Vienna Literary Agreement
The Vienna Literary Agreement was the result of a meeting held in March 1850, when writers from Croatia and one from Slovenia met to discuss the extent to which their literatures could be conjoined and united, to standardize a Serbo-Croatian language. The agreement recognized the commonality of South Slavic dialects and enumerated a basic set of grammar rules which they shared; the first half of 19th century proved to be a turning point in Illyrian language conceptions. Around this time, Illyrians held individual debates with their opponents, Zagreb, as the center of Croatian cultural and literary life, served as a stronghold for their implementation and propagation. However, with the years some of their adherents came to recognize the infeasibility of linguistic and literary unification of all South Slavs, realizing that the only real option left would be the creation of a common literary language for Croats and Serbs, which have in common both the Shtokavian dialect and Ijekavian accent.
In March 1850, the meeting was organized and attended by the self-taught Serbian linguist and folklorist Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, his close follower Đuro Daničić. General guidelines for the conceived development of the common literary language for Croats and Serbs were agreed on; the signatories agreed on five points: They decided not to merge existing dialects, instead creating a new one, that they should, following German and Italian models, pick one of the peoples' dialects and choose this as the literary basis according to which all text would be written. They unanimously accepted the selection of the "southern dialect" as the common literary language for all Serbs and Croats, to write ije where this dialect had the disyllabic reflex of long jat, je, e, or i where the reflex is monosyllabic. In order to ascertain where the aforementioned dialect has two syllables and where only one, Vuk Karadžić was asked to write "general rules for the southern dialect" on this issue, which he did, they agreed that Serbian and Montenegrin writers should write h everywhere it belongs etymologically, as Croatian writers do, as some people in southern regions use in speech.
They all agreed that the genitive plurals of nouns and adjectives should not have h at the end because it doesn't belong there by etymology, because it is not necessary as a distinction from other cases in the paradigm, because many writers don't write it at all. It was agreed that before syllabic /r/, one should write neither a or e as some Croatian writers do, but only r, such as in the word prst, because this is the spoken form, the much more prevalent written form elsewhere. During the second half of the 19th century, these conclusions were publicly called a "declaration" or "statement"; the title Vienna Literary Agreement dates from the 20th century. The Vienna Literary Agreement was variously interpreted and referred to throughout the history of Croats and Serbs. During the history of the Yugoslavias the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the official doctrine was that the agreement set firm grounds for the final codification of the Croatian language and the Serbian language that soon followed.
With the advent of national standard languages, i.e. Bosnian and Serbian in the 1990s, criticism emerged on the relevance of the agreement. For example, according to Malić, the event had no critical influence for the Croatian cultural milieu, but "managed to indicate developmental tendencies in the formation of the Croatian literary language which won out by the end of the century". Malić argues that it was only during the 20th century, in the framework of "unitarist language conceptions and language policy", that the meeting was given critical influence in the formation of a common Croatian and Serbian literary language. Since the agreement was not organized, no one was bound by it, thus it was not accepted by either the Croatian or the Serbian press. Croatia still had a lively Illyrian conception of language, the conservative Serbian cultural milieu was not ready to accept Karadžić's views of folk language being literary, it was only in 1868 that his reform was accepted in Serbia, not to a complete extent, urban colloquial speech was tacitly given great influence in forming the standard language.
Novi Sad Agreement Serbo-Croatian language Illyrian movement Malić, Dragica, "Razvoj hrvatskog književnog jezika", Hrvatska gramatika, Zagreb: Školska knjiga, pp. 30–31, ISBN 953-0-40010-1
Jernej Bartol Kopitar was a Slovene linguist and philologist working in Vienna. He worked as the Imperial censor for Slovene literature in Vienna, he is best known for his role in the Serbian language reform started by Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, where he played a vital role in supporting the reform by using his reputation and influence as a Slavic philologist. Kopitar was born in the small Carniolan village of Repnje near Vodice, in what was the Habsburg Monarchy and is now in Slovenia. After graduating from the lyceum in Ljubljana, he became a private teacher in the house of baron Sigmund Zois, a renowned entrepreneur and patron of arts. Kopitar became Zois' personal secretary and librarian. During this period, he became acquainted with the circle of Enlightenment intellectuals that gathered in Zois' mansion, such as the playwright and historian Anton Tomaž Linhart, the poet and editor Valentin Vodnik, philologist Jurij Japelj. In 1808, he moved to Vienna. At the same time, he developed an interest in the comparative analysis of the Slavic languages, to which he would devote all his life.
