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Franz Schubert

Franz Peter Schubert was an Austrian composer of the late Classical and early Romantic eras. Despite his short lifetime, Schubert left behind a vast oeuvre, including more than 600 secular vocal works, seven complete symphonies, sacred music, incidental music and a large body of piano and chamber music, his major works include the Piano Quintet in A major, D. 667, the Symphony No. 8 in B minor, D. 759, the ”Great” Symphony No. 9 in C major, D. 944, the three last piano sonatas, the opera Fierrabras, the incidental music to the play Rosamunde, the song cycles Die schöne Müllerin and Winterreise. Born in the Himmelpfortgrund suburb of Vienna, Schubert's uncommon gifts for music were evident from an early age, his father gave him his first violin lessons and his older brother gave him piano lessons, but Schubert soon exceeded their abilities. In 1808, at the age of eleven, he became a pupil at the Stadtkonvikt school, where he became acquainted with the orchestral music of Haydn and Beethoven.

He left the Stadtkonvikt at the end of 1813, returned home to live with his father, where he began studying to become a schoolteacher. In 1821, Schubert was granted admission to the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde as a performing member, which helped establish his name among the Viennese citizenry, he gave a concert of his own works to critical acclaim in March 1828, the only time he did so in his career. He died eight months at the age of 31, the cause attributed to typhoid fever, but believed by some historians to be syphilis. Appreciation of Schubert's music while he was alive was limited to a small circle of admirers in Vienna, but interest in his work increased in the decades following his death. Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann, Franz Liszt, Johannes Brahms and other 19th-century composers discovered and championed his works. Today, Schubert is ranked among the greatest composers of Western classical music and his music continues to be popular. Franz Peter Schubert was born in Himmelpfortgrund, Archduchy of Austria on 31 January 1797, baptised in the Catholic Church the following day.

He was the twelfth child of Maria Elisabeth Katharina Vietz. Schubert's immediate ancestors came from the province of Zuckmantel in Austrian Silesia, his father, the son of a Moravian peasant, was a well-known parish schoolmaster, his school in Lichtental had numerous students in attendance. He was appointed schoolmaster two years later, his mother was the daughter of a Silesian master locksmith and had been a housemaid for a Viennese family before marriage. Of Franz Theodor and Elisabeth's fourteen children, nine died in infancy. At the age of five, Schubert began to receive regular instruction from his father, a year was enrolled at his father's school. Although it is not known when Schubert received his first musical instruction, he was given piano lessons by his brother Ignaz, but they lasted for a short time as Schubert excelled him within a few months. Ignaz recalled: I was amazed when Franz told me, a few months after we began, that he had no need of any further instruction from me, that for the future he would make his own way.

And in truth his progress in a short period was so great that I was forced to acknowledge in him a master who had distanced and out stripped me, whom I despaired of overtaking. His father gave him his first violin lessons when he was eight years old, training him to the point where he could play easy duets proficiently. Soon after, Schubert was given his first lessons outside the family by Michael Holzer and choirmaster of the local parish church in Lichtental. Holzer would assure Schubert's father, with tears in his eyes, that he had never had such a pupil as Schubert, the lessons may have consisted of conversations and expressions of admiration. Holzer gave the young Schubert instruction in organ as well as in figured bass. According to Holzer, however, he did not give him any real instruction as Schubert would know anything that he tried to teach him; the boy seemed to gain more from an acquaintance with a friendly apprentice joiner who took him to a neighbouring pianoforte warehouse where Schubert could practise on better instruments.

