Friendship is a relationship of mutual affection between people. Friendship is a stronger form of interpersonal bond than an association. Friendship has been studied in academic fields such as communication, social psychology and philosophy. Various academic theories of friendship have been proposed, including social exchange theory, equity theory, relational dialectics, attachment styles. Although there are many forms of friendship, some of which may vary from place to place, certain characteristics are present in many types of such bonds; such characteristics include affection. Friendship is an essential aspect of relationship building skills; the understanding of friendship in children tends to be more focused on areas such as common activities, physical proximity, shared expectations. These friendships provide opportunity for practicing self-regulation. Most children tend to describe friendship in terms of things like sharing, children are more to share with someone they consider to be a friend.
As children mature, they are more aware of others. They gain the ability to empathize with their friends, enjoy playing in groups, they experience peer rejection as they move through the middle childhood years. Establishing good friendships at a young age helps a child to be better acclimated in society on in their life. Based upon the reports of teachers and mothers, 75% of preschool children had at least one friend; this figure rose to 78% through the fifth grade, as measured by co-nomination as friends, 55% had a mutual best friend. About 15% of children were found to be chronically friendless, reporting periods without mutual friends at least six months. Potential benefits of friendship include the opportunity to learn about problem solving. Coaching from parents can be useful in helping children to make friends. Eileen Kennedy-Moore describes three key ingredients of children's friendship formation: openness and shared fun. Parents can help children understand social guidelines they haven't learned on their own.
Drawing from research by Robert Selman and others, Kennedy-Moore outlines developmental stages in children's friendship, reflecting an increasing capacity to understand others' perspectives: "I Want It My Way", "What's In It For Me?", "By the Rules", "Caring and Sharing", "Friends Through Thick and Thin." In adolescence, friendships become "more giving, frank and spontaneous." Adolescents tend to seek out peers who can provide such qualities in a reciprocal relationship, to avoid peers whose problematic behavior suggest they may not be able to satisfy these needs. Relationships begin to maintain a focus on shared values and common interests, rather than physical concerns like proximity and access to play things that more characterize childhood. A study performed at the University of Texas at Austin examined over 9,000 American adolescents to determine how their engagement in problematic behavior was related to their friendships. Findings indicated that adolescents were less to engage in problem behavior when their friends did well in school, participated in school activities, avoided drinking, had good mental health.
The opposite was found regarding adolescents. Whether adolescents were influenced by their friends to engage in problem behavior depended on how much they were exposed to those friends, whether they and their friendship groups "fit in" at school. A study by researchers from Purdue University found that friendships formed during post-secondary education last longer than friendships formed earlier. Friendship in adulthood provides companionship, affection, as well as emotional support, contributes positively to mental well-being and improved physical health. Adults may find it difficult to maintain meaningful friendships in the workplace. "The workplace can crackle with competition, so people learn to hide vulnerabilities and quirks from colleagues. Work friendships take on a transactional feel. Most adults value the financial security of their jobs more than friendship with coworkers; the majority of adults have an average of two close friends. Numerous studies with adults suggest that friendships and other supportive relationships do enhance self-esteem.
Older adults continue to report high levels of personal satisfaction in their friendships as they age, as the overall number of friends tends to decline. This satisfaction is associated with an increased ability to accomplish activities of daily living, as well as a reduced decline in cognitive abilities, decreased instances of hospitalization, better outcomes related to rehabilitation; the overall number of reported friends in life may be mediated by increased lucidity, better speech and vision, marital status. As on review phrased it: Research within the past four decades has now found that older adults reporting the highest levels of happiness and general well being report strong, close ties to numerous friends; as family responsibilities and vocational pressures lessen, friendships become more important. Among the elderly, friendships can provide links to the larger community, serve as a protective factor against depression and loneliness, compensate for potential losses in social support previously
The Christmas truce was a series of widespread but unofficial ceasefires along the Western Front of World War I around Christmas 1914. The Christmas truce occurred during the early period of the war. Hostilities had entered somewhat of a lull as leadership on both sides reconsidered their strategies following the stalemate of the Race to the Sea and the indecisive result of the First Battle of Ypres. In the week leading up to the 25th, French and British soldiers crossed trenches to exchange seasonal greetings and talk. In some areas, men from both sides ventured into no man's land on Christmas Eve and Christmas Day to mingle and exchange food and souvenirs. There were joint burial ceremonies and prisoner swaps, while several meetings ended in carol-singing. Men played games of football with one another. Peaceful behaviour was not ubiquitous; the following year, a few units arranged ceasefires but the truces were not nearly as widespread as in 1914. Soldiers were no longer amenable to truce by 1916.