He became employed as a librarian and an administrator at the Vienna Court Library. He become the chief censor for books written in Slavic languages and Modern Greek. Among European linguists, he was considered a valued thinker. Important is his correspondence with the Bohemian philologist Josef Dobrovský, his spiritual father, with the Serbian philologist Vuk Karadžić. In 1808, he wrote in German and published the first scientific Slovene grammar, titled Grammatik der Slavischen Sprache in Krain, Kärnten und Steyermark. In his work Glagolita Clozianus, he published the first critically revised and annotated version of the Freising Manuscripts, the oldest known work in Slovene and the first work in any Slavic language written in the Latin alphabet. In the same work, he advanced the Pannonian Theory of the development of Common Slavic - a theory, now in vogue again through modern paleolinguistics studies and archeology. Under the influence of the efforts of a group of contemporary Carinthian Slovene philologists Urban Jarnik and Matija Ahacel, Kopitar sought to educate a new generation of linguists who would develop grammars and textbooks, advocate orthographic reform, collect folk literature.
Due to these efforts, he was given a chair in Slovene at the Ljubljana Lyceum in 1817. In the early 1830s, Kopitar became involved in the Slovene Alphabet War, a debate over orthographic reform, he supported radical reforms of the old Bohorič alphabet, advanced first by Peter Dajnko and by Franc Serafin Metelko. Kopitar's main opponent in the conflict was the philologist Matija Čop. Čop convinced the renowned Czech scholar František Čelakovský to publish a devastating critique on the proposed alphabet reforms, which undermined Kopitar's authority. The issue was resolved with the compromise adoption of Gaj's Latin alphabet. Čop and Kopitar disagreed on the issue of whether the Slovenes should develop their own national culture. Kopitar favored gradual evolution towards a common literary language for all South Slavic peoples, with Slovene dialects remaining the colloquial language of the peasantry. Čop, on the other hand, insisted on the creation of a high culture in Slovene that would follow contemporary literary trends.
One of the main supporters of Čop's project, the poet France Prešeren criticized Kopitar's views, which led to frequent confrontations between the two. Politically, Kopitar was a supporter of Austroslavism, a doctrine aimed at the unity of Slavic peoples within the Austrian Empire, he was a staunch conservative, supporter of the Metternich regime, with a paternalistic approach to the peasant culture. On the other side, Čop and Prešeren emphasized on the cultivation of the Slovene language as the means for the emergence of a lay Slovene intelligentsia that would foster and develop a specific Slovene identity within the framework of Slavic solidarity. After the Alphabet War in the 1830s, Kopitar's political and cultural influence in his native Slovene Lands diminished significantly. At the same time, however, he gained influence among other South Slavic intelligentsia the Serbian one, he influenced Vuk Stefanović Karadžić in forming a new standard for the Serbian literary language based on common use..
Kopitar died in Vienna on 11 August 1844 with Karadžić standing at his deathbed. His gravestone is displayed in the Navje Cemetery in Ljubljana, at the edge of the former St. Christopher's Cemetery. A neighbourhood in Belgrade, the capital of Serbia, called Kopitareva Gradina, is named after him. Lencek, Rado. To Honor Jernej Kopitar 1780-1980. Papers in Slavic Philology, no. 2. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1982. Merchiers, Ingrid. Cultural nationalism in the South Slav Habsburg lands in the early nineteenth century: the scholarly network of Jernej Kopitar. Munich: Sagner, 2007. Mario Grčević. Jernej Kopitar as a strategist of Karadžić’s reform of the literary language/Jernej Kopitar kao strateg Karadžićeve književnojezične reforme. Filologija 53, 2009. "Kopitar, Bartholomæus". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920
Austrian Academy of Sciences
The Austrian Academy of Sciences is a legal entity under the special protection of the Republic of Austria. According to the statutes of the Academy its mission is to promote the sciences and humanities in every respect and in every field in fundamental research. In 1713, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz suggested to establish an Academy, inspired by the Royal Society and the Académie des Sciences; the "Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien" was established by Imperial Patent on May 14, 1847. The academy soon began extensive research. In the humanities the academy started with researching and publishing important historical sources of Austria. Research in natural sciences covered a wide variety of topics; the 1921 federal law guaranteed the legal basis of the academy in the newly founded First Republic of Austria. From the mid-1960s onwards it became the country's leading institution in the field of non-university basic research; the academy is a learned society, its past members have included Theodor Billroth, Ludwig Boltzmann, Christian Doppler, Anton Eiselsberg, Otto Hittmair, Paul Kretschmer, Hans Horst Meyer, Albert Anton von Muchar, Julius von Schlosser, Roland Scholl, Eduard Suess and the Nobel Prize winners Julius Wagner-Jauregg, Victor Hess, Erwin Schrödinger and Konrad Lorenz.
