The Habsburg Monarchy – Habsburg Empire, Austrian Monarchy or Danube Monarchy – is an unofficial umbrella term among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1526 and 1780 and by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918. The Monarchy was a typical composite state composed of territories within and outside the Holy Roman Empire, united only in the person of the monarch; the dynastic capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611. From 1804 to 1867 the Habsburg Monarchy was formally unified as the Austrian Empire, from 1867 to 1918 as the Austro-Hungarian Empire; the head of the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg was elected Holy Roman Emperor: from 1452 until the Empire's dissolution in 1806, Charles VII of Bavaria was the only Holy Roman Emperor, not Habsburg ruler of Austria. The two entities were never coterminous, as the Habsburg Monarchy covered many lands beyond the Holy Roman Empire, most of the Empire was ruled by other dynasties.
This Austrian Habsburg Monarchy must not be confused with the House of Habsburg, existing since the 11th century, whose vast domains were split up in 1521 between this "junior" Austrian branch and the "senior" Spanish branch. The monarchy had no official name. Instead, various names included: Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Empire Habsburg/Austrian Hereditary Lands Austrian Monarchy Danubian Monarchy The Habsburg family originated with the Habsburg Castle in modern Switzerland, after 1279 came to rule in Austria; the Habsburg family grew to European prominence with the marriage and adoption treaty by Emperor Maximilian I at the First Congress of Vienna in 1515, the subsequent death of adopted Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia in 1526. Following the death of Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia in the Battle of Mohács against the Turks, his brother-in-law Archduke Ferdinand of Austria was elected the next King of Bohemia and Hungary. Names of the territory that became Austria-Hungary: Habsburg monarchy: This was an unofficial umbrella term, but frequent, name during that time.
The entity had no official name. Austrian Empire: This was the official name. Note that the German version is Kaisertum Österreich, i.e. the English translation empire refers to a territory ruled by an emperor, not just to a "widespreading domain". Austria-Hungary: This name was used in the international relations, though the official name was Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. An unofficial popular name was the Danubian Monarchy often used was the term Doppel-Monarchie meaning two states under one crowned ruler. Crownlands or crown lands: This is the name of all the individual parts of the Austrian Empire, of Austria-Hungary from 1867 on; the Kingdom of Hungary was not considered a "crownland" after the establishment of Austria-Hungary 1867, so that the "crownlands" became identical with what was called the Kingdoms and Lands represented in the Imperial Council. The Hungarian parts of the Empire were called "Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen" or "Lands of Holy Stephen's Crown"; the Bohemian Lands were called "Lands of the St. Wenceslaus' Crown".
Names of some smaller territories: Austrian lands or "Archduchies of Austria" – Lands up and below the Enns: This is the historical name of the parts of the Archduchy of Austria that became the present-day Republic of Austria on 12 November 1918. Modern day Austria is a semi-federal republic of nine states that are: Lower Austria, Upper Austria, Styria, Carinthia and Burgenland and the Capital of Vienna, a state of its own. Burgenland came to Austria in 1921 from Hungary. Salzburg became Austrian in 1816 after the Napoleonic wars. Vienna, Austria's capital became a state 1 January 1922, after being residence and capital of the Austrian Empire for the Habsburg monarchs for centuries. Upper and Lower Austria were split into "Austria above the Enns" and "Austria below the Enns". Upper Austria was enlarged after the Treaty of Teschen following the "War of the Bavarian Succession" by the so-called Innviertel part of Bavaria. Hereditary Lands or German Hereditary Lands or Austrian Hereditary Lands: In a narrower sense these were the "original" Habsburg Austrian territories, i.e. the Austrian lands and Carniola.
