Franz Mesmer

Franz Friedrich Anton Mesmer was a German doctor with an interest in astronomy. He theorised the existence of a natural energy transference occurring between all animated and inanimate objects. Mesmer's theory attracted a wide following between about 1780 and 1850, continued to have some influence until the end of the 19th century. In 1843 the Scottish doctor James Braid proposed the term "hypnosis" for a technique derived from animal magnetism. Mesmer was born in the village of Iznang, on the shore of Lake Constance in Swabia, Germany, a son of master forester Anton Mesmer and his wife, Maria/Ursula. After studying at the Jesuit universities of Dillingen and Ingolstadt, he took up the study of medicine at the University of Vienna in 1759. In 1766 he published a doctoral dissertation with the Latin title De planetarum influxu in corpus humanum, which discussed the influence of the moon and the planets on the human body and on disease; this was not medical astrology. Building on Isaac Newton's theory of the tides, Mesmer expounded on certain tides in the human body that might be accounted for by the movements of the sun and moon.

Evidence assembled by Frank A. Pattie suggests that Mesmer plagiarized a part of his dissertation from a work by Richard Mead, an eminent English physician and Newton's friend. However, in Mesmer's day doctoral theses were not expected to be original. In January 1768, Mesmer married Anna Maria von Posch, a wealthy widow, established himself as a doctor in Vienna. In the summers he became a patron of the arts. In 1768, when court intrigue prevented the performance of La finta semplice, for which the twelve-year-old Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart had composed 500 pages of music, Mesmer is said to have arranged a performance in his garden of Mozart's Bastien und Bastienne, a one-act opera, though Mozart's biographer Nissen found no proof that this performance took place. Mozart immortalized his former patron by including a comedic reference to Mesmer in his opera Così fan tutte. In 1774, Mesmer produced an "artificial tide" in a patient, Francisca Österlin, who suffered from hysteria, by having her swallow a preparation containing iron and attaching magnets to various parts of her body.

She reported feeling streams of a mysterious fluid running through her body and was relieved of her symptoms for several hours. Mesmer did not believe, he felt that he had contributed animal magnetism, which had accumulated to her. He soon stopped using magnets as a part of his treatment. In the same year Mesmer collaborated with Maximilian Hell. In 1775, Mesmer was invited to give his opinion before the Munich Academy of Sciences on the exorcisms carried out by Johann Joseph Gassner, a priest and healer who grew up in Vorarlberg, Austria. Mesmer said that while Gassner was sincere in his beliefs, his cures resulted because he possessed a high degree of animal magnetism; this confrontation between Mesmer's secular ideas and Gassner's religious beliefs marked the end of Gassner's career as well as, according to Henri Ellenberger, the emergence of dynamic psychiatry. The scandal that followed Mesmer's only partial success in curing the blindness of an 18-year-old musician, Maria Theresia Paradis, led him to leave Vienna in 1777.

In February 1778 Mesmer moved to Paris, rented an apartment in a part of the city preferred by the wealthy and powerful, established a medical practice. There he would reunite with Mozart who visited him. Paris soon divided into those who thought he was a charlatan, forced to flee from Vienna and those who thought he had made a great discovery. In his first years in Paris, Mesmer tried and failed to get either the Royal Academy of Sciences or the Royal Society of Medicine to provide official approval for his doctrines, he found only one physician of high professional and social standing, Charles d'Eslon, to become a disciple. In 1779, with d'Eslon's encouragement, Mesmer wrote an 88-page book, Mémoire sur la découverte du magnétisme animal, to which he appended his famous 27 Propositions; these propositions outlined his theory at that time. Some contemporary scholars equate Mesmer’s animal magnetism with the Qi of Traditional Chinese Medicine and mesmerism with medical Qigong practices. According to d'Eslon, Mesmer understood health as the free flow of the process of life through thousands of channels in our bodies.

Illness was caused by obstacles to this flow. Overcoming these obstacles and restoring flow produced crises, which restored health; when Nature failed to do this spontaneously, contact with a conductor of animal magnetism was a necessary and sufficient remedy. Mesmer aimed to provoke the efforts of Nature. To cure an insane person, for example, involved causing a fit of madness; the advantage of magnetism involved accelerating such crises without danger. Mesmer treated patients both individually and in groups. With individuals he would sit in front of his patient with his knees touching the patient's knees, pressing the patient's thumbs in his hands, looking fixedly into the patient's eyes. Mesmer made "passes", he pressed his fingers on the patient's hypochondrium region, sometimes holding his hands there for hours. Many patients felt peculiar sensations or had convulsions that were regarded as crises and s

Kathryn Eames

Kathryn Eames was an American cinema and stage actress. She worked for more than 50 years as an actress. Eames was the youngest daughter of Katie Bridenstine, who had four more children, she grew up in Kansas. As a child she would be in every play, her mother, who gave poetry readings, painted china and theorems, insisted that each of her children learn a musical instrument. Kathryn learned how to play the violin, something which she'd keep doing, with the violin she was given as a child by her father, until she was old; as a young bride she had an automobile accident, recuperating from which gave her some extra time to enroll in classes at the University of Arizona where she chose drama, thinking she might enjoy writing a play someday. Instead, she moved into acting. In 1940, she won the National Collegiate Players Award for her portrayal of Lillom in The Typewriter; the award included a chance to train in White Plains, New York with Madam Tamara Daykarhanova and Michael Chekhov who gave her a scholarship to continue study in the fall.