The war had become bitter after devastating human losses suffered during the battles of the Somme and Verdun, the use of poison gas. The truces were not unique to the Christmas period, reflected a mood of "live and let live", where infantry close together would stop overtly aggressive behaviour and engage in small-scale fraternisation, engaging in conversation or bartering for cigarettes. In some sectors, there would be occasional ceasefires to allow soldiers to go between the lines and recover wounded or dead comrades, while in others, there would be a tacit agreement not to shoot while men rested, exercised or worked in full view of the enemy; the Christmas truces were significant due to the number of men involved and the level of their participation—even in peaceful sectors, dozens of men congregating in daylight was remarkable—and are seen as a symbolic moment of peace and humanity amidst one of the most violent events of human history. During the first five months of World War I, the German attack through Belgium into France had been repelled outside Paris by French and British troops at the Battle of the Marne in early September 1914.
The Germans fell back to the Aisne valley. In the subsequent Battle of the Aisne, the Allied forces were unable to push through the German line, the fighting degenerated into a stalemate. To the north, on the right of the German army, there had been no defined front line, both sides began to try to use this gap to outflank one another. In the ensuing "Race to the Sea", the two sides clashed, each trying to push forward and threaten the end of the other's line. After several months of fighting, during which the British forces were withdrawn from the Aisne and sent north into Flanders, the northern flank had developed into a similar stalemate. By November, there was a continuous front line running from the North Sea to the Swiss frontier, occupied on both sides by armies in prepared defensive positions. In the lead up to Christmas 1914, there were several peace initiatives; the Open Christmas Letter was a public message for peace addressed "To the Women of Germany and Austria", signed by a group of 101 British women suffragettes at the end of 1914 as the first Christmas of World War I approached.
Pope Benedict XV, on 7 December 1914, had begged for an official truce between the warring governments. He asked "that the guns may fall silent at least upon the night the angels sang." This attempt was rebuffed. Fraternisation—peaceful and sometimes friendly interactions between opposing forces—was a regular feature in quiet front-line sectors of the Western Front. In some areas, it manifested as a passive inactivity, where both sides would refrain from overtly aggressive or threatening behaviour, while in other cases it extended to regular conversation or visits from one trench to another. Truces between British and German units can be dated to early November 1914, around the time opposing armies had begun static trench warfare. At this time, both sides' rations were brought up to the front line after dusk, soldiers on both sides noted a period of peace while they collected their food. By 1 December, a British soldier could record a friendly visit from a German sergeant one morning "to see how we were getting on".
Relations between French and German units were more tense, but the same phenomenon began to emerge. In early December, a German surgeon recorded a regular half-hourly truce each evening to recover dead soldiers for burial, during which French and German soldiers exchanged newspapers; this behaviour was challenged by junior and senior officers. Other truces could be enforced on both sides by weather conditions when trench lines flooded in low-lying areas, though these lasted after the weather had cleared. On the Eastern Front, Fritz Kreisler reported incidents of spontaneous truces and fraternisation between the Austro-Hungarians and Russians in the first few weeks of the war; the proximity of trench lines made it easy for soldiers to shout gre
Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry and history. German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans; the English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages. Since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, German society has been characterized by a Catholic-Protestant divide. Of 100 million native speakers of German in the world 80 million consider themselves Germans. There are an additional 80 million people of German ancestry in the United States, Argentina, South Africa, the post-Soviet states, France, each accounting for at least 1 million. Thus, the total number of Germans lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million, depending on the criteria applied. Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities most subscribe to their own national identities and may or may not self-identify as ethnically German.