In a wider sense the Lands of the Bohemian Crown were included in the Hereditary lands. The term was replaced by the term "Crownlands" in the 1849 March Constitution, but it was used afterwards; the Er
Prague is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and the historical capital of Bohemia. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of 2.6 million. The city has a temperate climate, with chilly winters. Prague has been a political and economic centre of central Europe complete with a rich history. Founded during the Romanesque and flourishing by the Gothic and Baroque eras, Prague was the capital of the Kingdom of Bohemia and the main residence of several Holy Roman Emperors, most notably of Charles IV, it was an important city to its Austro-Hungarian Empire. The city played major roles in the Bohemian and Protestant Reformation, the Thirty Years' War and in 20th-century history as the capital of Czechoslovakia, during both World Wars and the post-war Communist era. Prague is home to a number of well-known cultural attractions, many of which survived the violence and destruction of 20th-century Europe.
Main attractions include Prague Castle, Charles Bridge, Old Town Square with the Prague astronomical clock, the Jewish Quarter, Petřín hill and Vyšehrad. Since 1992, the extensive historic centre of Prague has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites; the city has more than ten major museums, along with numerous theatres, galleries and other historical exhibits. An extensive modern public transportation system connects the city, it is home to a wide range of public and private schools, including Charles University in Prague, the oldest university in Central Europe. Prague is classified as an "Alpha −" global city according to GaWC studies and ranked sixth in the Tripadvisor world list of best destinations in 2016, its rich history makes it a popular tourist destination and as of 2017, the city receives more than 8.5 million international visitors annually. Prague is the fourth most visited European city after London and Rome. During the thousand years of its existence, the city grew from a settlement stretching from Prague Castle in the north to the fort of Vyšehrad in the south, becoming the capital of a modern European country, the Czech Republic, a member state of the European Union.
The region was settled as early as the Paleolithic age. A Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the city was founded as Boihaem in c. 1306 BC by an ancient king, Boyya. Around the fifth and fourth century BC, a Celts tribe appeared in the area establishing settlements including an oppidum in Závist, a present-day suburb of Prague, naming the region of Bohemia, which means "home of the Boii people". In the last century BC, the Celts were driven away by Germanic tribes, leading some to place the seat of the Marcomanni king, Maroboduus, in southern Prague in the suburb now called Závist. Around the area where present-day Prague stands, the 2nd century map drawn by Ptolemaios mentioned a Germanic city called Casurgis. In the late 5th century AD, during the great Migration Period following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the Germanic tribes living in Bohemia moved westwards and in the 6th century, the Slavic tribes settled the Central Bohemian Region.
In the following three centuries, the Czech tribes built several fortified settlements in the area, most notably in the Šárka valley and Levý Hradec. The construction of what came to be known as Prague Castle began near the end of the 9th century, growing a fortified settlement that existed on the site since the year 800; the first masonry under Prague Castle dates from the year 885 at the latest. The other prominent Prague fort, the Přemyslid fort Vyšehrad, was founded in the 10th century, some 70 years than Prague Castle. Prague Castle is dominated by the cathedral, which began construction in 1344, but wasn't completed until the 20th century; the legendary origins of Prague attribute its foundation to the 8th century Czech duchess and prophetess Libuše and her husband, Přemysl, founder of the Přemyslid dynasty. Legend says that Libuše came out on a rocky cliff high above the Vltava and prophesied: "I see a great city whose glory will touch the stars." She ordered a town called Praha to be built on the site.
The region became the seat of the dukes, kings of Bohemia. Under Holy Roman Emperor Otto II the area became a bishopric in 973; until Prague was elevated to archbishopric in 1344, it was under the jurisdiction of the Archbishopric of Mainz. Prague was an important seat for trading where merchants from all of Europe settled, including many Jews, as recalled in 965 by the Hispano-Jewish merchant and traveller Ibrahim ibn Ya'qub; the Old New Synagogue of 1270 still stands in the city. Prague was once home to an important slave market. At the site of the ford in the Vltava river, King Vladislaus I had the first bridge built in 1170, the Judith Bridge, named in honour of his wife Judith of Thuringia; this bridge was destroyed by a flood in 1342, but some of the original foundation stones of that bridge remain in the river. It was named the Charles Bridge. In 1257, under King Ottokar II, Malá Strana was founded in Prague on the site of an older village in what would become the Hradčany area; this was the district of the German people, who had the right to administer the law autonomously, pursuant to Magdeburg rights.