Kathryn chose her mother's maiden name for her stage name, packed her bags, left home to pursue her acting career. Her first professional appearance was in the Broadway production of Winged Victory. For over 50 years, she appeared on Broadway, Off Broadway, on radio and film, she worked in stock packages, dinner theatre and industrial shows. She had a role in Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler Theatre, her last work in Broadway and theatre was in Democracy and Esther at the Triangle Theater. She continued to act in plays such as The Last Resort well into her 80s. Kathryn toured in The Cat and the Canary, Anniversary Waltz, Marat/Sade, Morning's at Seven which played in Stephens Auditorium at Iowa State University, she was a guest artist in various university productions including Henry IV, Le Roi se meurt, Ah! Wilderness, she was able to work with quite a few notable actors during her career. Eames worked with Groucho Marx, who would always ask her to play opposite him whenever he performed in Time for Elizabeth.

She played with Shirley Booth in The Torchbearers, with George Montgomery in Toys in the Attic and with Rita Moreno in I Am a Camera. She was featured with Kaye Ballard, Eddie Bracken, Tom Ewell, Virginia Mayo, Ian Keith, Robert Alda and Gloria DeHaven. Kathryn returned to Iowa State University, where a theatre scholarship would be established in her name, in 1992 as artist in residence. There she taught students how working in television. Kathryn died at age 96 on December 2004 in a nursing home in Joplin, Missouri, she was cremated and her ashes were placed with her brother's in Rose Hills Memorial Park in Whittier, California. She was a member of the Screen Actors Guild and the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists, her residence was an apartment in New York City. Despite the fact that she did not have many major roles, she could support herself entirely through acting because of her unusual versatility and willingness to explore new avenues for performance as well as the discipline and energy she gave to her work.

Age wasn't something. In her 60s, she enrolled in tap dancing lessons and in her 70s, she took French lessons. Kathryn appeared in the following cinema movies: Coop The Big Heat - Marge Diary of a Mad Housewife Roseland Starlight: A Musical Movie - Louise These are the stage plays in which Kathryn worked: Ah! Wilderness Anniversary Waltz Beyond the Horizon Book of Job Church Street Democracy and Esther Escape Me Never Henry IV, Part 1 Henry IV, Part 2 Home Room" Hot House" I Am a Camera In White America Lamp at Midnight Le Roi se meurt Marat/Sade Morning's at Seven Portrait of a Madonna The Brothel The Cat and the Canary The Last Resort - Isabel The Torchbearers Time for Elizabeth Toys in the Attic Winged Victory She acted in the following television productions: Another World Armstrong Theater Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler Theatre, chapter "Time for Elizabeth" - Kay Davis Day in Court I Spy Lamp Unto My Feet Look Up and Live Love of Life Loving Sgt. Bilko The Secret Storm

Hudson Bay Industrial, Saskatoon

Hudson Bay Industrial Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, is in the Northwest section of the North West Industrial SDA. Now named Hudson Bay Industrial, in the early days of the Saskatoon's history, the area between 56th Street and 60th Street was to have been Swastika Park; until the late 1990s, the area was part of the North Industrial subdivision until the City of Saskatoon redesignated the lands north of 51st Street and south of 60th Street with this new name. Hudson Bay Industrial subdivision consists of industrial and retail development. 60th Street is the northernmost perimeter, 51st the southernmost. The streets are run east and west. Wanuskewin Road and the CNR mark the eastern boundary. Idylwyld Drive delimits the eastern edge; the road names of this industrial subdivision honour pioneers of Saskatoon. There are a number of restaurants serving this industrial area lining 51st Street, some of these are A&W Restaurants, Taco Time, Extreme Pita, Boston Pizza, Wendy's, Tim Hortons to name a few; this arterial retail street hosts shops such as Peavey Mart.

List of shopping malls in Saskatoon Between Tubby Crescent and English crescent are the Rugby fields Saskatchewan Highway 11, Louis Riel Trail, or Idylwyld Drive connects three main Saskatchewan cities: Regina and Prince Albert. Saskatoon Transit Neighbourhood Profiles Saskatoon Neighbourhoods Word Search Puzzle City of Saskatoon · Departments · Community Services · Community... City of Saskatoon · Departments · Community Services · City Planning · ZAM Maps Populace Spring 2006