The academy operates 28 research institutes. In 2012, a reorganization prompted the outsourcing of various institutes to universities as well as mergers; the academy's institutes are split into two major divisions, one for mathematics and natural sciences and one for humanities and social sciences. In the field of humanities, there are the Institute for the Study of Ancient Culture, well known for the analysis of excavation results in Carnuntum and Ephesos, the Institute for Interdisciplinary Mountain Research, focusing on montology, the Institute of Culture Studies and Theatre History, the Vienna Institute of Demography, among others. Facilities that focus on natural sciences include the Institute of Molecular Biotechnology, the Gregor Mendel Institute, the Institute of Molecular Biology, the Research Center for Molecular Medicine, the Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, the Acoustics Research Institute and the Space Research Institute. During his term as president of the academy, Werner Welzig initiated the establishment of the Galerie der Forschung.
In 2005 the Gallery organised its pilot event "Mapping controversies: the case of the genetically modified food", staged in the Alte Aula in Vienna. The academy publishes Medieval Worlds: Comparative & Interdisciplinary Studies, a biannual peer-reviewed open-access academic journal covering Medieval studies, its main scope is the time period from 400 to 1500 CE, with a focus on Europe and North Africa. The founding editors-in-chief are Andre Gingrich; the journal was established in 2015 with initial funding of the Austrian Science Fund. Other publications are the Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum and eco.mont – Journal on Protected Mountain Areas Research and Management. Official website
University of Vienna
The University of Vienna is a public university located in Vienna, Austria. It is the oldest university in the German-speaking world. With its long and rich history, the University of Vienna has developed into one of the largest universities in Europe, one of the most renowned in the Humanities, it is associated with 20 Nobel prize winners and has been the academic home to a large number of scholars of historical as well as of academic importance. The University was founded on 12 March 1365 by Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, his two brothers, Dukes Albert III and Leopold III, hence the additional name "Alma Mater Rudolphina". After the Charles University in Prague and Jagiellonian University in Kraków, the University of Vienna is the third oldest university in Central Europe and the oldest university in the contemporary German-speaking world; the University of Vienna was modelled after the University of Paris. However, Pope Urban V did not ratify the deed of foundation, sanctioned by Rudolf IV in relation to the department of theology.
This was due to pressure exerted by Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, who wished to avoid competition for the Charles University in Prague. Approval was received from the Pope in 1384 and the University of Vienna was granted the status of a full university, including the Faculty of Catholic Theology; the first university building opened in 1385. It grew into the biggest university of the Holy Roman Empire, during the advent of Humanism in the mid-15th century was home to more than 6,000 students. In its early years, the university had a hierarchical cooperative structure, in which the Rector was at the top, while the students had little say and were settled at the bottom; the Magister and Doctors constituted the four faculties and elected the academic officials from amidst their ranks. The students, but all other Supposita, were divided into four Academic Nations, their elected board members graduates themselves, had the right to elect the Rector. He presided over the Consistory which included procurators of each of the nations and the faculty deans, as well as over the University Assembly, in which all university teachers participated.
Complaints or appeals against decisions of faculty by the students had to be brought forward by a Magister or Doctor. Being considered a Papal Institution, the university suffered quite a setback during the Reformation. In addition, the first Siege of Vienna by Ottoman forces had devastating effects on the city, leading to a sharp decline, with only 30 students enrolled at the lowest point. For King Ferdinand I, this meant that the university should be tied to the church to an stronger degree, in 1551 he installed the Jesuit Order there. With the enacting of the Sanctio Pragmatica edict by emperor Ferdinand II in 1623, the Jesuits took over teaching at the theological and philosophical faculty, thus the university became a stronghold of Catholicism for over 150 years, it was only in the Mid-18th century that Empress Maria Theresa forced the university back under control of the monarchy. Her successor Joseph II helped in the further reform of the university, allowing both Protestants and Jews to enroll as well as introducing German as the compulsory language of instruction.
