Fratricide is the act of killing one's brother. It can either be done directly or via use of either an indoctrinated intermediary; the victim need not be the perpetrator's biological brother. In a military context, fratricide refers to a service member killing a comrade; the Abrahamic religions recognize the biblical account of Cain and Abel as the first fratricidal murder to be committed. In the mythology of ancient Rome, the city is founded as the result of a fratricide, with the twins Romulus and Remus quarreling over who has the favour of the gods and over each other's plans to build Rome, with Romulus becoming Rome's first king and namesake after killing his brother. In the Hindu epic Mahābhārata, Karna was killed by Arjuna, unaware that Karna was his eldest brother. Though not fratricide, the otherwise meticulously pious Arjuna's actions - where he slayed an unarmed Karna pitilessly and against the rules of honourable warfare - are considered utterly deplorable and heinous. However, the context of the crime becomes markedly different when seen from the following angle: 1.
Arjuna was oath-bound to avenge the death of his only son and heir apparent Abhimanyu, mercilessly slaughtered by a group of bloodthirsty warriors which included Karna. 2. While Arjuna was blissfully unaware that Karna was his own biological brother, the latter was apprised of the same by their common mother Kunti, and hence though he was privy to the bond of brotherhood, Karna still wholeheartedly and elected to indulge in fratricide. The 13th century poet, Kavi Kabila, while commenting broadly on the Ramayana and on Rama's killing of Raavan with the active support of the latter's estranged younger brother Vibhisan - upon whom Raavan had vowed black vengeance and on the killing of Bali with the ready contrivance of his younger and banished, sibling Sugreev, has succinctly expressed this in a couplet: "Irony? What Irony?! If not that the seed of destruction carried in the heart of one brother was sowed and reaped to the full by the hand of another!" The only known fratricide in the Roman Empire is the well-known murder of Geta on the orders of his brother Caracalla in 211.
The brothers had a fraught relationship enduring many years. Their joint rule was embittered and unsuccessful, with each of them conspiring to have the other one murdered. In December of that year, Caracalla pretended to be holding a reconciliation in their mother Julia Domna's apartment, with Geta was lured to come unarmed and unguarded. Upon Geta's arrival, a group of Centurions loyal to Caracalla ambushed him, with Geta dying in his mother's arms, it is said that the fratricide would come back to haunt Caracalla. There are many recorded fratricides in Persia, the most famous of which involving Cyrus the Great's sons Cambyses II and Bardiya, the former killing the latter. There are stories about the sons of Artaxerxes I, Xerxes II, Darius II, all of which concern competition for the throne. In addition, there were many fratricides recorded during the Sassanid Empires. In the Ottoman Empire a policy of judicial royal fratricide was introduced by Sultan Mehmet II whose grandfather Mehmet I had to fight an extended and severe civil war against his brothers to take the throne.
When a new sultan ascended to the throne he would imprison all of his surviving brothers and murder them by strangulation with a silk cord as soon as he had produced his first male heir. The largest killing took place on the succession of Mehmet III when 19 of his brothers were killed and buried with their father; the aim was to prevent civil war. Reflecting public disapproval, his successor Ahmed I abandoned the practice, replacing it with life imprisonment in the Kafes, a section of the Ottoman palace. In the Mughal Empire, fratricides occurred as a result of wars of succession. Shah Jahan had his eldest brother Khusrau Mirza killed in 1622. Shah Jahan had his brother Shahriyar killed in 1628. Shah Jahan's son, Dara Shikoh was assassinated by four of his brother Aurangzeb's henchmen in front of his terrified son on the night of 30 August 1659; the events in the Greek tragedy Antigone unfold due to the previous war between the princely brothers and Polyneices, who killed each other in combat.
Polyneices had challenged his brother's claim to the throne of the city Thebes, attacked the city with an army from Argos. Eteocles fought for Thebes to defend the city against his army; the two killed one another by each stabbing the other in the heart. Ashoka known as Chand-Ashoka, killed his real brothers as punishment for the king's death and quarrel for the kingdom. On, Ashoka conquered Greater India entire, before he adopted Buddhism and forsook war. In Shakespeare's Hamlet, Claudius marries his wife to take the throne. In the animated Disney film The Lion King, Scar commits fratricide on Mufasa. In the religious horror film Mother!, the older brother commits fratricide on the younger brother, as a retelling of the story of Cain and Abel. In the American crime film The Godfather Part II, Michael Corleone kills his older brother. In the Disney superhero film Black Panther, T'Chaka kills his younger brother, N'Jobu, in defense of Zuri, a Wakandan warrior. In Shahnameh, the national epic of Greater Persia, we can see many fratricides.
