent members were lost, among them professors Titus Brandsma, they were deported to Dachau concentration camp. In 1943, rector Hermesdorf refused to cooperate with the Germans.
On 22 February 1944, the university lost many buildings in a bombardment. Classes resumed in March 1945. Since student numbers rose from 3,000 in 1960 to 15,000 in 1980. In 2004, the university changed its name to Radboud University Nijmegen, after Saint Radboud of Utrecht, a bishop who lived around 900; the university's medical department is linked to the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, a large teaching hospital located on the Heyendaal campus along with the other university buildings such as the Huygensgebouw which contains the Natural Sciences. The Erasmus Tower and the Erasmusgebouw which contain the Faculty of Arts are situated at the south end of the campus next to the sports centre. Recent building projects included new on-campus residence halls, the sports centre and several science buildings; the new Grotiusgebouw is built and will offer more room to the Faculty of Law. At the beginning of 2018, preparations for the reconstruction of all buildings on the Thomas van Aquinostraat on campus have started.
The university campus is located next to Heyendaal train station. Frequent shuttle buses connect the university to the city centre. Radboud University is noted for its green campus listed among the most attractive in the Netherlands. In 2017, a SPAR minimarket was opened which provides students with accessories. Radboud University has seven enrols over 19.900 students in 112 study programs. As of September 2013, the university offers 36 international master's programs taught in English and several more taught in Dutch. There are nine bachelor's programs taught in English: American Studies, Artificial Intelligence, Chemistry, Computing Science, International Economics & Business, International Business Administration, English Language and Culture, Molecular Life Sciences. International Business Communication and Arts and Culture Studies offer English-language tracks. All other bachelors are in Dutch; some exams and classes may be in English as well, despite the programs being Dutch-taught. All master's programs have been internationally accredited by the Accreditation Organization of the Netherlands and Flanders.
All English-taught Master's programmes are research-based programmes. They are taught within the Faculties of Arts, Social Sciences, Medical Sciences and Philosophy, Theology and Religious Studies, besides the Interfaculty Research school and the Nijmegen School of Management. Radboud University is home to several research institutions, including the Institute for Management Research, NanoLab Nijmegen, the Donders Institute for Brain and Behaviour, the High Field Magnet Laboratory and the FELIX laboratory. Faculty members Anne Cutler, Henk Barendregt, Peter Hagoort, Theo Rasing, Heino Falcke, Mike Jetten, Ieke Moerdijk, Mikhail Katsnelson won the Spinoza Prize. Visiting professor Sir Andre Geim and former Ph. D. student Sir Konstantin Novoselov were awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics. The QS World University Rankings ranked the university 177th in the world in 2015; the university scored 45th in a 2012 ranking of European research universities. In 2016, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings put the university in 125th place worldwide.
The Radboud Excellence Initiative was created with the dual purposes of attracting talents from every academic field to Radboud University while strengthening international bonds between universities worldwide. The initiative is a joint enterprise of both Radboud University and Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, it provides two routes. Promising researchers who have completed their doctorate between two and eight years earlier at the time of nomination may be nominated for a fellowship whereas those researchers who are more established in their discipline may be nominated for a professorship. Once selected, fellows may come to Radboud University to undertake research for a maximum of two years. Professors may come to Radboud University for a maximum period of six months; the coat of arms was designed at the time of the founding of the university by the goldsmith workshop of the Brom family in Utrecht. The lower part is the coat of arms of the Catholic Church in the Netherlands; the dove is the symbol of the Holy Sp
Jan Peter Balkenende
Jan Pieter "Jan Peter" Balkenende Jr. is a retired Dutch politician who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 22 July 2002 to 14 October 2010. He is a member of the Christian Democratic Appeal. A jurist by occupation, Balkenende became a professor of Christian theology at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam in 1993, he was elected to the House of Representatives following the general election of 1998, serving from 19 May 1998 until 22 July 2002. After the Leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal and parliamentary leader in the House of Representatives Jaap de Hoop Scheffer stepped down after an internal power struggle between him and party chair Marnix van Rij, Balkenende was selected to succeed him in both positions, became lijsttrekker for the Dutch general election of 2002; the Christian Democratic Appeal became the surprising winner of the election, gaining 14 seats becoming the largest party in the House of Representatives. This success was in part owed to Balkenende's neutral attitude in the debates with Pim Fortuyn, the eponymous leader of the Pim Fortuyn List party, assassinated during the national election campaign on 6 May 2002.
