Franz Uri Boas was a German-born American anthropologist and a pioneer of modern anthropology, called the "Father of American Anthropology". His work is associated with the movements known as Cultural Relativism. Studying in Germany, Boas was awarded a doctorate in 1881 in physics while studying geography, he participated in a geographical expedition to northern Canada, where he became fascinated with the culture and language of the Baffin Island Inuit. He went on to do field work with the indigenous languages of the Pacific Northwest. In 1887 he emigrated to the United States, where he first worked as a museum curator at the Smithsonian, in 1899 became a professor of anthropology at Columbia University, where he remained for the rest of his career. Through his students, many of whom went on to found anthropology departments and research programmes inspired by their mentor, Boas profoundly influenced the development of American anthropology. Among his most significant students were A. L. Kroeber, Ruth Benedict, Edward Sapir, Margaret Mead, Zora Neale Hurston, Gilberto Freyre and many others.
Boas was one of the most prominent opponents of the then-popular ideologies of scientific racism, the idea that race is a biological concept and that human behavior is best understood through the typology of biological characteristics. In a series of groundbreaking studies of skeletal anatomy he showed that cranial shape and size was malleable depending on environmental factors such as health and nutrition, in contrast to the claims by racial anthropologists of the day that held head shape to be a stable racial trait. Boas worked to demonstrate that differences in human behavior are not determined by innate biological dispositions but are the result of cultural differences acquired through social learning. In this way, Boas introduced culture as the primary concept for describing differences in behavior between human groups, as the central analytical concept of anthropology. Among Boas's main contributions to anthropological thought was his rejection of the then-popular evolutionary approaches to the study of culture, which saw all societies progressing through a set of hierarchic technological and cultural stages, with Western European culture at the summit.
Boas argued that culture developed through the interactions of groups of people and the diffusion of ideas and that there was no process towards continuously "higher" cultural forms. This insight led Boas to reject the "stage"-based organization of ethnological museums, instead preferring to order items on display based on the affinity and proximity of the cultural groups in question. Boas introduced the ideology of cultural relativism, which holds that cultures cannot be objectively ranked as higher or lower, or better or more correct, but that all humans see the world through the lens of their own culture, judge it according to their own culturally acquired norms. For Boas, the object of anthropology was to understand the way in which culture conditioned people to understand and interact with the world in different ways and to do this it was necessary to gain an understanding of the language and cultural practices of the people studied. By uniting the disciplines of archaeology, the study of material culture and history, physical anthropology, the study of variation in human anatomy, with ethnology, the study of cultural variation of customs, descriptive linguistics, the study of unwritten indigenous languages, Boas created the four-field subdivision of anthropology which became prominent in American anthropology in the 20th century.
Franz Boas was born on July 9, 1858, in Minden, the son of Sophie Meyer and Meier Boas. Although his grandparents were observant Jews, his parents embraced Enlightenment values, including their assimilation into modern German society. Boas's parents were educated, well-to-do, liberal. Due to this, Boas was granted the independence to pursue his own interests. Early in life, he displayed a penchant for natural sciences. Boas vocally opposed antisemitism and refused to convert to Christianity, but he did not identify himself as a Jew; this is disputed however by Ruth Bunzel, a protégée of Boas, who called him "the essential protestant. According to his biographer, "He was an'ethnic' German and promoting German culture and values in America." In an autobiographical sketch, Boas wrote: The background of my early thinking was a German home in which the ideals of the revolution of 1848 were a living force. My father, but not active in public affairs. My parents had broken through the shackles of dogma.
My father had retained an emotional affection for the ceremonial of his parental home, without allowing it to influence his intellectual freedom. From kindergarten on, Boas was educated in natural history, a subject he enjoyed. In gymnasium, he was most proud of his research on the geographic distribution of plants; when he started his university studies, Boas first attended Heidelberg University for a semester followed by four terms at Bonn University, studying physics and mathematics at these schools. In 1879, he hoped to transfer to Berlin University to study physics under Hermann von Helmholtz, but ended up transferring to the University of Kiel instead due to family reasons. At Kiel, Boas studied under Theobald Fischer and received a doctorate in physics in 1881 for his dissertation entitled Contributions to the Understanding of the Color of Water, which examined
Peter Cleall is an actors' agent and former actor, best known for playing wise-cracking Eric Duffy in the London Weekend Television comedy series Please Sir! which ran from 1968 to 1972. Cleall's father was a draughtsman, he was trained as an actor at the East 15 Acting School. He began his acting career at Watford Palace Theatre and appeared at many theatres throughout the country including a number of seasons at Regent's Park Open Air Theatre, his first screen appearance was in the horror feature Theatre of Death which starred Christopher Lee, his other film roles included Confessions of a Pop Performer, Under the Doctor, Adventures of a Plumber's Mate, the film version of Please Sir! in 1971. Cleall played at the Edinburgh Festival and on tour in a one-person show titled The World Turned Upside Down which told of the experiences of an ordinary man caught up in the aftermath of the English Civil War, he played Detective Sergeant Harrison in the BBC Radio 7 / Radio 4 Extra audio series "Detective", written by Raymond Barr.
He is married to Dione Inman with whom he has two sons and Spencer. He was married to Christine by whom he had two sons: Miles and Damian. Cleall has worked as an agent for over 20 years helping to run Pelham Associates, based in Brighton, East Sussex. D. H. Lawrence Playhouse Thirty-Minute Theatre Mickey Dunne Dixon of Dock Green The Paul Hogan Show Spooner's Patch Dempsey and Makepeace Minder Are You Being Served? Unipart TV advert': " Thousands of Parts for Millions of Cars ". Grange Hill Peak Practice A Tale of Two Cities The Bill Casualty Growing Pains Thief Takers Big Deal Till Death Us Do Part Peter Cleall on IMDb Pelham Associates
Lenin Komsomol Prize was a Soviet annual award for the best works in science, literature or art carried out by young authors of age not exceeding 33 years. Komsomol was the abbreviated name of The Communist Union of Youth; the award was instituted by the Central Committee of VLKSM in March 1966. The reason for the selection of this particular age threshold is unclear; the coincidence of the upper threshold of 33 with the "age of Christ" was a matter of jokes. Symbolically, the first winner of this award in the Soviet Union was writer Nikolay Ostrovsky. In addition to the all-Union prize, Union republics had republican versions of the prize, named e.g. Belarus Lenin Komsomol Prize, awarded by the republican Komsomol branches; the prizes were introduced as follows: In the field of science and technology - 1967. Lenin Prize