The German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc, referring to the Germanic "language of the people". It is not clear how if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German. Used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of "a German" emerges in Middle High German, attested from the second half of the 12th century; the Old French term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni. It was loaned into Middle English as almains in the early 14th century; the word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic dialects and their speakers. While in most Romance languages the Germans have been named from the Alamanni, the Old Norse and Estonian names for the Germans were taken from that of the Saxons. In Slavic languages, the Germans were given the name of němьci with a meaning "foreigner, one who does not speak "; the English term Germans is only attested from the mid-16th century, based on the classical Latin term Germani used by Julius Caesar and Tacitus.
It replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming obsolete by the early 18th century. The Germans are a Germanic people. Part of the Holy Roman Empire, around 300 independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ending the Thirty Years War; these states formed into modern Germany in the 19th century. The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of antiquity in central Europe; the early Germans originated on the North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the number of Germans was increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe and southward into Celtic territory. During antiquity these Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have writing systems at that time. In the European Iron Age the area, now Germany was divided into the La Tène horizon in Southern Germany and the Jastorf culture in Northern Germany. By 55 BC, the Germans had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, had spread west into what is now Belgium and France.
Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under Julius Caesar forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank of the Rhine. Roman emperor Augustus in 12 BC ordered the conquest of the Germans, but the catastrophic Roman defeat at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest resulted in the Roman Empire abandoning its plans to conquer Germania. Germanic peoples in Roman territory were culturally Romanized, although much of Germania remained free of direct Roman rule, Rome influenced the development of German society the adoption of Christianity by the Germans who obtained it from the Romans. In Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and Roman peoples intermarried, Roman and Christian traditions intermingled; the adoption of Christianity would become a major influence in the development of a common German identity. The first major public figure to speak of a German people in general, was the Roman figure Tacitus in his work Germania around 100 AD; however an actual united German identity and ethnicity did not exist and it would take centuries of development of German culture until the concept of a German ethnicity began to become a popular identity.
The Germanic peoples during the Migrations Period came into contact with other peoples. The Limes Germanicus was breached in AD 260. Migrating Germanic tribes commingled with the local Gallo-Roman populations in what is now Swabia and Bavaria; the arrival of the Huns in Europe resulted in Hun conquest of large parts of Eastern Europe, the Huns were allies of the Roman Empire who fought against Germanic tribes, but the Huns cooperated with the Germanic tribe of the Ostrogoths, large numbers of Germans lived within the lands of the Hunnic Empire of
The diplomatic corps is the collective body of foreign diplomats accredited to a particular country or body. The diplomatic corps may, in certain contexts, refer to the collection of accredited heads of mission who represent their countries in another state or country; as a body, they only assemble to attend state functions like a coronation, national day or State Opening of Parliament, depending on local custom. They may assemble in the royal or presidential palace to give their own head of state's New Year greeting to the head of state of the country in which they are based; the term is sometimes confused with the collective body of diplomats from a particular country—the proper term for, diplomatic service. The diplomatic corps is not always given any formal recognition by its host country, but can be referenced by official orders of precedence. In many countries, in Africa, the heads and the foreign members of the country offices of major international organizations are considered members—and granted the rights and privileges—of the diplomatic corps.
Diplomatic vehicles in most countries have distinctive diplomatic license plates with the prefix or suffix CD, the abbreviation for the French corps diplomatique. In most countries, the longest-serving ambassador to a country is given the title Dean of the Diplomatic Corps; the dean is accorded a high position in the order of precedence. In New Zealand, for example, the dean takes precedence over figures such as the deputy prime minister and former governors-general. In many countries that have Roman Catholicism as the official or dominant religion, the apostolic nuncio serves as Dean by virtue of his office, regardless of seniority; the Congress of Vienna and the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations provided that any country may choose to give nuncios a different precedence than other ambassadors. The diplomatic corps may cooperate amongst itself on a number of matters, including certain dealings with the host government. In practical terms, the dean of the diplomatic corps may have a role to play in negotiating with local authorities regarding the application of aspects of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations and diplomatic immunity, such as the payment of certain fees or taxes, since the receiving country is required "not to discriminate between states".