The following cabinet formation resulted in a coalition agreement with the Christian Democratic Appeal, Pim Fortuyn List and the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy which formed the First Balkenende cabinet with Balkenende becoming Prime Minister of the Netherlands taking office on 22 July 2002. The cabinet Balkenende I collapsed on 16 October after just 87 days in office after internal conflicts within the Pim Fortuyn List that destabilised the government. For the Dutch general election of 2003, Balkenende again as lijsttrekker won one seat and the following cabinet formation resulted in a coalition agreement with the Christian Democratic Appeal, the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy and the Democrats 66 which formed the Second Balkenende cabinet. On 29 June 2006 the Democrats 66 retracted their support for the cabinet Balkenende II after criticising the way Minister for Integration and Immigration Rita Verdonk had handled the crisis around the naturalisation of her party fellow elected to the House of Representatives Ayaan Hirsi Ali.
On 7 July 2006 a rump cabinet Third Balkenende cabinet was formed and stayed in office until the Dutch general election of 2006. Balkenende again as lijsttrekker lost three seats but the Christian Democratic Appeal remained by far the largest party with 41 seats; the following 2006–2007 cabinet formation resulted in a coalition agreement with the Christian Democratic Appeal, the Labour Party and the Christian Union that formed the Fourth Balkenende cabinet. On 20 February 2010 the Labour Party retracted their support for the cabinet Balkenende IV after a disagreement over the extension of the ISAF mission in Afghanistan. For the Dutch general election of 2010, Balkenende was appointed again as lijsttrekker, but his party lost 20 seats. Balkenende remained Prime Minister of the Netherlands until the First Rutte cabinet was installed on 14 October 2010. After his premiership, Balkenende retired from active politics at the age of fifty-four and serves as a professor of Governance and Internationalisation at the Erasmus University Rotterdam since 1 December 2010.
Following the end of his active political career, Balkenende worked as a Partner Corporate Responsibility for Ernst & Young from 1 April 2011 until 1 July 2017. Jan Pieter Balkenende Jr. was born on 7 May 1956 in Biezelinge in the province of Zeeland in Reformed family, the son of Jan Pieter Balkenende Sr. a cereal grains merchant and Thona Johanna Sandee, a teacher. During his childhood, Balkenende was an active supporter of the Dutch football team PSV Eindhoven, along with his father he frequented many matches, he regularly visited the local music school and theatre. Balkenende went to a Reformed Protestant primary school in Kapelle, he attended secondary school at the "Christian Lyceum for Zeeland" in Goes, graduating in 1974. He studied at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, where he received a Master of Arts degree in history in 1980, a Master of Laws degree in Law in 1982, a Doctor of Philosophy degree in Law in 1992. Balkenende resides with his wife, Bianca Hoogendijk, his daughter, Amelie, in Capelle aan den IJssel, a suburb of Rotterdam.
During his tenure as Prime Minister, he did not use the Catshuis, the formal residency of the Prime Minister. He began his career on the staff of the research institute of the CDA and as a city councilman in Amstelveen. In 1992 he received his PhD with a thesis on "Governance regulation and social organisations", a inspired by the Communitarian ideas of Amitai Etzioni. One year in 1993, he became an extraordinary professor of Christian-Social Thought at the Free University of Amsterdam. Balkenende first entered the House of Representatives on 19 May 1998 while the CDA was in opposition, he became the CDA's financial spokesman and was involved with social affairs and domestic affairs. In this role he advocated a substantial reduction of sound public finances, he was elected Chairman of the CDA parliamentary fraction on 1 October 2001, succeeding Jaap de Hoop Scheffer. On 3 November 2001, he was appointed lijsttrekker for the CDA in the tumultuous May 2002 parliamentary elections; these elections restored the CDA's former position as the largest political party in the House of Representatives.