The new district was on the bank opposite of the Staré Město, which had borough status and was bordered by a line of walls and fortifications. Prague flourished dur
František Ladislav Rieger
František Ladislav Rieger was a Czech politician and publicist made famous for his leadership of the early Czech nationalist movement. Rieger was born into the household of a miller in the small town of Semily in northern Bohemia, his departure from this rural environment came with his enrollment in Prague University where he was to become acquainted with the nationalist fervor among students there. Rieger studied at the university to become a lawyer, received a strong education in economic science, a subject which would be the topic of much of his published political literature, he and his fellow “national awakeners” found inspiration for their patriotism in the Polish uprising of 1830. Many political Polish refugees fled to Prague where they shared their ideas with the young Czech nationalists there. Rieger’s sympathy for the Poles was so that he was arrested for hiding a refugee in his room at the University. Rieger’s first venture into the political scene of Czech politics came with the Revolution of 1848.
Rieger was among the attendees to the constituent assembly meeting in July 1848 in Vienna. His appearance at the assembly was spectacular, he exemplified his skill in oration, reputedly gained a reputation for his righteous defense of popular sovereignty. For the first time, he was rubbing shoulders with prominent Czech intellectuals and leaders, including the historian František Palacký, with whom he was soon to become close friends; the constitution which he and his fellow assembly members together drafted was woven from the notions of Austroslavism, which advocated allowing Bohemia to become an autonomous federal state within the empire. The new emperor, Franz Joseph, flatly rejected it. Following the defeat of the proposal for the Bohemian constitution, Rieger spent the next two years in voluntary exile between France and Great Britain. On his returning to Prague in 1851, he applied to become a professor of economics at Prague University where he studied. However, his application, which included his doctorate on economics, was refused by the administration for political reasons.
Rieger became a prolific writer of economic literature. For his contribution, he has been accredited with begin the founder of Czech economic literature. For the next several years, he set to work on a number of projects intended to advance the Czech cultural heritage. In 1858 he started the Slovník naučný, the Czech encyclopedia of general knowledge, the first volume of, published in 1859, the 11th and last in 1874, he was instrumental in founding the first Czech political daily newspaper published in Prague, which appeared on 1 January 1861 and of which he was for a while the editor. In 1853 Rieger married Marie Palacká, the daughter of his close friend and political associate from the assembly, František Palacký. Rieger’s refuge from politics was ended by the downfall of the Bach administration in Vienna in 1859. Francis Joseph’s October Diploma, which divided the empire into the dualist Astro-Hungarian monarchy, left Rieger and many Czechs nationalists dissatisfied with the lack of response by the government towards their wish for autonomy.
Not wishing to be outshined by their Magyar competition, the Czechs of the National Party, led by Palacký took action. In 1861, Palacký, though continuing to serve as an influential member of the party, passed official leadership to Rieger. Now in control, Rieger set to work on another petitioned constitution to present to Francis Joseph. Despite Rieger’s employment of his skill for writing political literature, the proposal was ignored by the emperor altogether. Dejected and frustrated, Rieger led his party to boycott the Bohemian Diet and newly created Austrian Reichsrat; this policy of passive resistance would characterize the Czech relation to Austria for the next twenty years. Czech pride, hardly swayed the Emperor or Reichstrat who were more than happy to not be bothered by the Czechs. Rieger attempted a constitution a second time in 1871, when he conducted negotiations with the Hohenenwarth ministry for a federal constitution of the empire, which broke down owing to his extreme attitude in the matter of Bohemian independence.