Big changes were instituted in the wake of the Revolution in 1848, with the Philosophical Faculty being upgraded into equal status as Theology and Medicine. Led by the reforms of Leopold, Count von Thun und Hohenstein, the university was able to achieve a larger degree of academic freedom; the current main building on the Ringstraße was built between 1884 by Heinrich von Ferstel. The previous main building was located close to the Stuben Gate on Iganz Seipel Square, current home of the old University Church and the Austrian Academy of Sciences. Women were admitted as full students from 1897; the remaining departments followed suit, although with considerable delay: Medicine in 1900, Law in 1919, Protestant Theology in 1923 and Roman Catholic Theology in 1946. Ten years after the admission of the first female students, Elise Richter became the first woman to receive habilitation, becoming professor of Romance Languages in 1907. In the late 1920s, the university was in steady turmoil because of anti-democratic and anti-Semitic activity by parts of the student body.
Professor Moritz Schlick was killed by a former student while ascending the steps of the University for a class. His murderer was released by the Nazi Regime. Following the Anschluss, the annexation of Austria into Greater Germany by the Nazi regime, in 1938 the University of Vienna was reformed under political aspects and a huge number of teachers and students were dismissed for political and "racial" reasons. In April 1945, the 22-year-old Kurt Schubert acknowledged doyen of Judaic Studies at the University of Vienna, was permitted by the Soviet occupation forces to open the university again for teaching, why he is regarded as the unofficial first rector in the post-war period. On 25 April 1945, the constitutional lawyer Ludwig Adamovich senior was elected as official rector of the University of Vienna. A large degree of participation by students and university staff was realized in 1975, however the University Reforms of 1993 and 2002 re-established the professors as the main decision makers.
However as part of the last refo
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world, it holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer. The press mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education and research at the highest international levels of excellence". Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries, its publishing includes academic journals, reference works and English language teaching and learning publications. Cambridge University Press is a charitable enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press.
It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses. Authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, Stephen Hawking. University printing began in Cambridge when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house on the site of what became the Senate House lawn – a few yards from where the press's bookshop now stands. In those days, the Stationers' Company in London jealously guarded its monopoly of printing, which explains the delay between the date of the university's letters patent and the printing of the first book. In 1591, Thomas's successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, an octavo edition of the popular Geneva Bible; the London Stationers objected strenuously. The university's response was to point out the provision in its charter to print "all manner of books".
Thus began the press's tradition of publishing the Bible, a tradition that has endured for over four centuries, beginning with the Geneva Bible, continuing with the Authorized Version, the Revised Version, the New English Bible and the Revised English Bible. The restrictions and compromises forced upon Cambridge by the dispute with the London Stationers did not come to an end until the scholar Richard Bentley was given the power to set up a'new-style press' in 1696. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and presse" and James Halman, Registrary of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose, it was in Bentley's time, in 1698, that a body of senior scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the press's affairs. The Press Syndicate's publishing committee still meets and its role still includes the review and approval of the press's planned output. John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century.
Baskerville's concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design and printing techniques. Baskerville wrote, "The importance of the work demands all my attention. Caxton would have found nothing to surprise him if he had walked into the press's printing house in the eighteenth century: all the type was still being set by hand. A technological breakthrough was badly needed, it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates; this involved making a mould of the whole surface of a page of type and casting plates from that mould. The press was the first to use this technique, in 1805 produced the technically successful and much-reprinted Cambridge Stereotype Bible. By the 1850s the press was using steam-powered machine presses, employing two to three hundred people, occupying several buildings in the Silver Street and Mill Lane area, including the one that the press still occupies, the Pitt Building, built for the press and in honour of William Pitt the Younger.
Under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks. During Clay's administration, the press undertook a sizeable co-publishing venture with Oxford: the Revised Version of the Bible, begun in 1870 and completed in 1885, it was in this period as well that the Syndics of the press turned down what became the Oxford English Dictionary—a proposal for, brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. The appointment of R. T. Wright as Secretary of the Press Syndicate in 1892 marked the beginning of the press's development as a modern publishing business with a defined editorial policy and administrative structure, it was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories. The Cambridge Modern History was published
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
The Slovenes known as Slovenians, are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Slovenia, to Italy and Hungary in addition to having a diaspora throughout the world. Slovenes share a common ancestry, culture and speak Slovene as their native language. Most Slovenes today live within the borders of the independent Slovenia. In the Slovenian national census of 2002, 1,631,363 people ethnically declared themselves as Slovenes, while 1,723,434 people claimed Slovene as their native language; the autochthonous Slovenian minority in Italy is estimated at 83,000 to 100,000, the Slovene minority in southern Austria at 24,855, in Croatia at 13,200, in Hungary at 3,180. Significant Slovene expatriate communities live in the United States and Canada, in other European countries, in Argentina, in Australia; the largest population of Slovenes outside of Slovenia is in Ohio. In total 39-36% of 399-458 sampled Slovenian males belong to Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a, more frequent than in South Slavic peoples, constituting 41% in the capital region and greater in some regions.