In this sense, the dean has the role of representing the entire diplomatic corps for matters that affect the corps as a whole, although this function is formalized. Marshal of the Diplomatic Corps Consular corps United States' Deans of the Diplomatic Corps: 1893 To Present
Cheerleading is an activity wherein the participants cheer for their team as a form of encouragement. It can range from chanting slogans to intense physical activity, it can be for competition. Competitive routines range anywhere from one to three minutes, contain components of tumbling, jumps and stunting. Cheerleading originated in the United States, remains predominantly in America, with an estimated 1.5 million participants in all-star cheerleading. The global presentation of cheerleading was led by the 1997 broadcast of ESPN's International cheerleading competition, the worldwide release of the 2000 film Bring It On. Due in part to this recent exposure, there are now an estimated 100,000 participants scattered around the globe in Australia, China, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom. Cheerleading began during the late 18th century with the rebellion of male students. After the American Revolutionary War, students experienced harsh treatment from teachers. In response to faculty's abuse, college students violently acted out.
The undergraduates began to riot, burn down buildings located on their college campuses, assault faculty members. As a more subtle way to gain independence, students invented and organized their own extracurricular activities outside their professors' control; this brought about American sports. In the 1860s, students from Great Britain began to cheer and chant in unison for their favorite athletes at sporting events. Soon, that gesture of support crossed overseas to America. On November 6, 1869, the United States witnessed its first intercollegiate football game, it took place between Princeton and Rutgers University, marked the day the original "Sis Boom Rah!" Cheer was shouted out by student fans. Organized cheerleading started as an all-male activity; as early as 1877, Princeton University had a "Princeton Cheer", documented in the February 22, 1877, March 12, 1880, November 4, 1881, issues of The Daily Princetonian. This cheer was yelled from the stands by students attending games, as well as by the athletes themselves.
The cheer, "Hurrah! Hurrah! Hurrah! Tiger! S-s-s-t! Boom! A-h-h-h!" remains in use with slight modifications today, where it is now referred to as the "Locomotive". Princeton class of 1882 graduate Thomas Peebles moved to Minnesota in 1884, he transplanted the idea of organized crowds cheering at football games to the University of Minnesota. The term "Cheer Leader" had been used as early as 1897, with Princeton's football officials having named three students as Cheer Leaders: Thomas and Guerin from Princeton's classes of 1897, 1898, 1899 on October 26, 1897; these students would cheer for the team at football practices, special cheering sections were designated in the stands for the games themselves for both the home and visiting teams. It was not until 1898 that University of Minnesota student Johnny Campbell directed a crowd in cheering "Rah, Rah! Ski-u-mah, Hoo-Rah! Hoo-Rah! Varsity! Varsity! Varsity, Minn-e-So-Tah!", making Campbell the first cheerleader. November 2, 1898 is the official birth date of organized cheerleading.
Soon after, the University of Minnesota organized a "yell leader" squad of six male students, who still use Campbell's original cheer today. In 1903, the first cheerleading fraternity, Gamma Sigma, was founded. In 1923, at the University of Minnesota, women were permitted to participate in cheerleading. However, it took time for other schools to follow. In the late 1920s, many school manuals and newspapers that were published still referred to cheerleaders as "chap," "fellow," and "man". Women cheerleaders were overlooked until the 1940s. In the 1940s, collegiate men were drafted for World War II, creating the opportunity for more women to make their way onto sporting event sidelines; as noted by Kieran Scott in Ultimate Cheerleading: "Girls took over for the first time." An overview written on behalf of cheerleading in 1955 explained that in larger schools, "occasionally boys as well as girls are included,", in smaller schools, "boys can find their place in the athletic program, cheerleading is to remain a feminine occupation."