Within the National Party itself a number of significant developments were taking place under the leadership of Rieger. He appealed to Napoleon III to support the Czech movement, in spite the unease felt by some members towards the authoritarian regime of France. In terms of its political ideology, the party became conservative in its attempts to win over the Bohemian nobility. Rieger understood that the nobles had no real interest in nationalism and that the party was becoming isolated from its liberal roots. However, support of the nobles meant access to the court, a political advantage which he could not afford to lose. In addition to allying the party to the nobles, Rieger took significant steps to tie the party to the Catholic Church. Although a non-practicing Catholic himself, Rieger attended a number of Church pilgrimages and meetings. In his view, the Church and its role in Czech history offered to the nationalist struggle a sense of historical unity and significance. Rieger’s image was threatened by his failure to recognize the significance of Panslavism.
In 1867, his journey with Palacký to Moscow to attend a convention in protest of dualism was falsely interpreted by the Czech press to be a symbolic gesture towards Pan-Slavism. Rieger failed to recognize the impression his contacts with other slavs created for his public image to Germans fearful of a panslavic conspiracy. In spite of this evidence of his popularity, his conservatis
The Czechs or the Czech people, are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture and Czech language. Ethnic Czechs were called Bohemians in English until the early 20th century, referring to the medieval land of Bohemia which in turn was adapted from late Iron Age tribe of Celtic Boii. During the Migration Period, West Slavic tribes of Bohemians settled in the area, "assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations", formed a principality in the 9th century, part of Great Moravia, in form of Duchy of Bohemia and Kingdom of Bohemia, the predecessors of the modern republic; the Czech diaspora is found in notable numbers in the United States, Israel, Germany, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Russia and Brazil, among others. The Czech ethnic group is part of the West Slavic subgroup of the larger Slavic ethno-linguistical group; the West Slavs have their origin in early Slavic tribes which settled in Central Europe after East Germanic tribes had left this area during the migration period.
The West Slavic tribe of Bohemians settled in the area of Bohemia during the migration period, assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations. They formed a principality in the 9th century, the Duchy of Bohemia, under the Přemyslid dynasty, part of the Great Moravia under Svatopluk I. According to mythology, the founding father of the Czech people were Forefather Čech, who according to legend brought the tribe of Czechs into its land; the Czech are related to the neighbouring Slovaks. The Czech–Slovak languages form a dialect continuum rather than being two distinct languages. Czech cultural influence in Slovak culture is noted as having been much higher than the other way around. Czech people have a long history of coexistence with Germanic people. In the 17th century, German replaced Czech in local administration; the Czech National Revival took place in the 18th and 19th centuries aiming to revive Czech language and national identity. The Czech were the initiators of Pan-Slavism; the Czech ethnonym was the name of a Slavic tribe in central Bohemia that subdued the surrounding tribes in the late 9th century and created the Czech/Bohemian state.
The origin of the name of the tribe itself is unknown. According to legend, it comes from their leader Čech. Research regards Čech as a derivative of the root čel-; the Czech ethnonym was adopted by the Moravians in the 19th century. The population of the Czech lands has been influenced by different human migrations that wide-crossed Europe over time. In their Y-DNA haplogroups, which are inherited along the male line, Czechs have shown a mix of Eastern and Western European traits. According to a 2007 study, 34.2% of Czech males belong to R1a. Within the Czech Republic, the proportion of R1a seems to increase from west to east According to a 2000 study, 35.6% of Czech males have haplogroup R1b, common in Western Europe among Germanic and Celtic nations, but rare among Slavic nations. A mtDNA study of 179 individuals from Western Bohemia showed that 3% had East Eurasian lineages that entered the gene pool through admixture with Central Asian nomadic tribes in the early Middle Ages. A group of scientists suggested that the high frequency of a gene mutation causing cystic fibrosis in Central European and Celtic populations supports the theory of some Celtic ancestry among the Czech population.