On 4 July 2002 Queen Beatrix asked Balkenende to form a new gove
Royal Netherlands Army
The Royal Netherlands Army is the land forces element of the military of the Netherlands. Though the Royal Netherlands Army was raised on 9 January 1814, its origins date back to 1572, when the Staatse Leger was raised -- making the Dutch standing army one of the oldest in the world, it fought in the Napoleonic Wars, World War II, the Indonesian War of Independence, the Korean War and served with NATO on the Cold War frontiers in Germany from the 1950s to the 1990s. Since 1990, the army has been sent into the Iraqi War and into the War in Afghanistan, as well as deployed in several United Nations' peacekeeping missions. Two of the three brigades of the present Dutch Army are now under German command. In 2014, the 11th Airmobile Brigade was integrated into the Rapid Forces Division; this Dutch-German military co-operation is seen as a harbinger of a European defensive union. The Royal Netherlands Army was raised on 9 January 1814, but its origins date back to the founding of the Staatse Leger in 1572: the creation of one of the first modern standing armies.
One of the best-organised and best-trained armies of the 17th and early 18th centuries, this army of the Dutch Republic saw action in the Eighty Years' War, the Dano-Swedish War, the Franco-Dutch War, the Nine Years' War, the War of Spanish Succession, the War of Austrian Succession, the French Revolutionary Wars. With the French conquest of the Netherlands, the Staatse Leger was replaced by the army of the Batavian Republic in 1795, which in turn was replaced by the army of the Kingdom of Holland in 1806; this army fought beside the French, to repel the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland in 1799 and to wage several campaigns in Germany and Spain between 1800 and 1810. The independent army was disbanded in 1810, when Napoleon decided to integrate the Netherlands into France: Dutch military units became part of the Grande Armée. Dutch military elements participated in the disastrous French invasion of Russia in 1812, the actions of the Pontonniers company under Captain Benthien at the Berezina River are noteworth.
New research points out that, contrary to long-held belief, around half of the Dutch contingent of the Grande Armée survived the Russian Campaign. An independent Dutch army was resurrected by the new Kingdom of the United Netherlands in 1814, following the Orangist uprising against Napoleonic rule in 1813; this new force, the Netherlands Mobile Army, formed an integral part of the allied army during the Hundred Days campaign that culminated in the Battle of Waterloo. Units such as Baron Chassé's were key in securing victory for the allied army; the army has been involved in various conflicts since 1814, including the Waterloo campaign, different colonial wars, the Belgian Revolution. At the beginning of the Second World War, the I Corps was the force strategic reserve and was located in the Vesting Holland, around The Hague, Haarlem and in the Westland; the Royal Netherlands Army was defeated in May 1940 and only began to rise again with the formation of the Princess Irene Brigade Group in exile.
In the Far East, the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army was defeated by the Japanese in 1942. Today's army grew out of the wartime force, starting with the liberation of parts of the Netherlands in 1944; the army fought in the Indonesian War of Independence 1945–1949, in Korea in 1950-53, the war with Indonesia over New Guinea, 1960–1962. The Royal Netherlands Navy and an army battalion were sent to Korea between 1950 and 1954. In total, 3,972 Soldiers were sent to fight the war in Korea, 123 died in combat; the I Corps stood watch alongside its NATO allies in Germany during the Cold War. The corps consisted of three divisions during the 1980s, the 1st, 4th, 5th divisions, it was part of the NATO Northern Army Group. The corps's war assignment, as formulated by Commander, Northern Army Group, would be to: Assume responsibility for its corps sector and relieve 1st German Corps forces as soon as possible. Fight the covering force battle in accordance with COMNORTHAG's concept of operations. In the main defensive battle: hold and destroy the forces of the enemy's leading armies conventionally as far east as possible, maintaining cohesion with 1 Corps.