During the 1950s, cheerleading in America increased in popularity. By the 1960s, some began to consider cheerleading a feminine extracurricular for boys, by the 1970s, girls cheered at public school games. However, this did not stop its growth. Cheerleading could be found at every school level across the country pee wee and youth leagues began to appear. In 1975, it was estimated by a man named Randy Neil that over 500,000 students participated in American cheerleading from grade school to the collegiate level, he approximated that ninety-five percent of cheerleaders within America were female. Since 1973, cheerleaders have started to attend female basketball and other all-female sports as well; as of 2005, overall statistics show around 97% of all modern cheerleading participants are female, although at the collegiate level, cheerleading is co-ed with about 50% of participants being male. In 1948, Lawrence "Herkie" Herkimer, of Dallas, Texas, a former cheerleader at Southern Methodist University, formed the National Cheerleaders Association in order to hold clinics for cheerleading.
In 1949, The NCA held its first clinic in Huntsville, with 52 girls in attendance. Herkimer contributed many firsts to cheerleading: the founding of the Cheerleader & Danz Team cheerleading uniform supply company, inventing the herkie jump (where one leg is bent towards the ground as if kneeling and the other is o
A military is a heavily-armed, highly-organised force intended for warfare known collectively as armed forces. It is officially authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its members identifiable by their distinct military uniform, it may consist of one or more military branches such as an Army, Air Force and in certain countries and Coast Guard. The main task of the military is defined as defence of the state and its interests against external armed threats. Beyond warfare, the military may be employed in additional sanctioned and non-sanctioned functions within the state, including internal security threats, population control, the promotion of a political agenda, emergency services and reconstruction, protecting corporate economic interests, social ceremonies and national honor guards. A nation's military may function as a discrete social subculture, with dedicated infrastructure such as military housing, utilities, hospitals, legal services, food production and banking services.
In broad usage, the terms "armed forces" and "military" are treated as synonymous, although in technical usage a distinction is sometimes made in which a country's armed forces may include both its military and other paramilitary forces. There are various forms of irregular military forces; the profession of soldiering as part of a military is older than recorded history itself. Some of the most enduring images of classical antiquity portray the power and feats of its military leaders; the Battle of Kadesh in 1274 BC was one of the defining points of Pharaoh Ramses II's reign, his monuments commemorate it in bas-relief. A thousand years the first emperor of unified China, Qin Shi Huang, was so determined to impress the gods with his military might that he had himself buried with an army of terracotta soldiers; the Romans paid considerable attention to military matters, leaving to posterity many treatises and writings on the subject, as well as a large number of lavishly carved triumphal arches and victory columns.
Issue: Possibly cognate with Thousand, cf. Latin and Romance language root word "mil-")The first recorded use of the word military in English, spelled militarie, was in 1582, it comes from the Latin militaris through French, but is of uncertain etymology, one suggestion being derived from *mil-it- – going in a body or mass. The word is now identified as denoting someone, skilled in use of weapons, or engaged in military service, or in warfare; as a noun, the military refers to a country's armed forces, or sometimes, more to the senior officers who command them. In general, it refers to the physicality of armed forces, their personnel and the physical area which they occupy; as an adjective, military referred only to soldiers and soldiering, but it soon broadened to apply to land forces in general, anything to do with their profession. The names of both the Royal Military Academy and United States Military Academy reflect this. However, at about the time of the Napoleonic Wars,'military' began to be used in reference to armed forces as a whole, in the 21st century expressions like'military service','military intelligence', and'military history' encompass naval and air force aspects.
As such, it now connotes any activity performed by armed force personnel. Military history is considered to be the history of all conflicts, not just the history of the state militaries, it differs somewhat from the history of war, with military history focusing on the people and institutions of war-making, while the history of war focuses on the evolution of war itself in the face of changing technology and geography. Military history has a number of facets. One main facet is to learn from past accomplishments and mistakes, so as to more wage war in the future. Another is to create a sense of military tradition, used to create cohesive military forces. Still, another may be to learn to prevent wars more effectively. Human knowledge about the military is based on both recorded and oral history of military conflicts, their participating armies and navies and, more air forces. There are two types of military history, although all texts have elements of both: descriptive history, that serves to chronicle conflicts without offering any statements about the causes, nature of conduct, the ending, effects of a conflict.