The population of the Czech Republic descends from diverse peoples of Slavic and Germanic origin. Presence of West Slavs in the 6th century during the Migration Period has been documented on the Czech territory. Slavs settled in Bohemia and Austria sometime during the 6th or 7th centuries, "assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations". According to a popular myth, the Slavs came with Forefather Čech. During the 7th century, the Frankish merchant Samo, supporting the Slavs fighting against nearby settled Avars, became the ruler of the first known Slav state in Central Europe, the Samo's Empire; the principality Great Moravia, controlled by the Moymir dynasty, arose in the 8th century and reached its zenith in the 9th when it held off the influence of the Franks. Great Moravia was Christianized, the crucial role played Byzantine mission of Methodius; the Duchy of Bohemia emerged in the late 9th century. In 880, Prague Castle was constructed by Prince Bořivoj, founder of the Přemyslid dynasty and the city of Prague was established.
Vratislav II was the first Czech king in 1085 and the duchy was raised to a hereditary kingdom under Ottokar I in 1198. The second half of the 13th century was a period of advancing German immigration into the Czech lands; the number of Czechs who have at least German ancestry today runs into hundreds of thousands. The Habsburg Monarchy focused much of its power on religious wars against the Protestants. While these religious wars were taking place, the Czech estates revolted against Habsburg from 1546 to 1547 but were defeated. Defenestrations of Prague in 1618, signaled an open revolt by the Bohemian estates against the Habsburgs and started the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle
Josef Dobrovský, Hungarian: Dobrowsky József was a Czech philologist and historian, one of the most important figures of the Czech National Revival along with Josef Jungmann. Dobrovský was born at Balassagyarmat, Nógrád County, in the Kingdom of Hungary, when his father Jakub Doubravský (1701, Royal Bohemia – 1764, Bischofteinitz was temporarily stationed as a soldier there, his mother was Magdalena Dobrovská. He received his first education in the German school at Horšovský Týn in Plzeň district, made his first acquaintance with the Czech language and soon made himself fluent in it at the Německý Brod gymnasium, studied for some time under the Jesuits at Klatovy. In 1769 he began to study philosophy at the University of Prague. In 1772 he was admitted among the Jesuits at Brno and was preparing for a Christian mission in India. However, the entire order was dissolved in the Czech lands in 1773 and Dobrovský thus returned to Prague to study theology. After holding for some time the office of tutor to Count Nostitz, he obtained an appointment first as vice-rector, as rector, in the general seminary at Hradisko.
At this time, he wrote some of the most important works in Slavic studies and philology. In 1792 he was commissioned by the Bohemian Academy of Sciences to visit Stockholm, Saint Petersburg and Moscow in search of the manuscripts, scattered by the Thirty Years' War, on his return he accompanied Count Nostitz to Switzerland and Italy. In the 1780s Dobrovský participated in the academic life of Prague. In 1784, he helped to set up the Royal Czech Society of Sciences, in 1818 the National Museum of what was to become Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic. However, his reason began to give way in 1795, in 1801 he had to be confined in a lunatic asylum, but by 1803 he had recovered; the rest of his life was spent either in Prague or at the country seats of his friends Counts Nostitz and Czernin, but his death occurred in Brno, where he had gone in 1828 to study in the local libraries. While his fame rests chiefly on his labours in Slavonic philology his botanical studies are not without value in the history of the science.
Between 1948 and 1968 Czech poet Vladimír Holan lived in the so-called "Dobrovský House" on Kampa saying that the Blue Abbé would sometimes visit him. Fragmentum Pragense evangelii S. Marci, vulgo autographi a periodical for Bohemian and Moravian literature Scriptores rerum Bohemicarum Geschichte der böhm. Sprache und alten Literatur Die Bildsamkeit der slaw. Sprache a Deutsch-böhm. Wörterbuch compiled in collaboration with Leschk and Hanka Entwurf eines Pflanzensystems nach Zahlen und Verhältnissen Glagolitica Lehrgebäude der böhmischen Sprache Institutiones linguae slavicae dialecti veteris Entwurf zu einem allgemeinen Etymologikon der slaw. Sprachen Slowanka zur Kenntnis der slaw. Literatur a critical edition of Jordanes, De rebus Geticis, for Pertz's Monumenta Germaniae HistoricaSee Palacký, J. Dobrowskys Leben und gelehrtes Wirken. List of Jesuit scientists Josef Dobrovský Monument This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Dobrowsky, Joseph".
Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Prague Slavic Congress, 1848
The Prague Slavic Congress of 1848 took place in Prague between 2 June and 12 June 1848. It was the first occasion on which voices from all Slav populations of Europe were heard in one place. Several other Slavic Congresses were held in different central and eastern European cities over the next century; the initiative came from Pavel Jozef Šafárik and Josip Jelačić, but was organized by Czech activists František Palacký, Karl Zapp, Karel Havlíček Borovský, František Ladislav Rieger. The exact goal of the Congress was unclear as it was beginning. In addition to lacking a goal, the conference planners quarreled over the format and the agenda of the gathering; this was an indication of how difficult the conference would be for the factions to come together. Once underway, the conference met in three sections: Ukrainians; the Pole-Ukrainian section contained a combination of Ruthenes, Greater Poles, Lithuanians. Of the total 340 delegates at the Congress, the greatest number came from the Czecho-Slovak section.
237 Czecho-Slovaks participated along with 42 South Slavs and 61 Pole-Ukrainian. German was the primary language used during discussions. During the Congress, there was debate about the role of Austria in the lives of the Slavs. Dr. Josef Frič argued that the “primary goal is the preservation of Austria”, adding that the Congress “only differs on the means.” This point was disputed by Ľudovít Štúr who told the Congress, “our goal is self-preservation”. Such a disconnect was typical of the environment of this conference. One important statement did come out of the conference around 10 June, when the Manifesto to the Nations of Europe was pronounced; the statement was a worded proclamation that demanded an end to the oppression of the Slav people. The Slavs did not look for any type of revenge, but they wanted to “extend a brotherly hand to all neighbouring nations who are prepared to recognize and champion with us the full equality of all nations, irrespective of their political power or size”.
This was an important development because it indicated some sort of unity among all of the Slav people of Europe. The Congress was cut short on 12 June because of the Prague Uprising of 1848 that erupted due to Austrian garrison in Prague opened fire on a peaceful demonstration; this became known as the Whitsuntide events because of the timing during the Christian holiday of Pentecost. The delegates left in disgust and some were arrested because of the revolutionary nature of the Congress which marked a period in the history of Austria as the Bach's absolutism. Among arrested was Mikhail Bakunin who became apprehended in Dresden in 1849 for his involvement in 1848 Prague events and deported to the Russian Empire. František Palacký, Czech historian, oversaw the entire conference as president. Pavel Jozef Šafárik, from Hungary, chairman of the Czecho-Slovaks. Ľudovít Štúr, František Zach, The commission was created on the initiative of František Palacký and Mikhail Bakunin. It was discussed issues of the Polish-Ruthenian relations.
Galician Ruthenians were represented by the political organizations Supreme Ruthenian Council and Ruthenian sobor. Karol Libelt, chairman of the Poles and Ukrainians. Supreme Ruthenian Council Ruthenian sobor Stanko Vraz, Slovene-Croatian poet, vice-president of congress. Pavo Stamatović, chairman of the South Slavs. Jovan Subotić, Serbian poet and politician. Michael J. Flack; the Slav-Congresses and Pan-Slavism, 1848-1914. Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Lawrence D. Orton; the Prague Slav Congress of 1848. East European Quarterly. ISBN 978-0-914710-39-4. Horst Haselsteiner; the Prague Slav Congress 1848: Slavic Identities. East European Monographs. ISBN 978-0-88033-450-1. Polišenský, Josef: Aristocrats and the Crowd in the Revolutionary Year 1848. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1980. Jan Kozik; the Ukrainian National Movement in Galicia: 1815–1849. Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press. Slavic Congress in Prague at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine Dr. T. Mackiw. 150 YEARS AGO: The Ukrainian National Awakening in Halychyna.
The Ukrainian Weekly. November 8, 1998. Stebliy, F. I. 1848 Slavic Congress in Prague. Encyclopedia of History of Ukraine