Maintain cohesion with LANDJUT and secure NORTHAG's left flank in the Forward Combat Zone. During the early 1990s I Corps was reduced to the First Division 7 December, which became part of I. German/Dutch Corps, later the division headquarters itself was disbanded. Since the end of the Cold War, the army concentrates on peace-keeping and peace-enforcing operations and has been involved in several operations (in Lebanon between 1979 and 1985, a
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev
European Commissioner for Justice and Consumers
The Commissioner for Justice and Gender Equality is a post in the European Commission. The current commissioner is Věra Jourová; the post was created in 2010 by splitting the previous Justice and Security portfolio into a justice post and a security post: the Commissioner for Home Affairs. This split was made as a concession to the liberals in the European Parliament to gain their support for the second Barroso Commission. A major innovation of the Juncker Commission is the nomination of a First Vice-President, Frans Timmermans, for Better Regulation, Inter-Institutional Relations, Rule of Law and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, his role includes to "guide and coordinate all other Justice and Home Affairs-related Commissioners, in particular those of the new DG Justice and the DG Home Affairs". The portfolio of the Commissioner has evolved under the Juncker Commission and renamed into Justice and Gender Equality. Major changes are: "The Commissioner for Justice no longer holds the title, used in the previous Commission.
Other citizenship-related matters regarding ‘communication to citizens’ have been moved from DG Communication and attributed to the new Commissioner for Education, Culture and Citizenship." "Issues related to non-discrimination in employment have been removed from DG JUST and placed back under DG Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion. However, DG JUST still holds responsibility for the wider non-discrimination portfolio." DG JUST gained competences on issues related to Corporate Governance and Social Responsibility in DG Internal Market and Services, on issues related to Consumer Affairs. Regarding Consumer Affairs, the whole directorate has been transferred from DG Health and Consumers - now DG Health and Food Safety, except for Health Technology and Cosmetics issues, for which DG Enterprise and Industry gained responsibility; the responsibility of Anti-Drug Policy has been transferred to DG Home Affairs. DG Justice and Consumers DG Justice and Security Directorate-General for Justice European Commissioner for Home Affairs Directorate-General for Home Affairs Justice and Home Affairs Council Directorate-General for Justice and Home Affairs European Parliament Committee on Civil Liberties and Home Affairs Area of freedom and justice Charter of Fundamental Rights Four Freedoms Eurojust Fundamental Rights Agency Court of Justice Commissioner's Website Directorate-General for Justice Website
Nancy-Université federated the three principal institutes of higher education of Nancy, in Lorraine, France before their merger into the University of Lorraine: Henri Poincaré University: natural sciences, wrapping several faculties and engineering schools École Supérieure des Sciences et Technologies de l'Ingénieur de Nancy: general engineering École Supérieure d'Informatique et Applications de Lorraine: Computer Science engineering Nancy 2 University: social sciences Institut national polytechnique de Lorraine: engineering schools, notably: ENSEM: electrical and mechanical engineering Mines de Nancy: general engineering ENSIC: chemistry ENSAIA: agricultural engineeringWith over 50 000 students, Nancy has the fifth largest student population in France. Nancy-Université has several academic libraries; the academic library of Nancy 2 University, opened by French president Albert Lebrun, contains around 500 000 documents, among which at least 250 000 are books, in 35 locations. The original University of Nancy was founded in 1572 in the nearby city of Pont-à-Mousson by Charles III, duke of Lorraine, Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine, transferred to Nancy in 1768.