Slovenian population displays close genetic affiliations with West Slavic populations. The homogenous genetic strata of the West Slavic populations and the Slovenian population suggest the existence of a common ancestral Slavic population in central European region; the M458 branch constitutes 4%, while the dominant clade is Z280 its R1a-CTS3402 clade, the same as that of their Slavic and not Slavic neighbours. The Z92 branch of Z280, significant among East Slavs is recorded as absent among Slovenes. Of 100 sampled Slovenians, 18% belong to R1b, of which 8% of R1b belongs to the P312 branch, 6% to the eastern and 4% to U106; the Dinaric-North haplotypes of I2a1b are with overwhelming higher frequency than Dinaric-South in regions with high frequency. In the 6th century AD, Slavic people settled the region between the Alps and the Adriatic Sea in two consecutive migration waves: the first wave came from the Moravian lands around 550, while the second wave, coming from the southeast, moved in after the retreat of the Lombards to Italy in 568.
From 623 to 658 Slavic peoples between the upper Elbe River and the Karavanke mountain range united under the leadership of King Samo in what was to become known as "Samo's Tribal Union". The tribal union collapsed after Samo's death in 658, but a smaller Slavic tribal principality, remained, with its centre in the present-day region of Carinthia. Faced with the pressing danger of Avar tribes from the east, the Carantanians accepted a union with Bavaria in 745, in the 8th century recognized Frankish rule and accepted Christianity; the last Slavic state formation in the region, the principality of Prince Kocel, lost its independence in 874. Slovene ethnic territory subsequently shrank due to pressure from Germans from the west and the arrival of Hungarians in the Pannonian plain; the first mentions of a common Slovene ethnic identity, transcending regional boundaries, date from the 16th century. During this period, the first books in Slovene were written by the Protestant preacher Primož Trubar and his followers, establishing the base for the development of standard Slovene.
In the second half of the 16th century, numerous books were printed in Slovene, including an integral translation of the Bible by Jurij Dalmatin. At the beginning of the 17th century, Protestantism was suppressed by the Habsburg-sponsored Counter Reformation, which introduced the new aesthetics of Baroque culture; the Enlightenment in the Habsburg monarchy brought significant social and cultural progress to the Slovene people. It facilitated the appearance of a middle class. Under the reign of Maria Theresa and Emperor Joseph II many reforms were undertaken in the administration and society, including land reforms, the modernization of the Church and compulsory primary education in Slovene; the start of cultural-linguistic activities by Slovene intellectuals of the time brought about a national revival and the birth of the Slovene nation in the modern sense of the word. Before the Napoleonic Wars, some secular literature in Slovene emerged. During the same period, the first history of the Slovene Lands as an ethnic unity was written by Anton Tomaž Linhart, while Jernej Kopitar compiled the first comprehensive grammar of Slovene.
Between 1809 and 1813, Slovenia was part of the Illyrian Provinces, an autonomous province of the Napoleonic French Empire, with Ljubljana as the capital. Although the French rule was short-lived, it contributed to the rise of national consciousness and political awareness of Slovenes. After the fall of Napoleon, all Slovene Lands were once again included in the Austrian Empire. A distinct Slovene national consciousness developed, the quest for a political unification of all Slovenes became widespread. In the 1820s and 1840s, the interest in Slovene language and folklore grew enormously, with numerous philologists advancing the first steps towards a standardization of the language. Illyrian movement, Pan-Slavic and Austro-Slavic ideas gained importance. However, the intellectual circle around the philologist Matija Čop and the Romantic poet France Prešeren was influential in affirming the idea of Slovene linguistic and cultural individuality, refusing the idea of merging Slovenes into a wider Slavic nation.
In the 1840s, the Slovene national movement developed far beyond literary expression. In 1848, the first Slovene national political programme, called United Slovenia, was wr