Despite the growing importance of military technology, military activity depends above all on people. For example, in 2000 the British Army declared: "Man is still the first weapon of war." The military organization is characterized by a strict hierarchy divided by military rank, with ranks grouped as officers, non-commissioned officers, personnel at the lowest rank. While senior officers make strategic decisions, subordinated military personnel fulfil them. Although rank titles vary by military branch and country, the rank hierarchy is common to all state armed forces worldwide. In addition to their rank, personnel occupy one of many trade roles, which are grouped according to
War children are those born to a native parent and a parent belonging to a foreign military force. Having a child by a member of a belligerent force, throughout history and across cultures, is considered a grave betrayal of social values; the native parent is disowned by family and society at large. The term "war child" is most used for children born during World War II and its aftermath in relation to children born to fathers in German occupying forces in northern Europe. In Norway, there were Lebensborn children, it is applied to other situations, such as children born following the widespread rapes during the 1971 Bangladesh atrocities associated with the war of liberation. The discrimination suffered by the native parent and child in the postwar period did not take into account widespread rapes by occupying forces, or the relationships women had to form in order to survive the war years. Children with a parent, part of an occupying force, or whose parent collaborated with enemy forces, are innocent of any war crimes committed by parents.
Yet these children have been condemned by descent from the enemy and discriminated against in their society. They suffer from association with a parent whose war crimes are prosecuted in the postwar years; as such children grew to adolescence and adulthood, many harbored feelings of shame. An example are the children born during and after World War II whose fathers were military personnel in regions occupied by Nazi-Germany; these children claim they lived with their identity in an inner exile until the 1980s, when some of them acknowledged their status. In 1987, Bente Blehr refused anonymity; the first autobiography by the child of a German occupying soldier and Norwegian mother was The Boy from Gimle by Eystein Eggen. It was published in Norway. During and in the aftermath of war, women who have voluntary relationships with military personnel of an occupying force have been censured by their own society. Women who became pregnant from such unions would take measures to conceal the father's status.
They chose among the following: Arrange a marriage with a local man, who would take responsibility for the child Claim the father was unknown, dead, or had left, bring up the child as a single mother Acknowledge the relationship. Such repercussions were widespread throughout Europe. While some women and children suffered torture and deportation, most acts against them fell into one or several of the following categories: Name calling: German whore and German kid were common labels Isolation or harassment from the local community and at schools Loss of work Shaving the heads of the mothers in order to publicly identify and shame them Temporary placement in confinement or internment campsWhile repercussions were most widespread after the war, sentiments against the women and their children lingered into the 1950s, 60s, beyond. Estimates of the number of war children fathered by German soldiers during World War II are difficult to gauge. Mothers tended to hide such pregnancies for fear of reprisal by male family members.
Lower estimates range in the hundreds of thousands, while upper estimates are much increased, into the millions. Lebensborn was one of several programs initiated by the Nazi leader Heinrich Himmler to try to secure the racial heredity of the Third Reich; the program served as a welfare institution for parents and children deemed racially valuable those of SS men. As German forces occupied nations in northern Europe, the organization expanded its program to provide care to suitable women and children in Norway, where the women were judged suitably Aryan. In Norway a local Lebensborn office, Abteilung Lebensborn, was established in 1941 to support children of German soldiers and their Norwegian mothers, pursuant to German law; the organization ran several homes. Facilities served as permanent homes for eligible women until the end of the war. Additionally, the organization paid child support on behalf of the father, covered other expenses, including medical bills, dental treatment and transportation.
In total, between 9 and 15 Lebensborn homes were established. Of the estimated 10,000–12,000 children born to Norwegian mothers and German fathers during the war, 8,000 were registered by Abteilung Lebensborn. In 4,000 of these cases, the father is known; the women were encouraged to give the children up for adoption, many were transferred to Germany, where they were adopted or raised in orphanages. During and after the war, the Norwegians referred to these children as tyskerunger, translating as "German-kids" or "Kraut kids", a derogatory term; as a result of recognition of their post-war mistreatment, the more diplomatic term krigsbarn came into use and is now the accepted form. As the war ended, the children and their mothers were made outcasts by many among the genera