It was closed by the revolutionaries in 1793, reopened in 1864. François Gény, French professor and jurist who introduced notion of "free scientific research" in positive law. List of early modern universities in Europe List of public universities in France by academy Nancy-Université official website University of Nancy 1 University of Nancy 2 INPL
Prisoner of war
A prisoner of war is a person, whether a combatant or a non-combatant, held in custody by a belligerent power during or after an armed conflict. The earliest recorded usage of the phrase "prisoner of war" dates back to 1660. Belligerents hold prisoners of war in custody for a range of legitimate and illegitimate reasons, such as isolating them from enemy combatants still in the field, demonstrating military victory, punishing them, prosecuting them for war crimes, exploiting them for their labour, recruiting or conscripting them as their own combatants, collecting military and political intelligence from them, or indoctrinating them in new political or religious beliefs. For most of human history, depending on the culture of the victors, enemy combatants on the losing side in a battle who had surrendered and been taken as a prisoner of war could expect to be either slaughtered or enslaved; the first Roman gladiators were prisoners of war and were named according to their ethnic roots such as Samnite and the Gaul.
Homer's Iliad describes Greek and Trojan soldiers offering rewards of wealth to opposing forces who have defeated them on the battlefield in exchange for mercy, but their offers are not always accepted. Little distinction was made between enemy combatants and enemy civilians, although women and children were more to be spared. Sometimes, the purpose of a battle, if not a war, was to capture a practice known as raptio. Women had no rights, were held as chattel. In the fourth century AD, Bishop Acacius of Amida, touched by the plight of Persian prisoners captured in a recent war with the Roman Empire, who were held in his town under appalling conditions and destined for a life of slavery, took the initiative of ransoming them, by selling his church's precious gold and silver vessels, letting them return to their country. For this he was canonized. During Childeric's siege and blockade of Paris in 464, the nun Geneviève pleaded with the Frankish king for the welfare of prisoners of war and met with a favourable response.
Clovis I liberated captives after Genevieve urged him to do so. Many French prisoners of war were killed during the Battle of Agincourt in 1415; this was done in retaliation for the French killing of the boys and other non-combatants handling the baggage and equipment of the army, because the French were attacking again and Henry was afraid that they would break through and free the prisoners to fight again. In the Middle Ages, a number of religious wars aimed to not only defeat but eliminate their enemies. In Christian Europe, the extermination of heretics was considered desirable. Examples include the Northern Crusades; when asked by a Crusader how to distinguish between the Catholics and Cathars once they'd taken the city of Béziers, the Papal Legate Arnaud Amalric famously replied, "Kill them all, God will know His own". The inhabitants of conquered cities were massacred during the Crusades against the Muslims in the 11th and 12th centuries. Noblemen could hope to be ransomed. In feudal Japan, there was no custom of ransoming prisoners of war, who were for the most part summarily executed.
The expanding Mongol Empire was famous for distinguishing between cities or towns that surrendered, where the population were spared but required to support the conquering Mongol army, those that resisted, where their city was ransacked and destroyed, all the population killed. In Termez, on the Oxus: "all the people, both men and women, were driven out onto the plain, divided in accordance with their usual custom they were all slain"; the Aztecs were at war with neighbouring tribes and groups, with the goal of this constant warfare being to collect live prisoners for sacrifice. For the re-consecration of Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan in 1487, "between 10,000 and 80,400 persons" were sacrificed. During the early Muslim conquests, Muslims captured large number of prisoners. Aside from those who converted, most were enslaved. Christians who were captured during the Crusades, were either killed or sold into slavery if they could not pay a ransom. During his lifetime, Muhammad made it the responsibility of the Islamic government to provide food and clothing, on a reasonable basis, to captives, regardless of their religion.
The freeing of prisoners was recommended as a charitable act. On certain occasions where Muhammad felt the enemy had broken a treaty with the Muslims, he ordered the mass execution of male prisoners, such as the Banu Qurayza. Females and children of this tribe were divided up as spoils of war by Muhammad; the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years' War, established the rule that prisoners of war should be released without ransom at the end of hostilities and that they should be allowed to return to their homelands. There evolved the right of parole, French for "discourse", in which a captured officer surrendered his sword and gave his word as a gentleman in exchange for privileges. If he swore not to escape, he could gain the freedom of the prison. If he swore to cease hostilities against the nation who held him captive, he could be repatriated or exchanged but could not serve against his former captors in a military capacity. Ea