He played viola in the family string quartet, with his brothers Ferdinand and Ignaz on first and second violin and his father on the cello. Schubert wrote his earliest string quartets for this ensemble. Young Schubert first came to the attention of Antonio Salieri Vienna's leading musical authority, in 1804, when his vocal talent was recognised. In November 1808, he became a pupil at the Stadtkonvikt through a choir scholarship. At the Stadtkonvikt, he was introduced to the overtures and symphonies of Mozart, the symphonies of Joseph Haydn and his younger brother Michael Haydn, the overtures and symphonies of Beethoven, a composer for whom he developed a significant admiration, his exposure to these and other works, combined with occasional visits to the opera, laid the foundation for a broader musical education. One important musical influence came from the songs by Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg, an important composer of lieder; the precocious young student "wanted to modernize" Zumsteeg's songs, as re

University Entrance Examination

The University Entrance Examination is an academic examination administered to 10th standard students at all schools in Myanmar, including government schools, comprehensive schools and private boarding schools, for students seeking university admission. The test is administered at least 3 weeks after the Basic Education High School Examination. Test results determine the eligibility of high school students to pursue higher education, their entrance into select universities and majors; the current college admission system is being revised by the Ministry of Education. Beginning in the 2015-16 academic year, students will be able to sit for entrance exams at the universities of their choice. Further, students will be allowed to retake such exams; the University Entrance Examination is administered by the Board of Examinations. Each year, there are eleven question papers of equal format for Burmese regions; the system of eleven test papers per year was adopted in 2001-02 to prevent the leakage of some questions prior to the exam administration.

In Yangon, sales of alcohol are banned during matriculation exam administration. Students from government high schools and comprehensive schools can register for the examinations internally by the guidelines of school teachers, although students from private boarding schools have to register for the exams externally themselves. Students who attend international English-language schools or other private schools are not eligible to sit for the matriculation exam, nor are they allowed to enroll in Burmese universities. Over 500,000 students take part in these exams annually, which take place in mid-March each year, with results released at testing sites throughout the country in June. In 2019, 851,570 students partook in the examination. Students are administered a combination of 6 tests depending on their track: arts and arts and sciences; the subjects offered are Myanmar, Mathematics, Physics, History, Geography and Optional Myanmar. Each subject examination is 3 hours long. High marks in a subject garner a distinction known as gondu.

Students who achieve distinctions in five or more subjects are guaranteed placement in one of Myanmar's medical universities, the most selective of universities. In recent years, the combined score of students who receive 5 subject distinctions has been above 500 out of 600; the scores of students at remote testing sites are announced via shortwave radio. In 2009, 30% of students who participated received passing marks; the pass rate in 2015 was 37.6%, a 7% increase from 2014. In 2018, the national pass rate was 32.82%. Education in Burma Myanmar University Entrance Examination

Crystal earpiece

A crystal earpiece is a type of piezoelectric earphone, producing sound by using a piezoelectric crystal, a material that changes its shape when electricity is applied to it. It is designed to plug into the ear canal of the user. A crystal earpiece consists of a piezoelectric crystal with metal electrodes attached to either side, glued to a conical plastic or metal foil diaphragm, enclosed in a plastic case; the piezoelectric material used in early crystal earphones was Rochelle salt, but modern earphones use barium titanate, or less quartz. When the audio signal is applied to the electrodes, the crystal bends back and forth a little with the signal, vibrating the diaphragm; the diaphragm pushes on the air. The plastic earpiece casing confines the sound waves and conducts them efficiently into the ear canal, to the eardrum; the diaphragm is fixed at its outer edge, relying on bending to operate. The air path in the earpiece is a horn shape, with a narrowing column of air which increases the air displacement at the eardrum, increasing the volume.

Crystal earpieces are monaural devices with low sound fidelity, but high sensitivity and impedance. Their peak use was with 1960s era transistor radios and hearing aids, they are not used with modern portable media players due to unacceptable sound quality. The main causes of poor performance with these earpieces are low diaphragm excursion, nonlinearity, in-band resonance and the short horn shape of the earpiece casing; the resulting sound is tinny and lacking in bass. Modern headphones use electromagnetic drivers that work to speakers, with moving coils or moving iron cores in a magnetic field. One remaining use for crystal earpieces is in crystal radios, their high sensitivity enables them to use the weak signals produced by crystal radios, their high impedance is a good match for the typical crystal radio. They have been used as microphones, with their high output requiring less amplification