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The 2006 Tampa Bay Buccaneers season was the franchise's 31st season in the National Football League the 9th playing their home games at Raymond James Stadium, the 5th under head coach Jon Gruden. The team failed to improve on their 11–5 record in 2005, tumbled to a 4–12 record and missed the playoffs for the first time since 2004; the next season in 2007, saw the Buccaneers taking a 9–7 record, but it would be the last time the Bucs made the playoffs as of the 2019 season. After winning their division in 2005, the Buccaneers suffered through an abysmal 2006 season; the season was plagued by injuries, with starters such as G Dan Buenning, WR Michael Clayton, RB Carnell Williams, DE Simeon Rice, CB Brian Kelly, QB Chris Simms all being placed on injured reserve at some point in the season. The season saw a lot of rookies starting for the Bucs, such as QB Bruce Gradkowski, T Jeremy Trueblood, G Davin Joseph; the league schedule was unfriendly to the Bucs, scheduling them for 3 games within 11 days of each other.
There was more to the lost season than just injuries, as most of the players put on injured reserve had been done so after the team's 0–3 start, offensive shutouts in the first two games in which no touchdowns were scored by the Buccaneers. The departure of several key defensive coaches and assistants didn't bode well with players, who complained to some in the media of not being able to hear coaches in team meetings. Inconsistent and unorganized are how some players referred to one of the newcomers, who most players had a hard time making the transition from longtime favorites Rod Marinelli and others; some believe the problems in 2006 were rooted in recent years mistakes, lack of salary cap room to bring in high impact free agents, lack of top 50 draft picks over the last 5 or 6 years due to trades, maybe a failure to properly assess talent resulting in a lack of contribution from second day draft picks in recent history. The Bucs started off the season 0–3, with QB Chris Simms throwing only 1 touchdown to 7 interceptions.
In the third game of the season, a last-minute loss to the Carolina Panthers, Simms's spleen was ruptured, he was placed on injured reserve for the rest of the season. After their bye week, the Bucs elected to start rookie quarterback Bruce Gradkowski, a 6th-round pick from Toledo. Gradkowski started off performing decently. People who in hindsight claim the Bucs should have started the more experienced Tim Rattay forget the Bucs nearly upset the New Orleans Saints, went on to win two narrow victories: one, against the Cincinnati Bengals, winning on an overturned call resulting in a touchdown. After these victories, Gradkowski’s performance declined. After a 3–17 loss to the New York Giants in heavy winds, the Bucs proceeded to lose 5 of their next 6 games, leading them to a record of 3–10. In the loss to the Atlanta Falcons, Gradkowski was replaced in the 4th quarter by Rattay. In the first half of the Bucs' next game, against the Chicago Bears, Gradkowski was again replaced by Rattay, who led the team from a 24–3 deficit to a score of 31–31, with three touchdowns in the fourth quarter.
However, the Bucs lost the game in overtime, 34–31. Rattay was named the new starting quarterback for the last two games for the season; the Bucs finished their season with a 4–12 record, tied for third worst in the NFL. The overall defense was ranked in the low 20s, the first time a Tampa defense was not ranked in the top ten since 1996; the Bucs sent three players to the 2007 Pro Bowl, cornerback Ronde Barber, tight end/long snapper Dave Moore, late addition outside linebacker Derrick Brooks. This would be 10th Pro Bowl overall, it was the final season for longtime fullback Mike Alstott. Although he was on the roster the following season, he was unable to play due to a preseason neck injury against New England. In the 2006 NFL Draft, the Buccaneers used their first pick on Oklahoma Guard Davin Joseph, they used their next pick on Boston College OT Jeremy Trueblood. The rest of their picks included Notre Dame WR Maurice Stovall, Penn St. CB Alan Zemaitis, Stanford DE Julian Jenkins, Toledo QB Bruce Gradkowski, North Carolina St. TE T.
J. Williams, Oregon CB Justin Phinisee, Clemson DE Charles Bennett, Michigan TE Tim Massaquoi. After a potential season-ending injury to backup quarterback Luke McCown, the Buccaneers signed veteran quarterback Jay Fiedler to back up Chris Simms on June 29; the signing maintains the four-deep status of the backup quarterback position, as Tim Rattay, Jared Allen, Bruce Gradkowski are still on the roster. Additionally, the team signed two-year veteran tight end Matt Kranchick to replace T. J. Williams, lost for the season due to injury, as noted above; the Tampa Bay Buccaneers played four preseason games. The home team is in capital letters. August 11 BUCCANEERS 16, Jets 3 August 19 Dolphins 13, BUCCANEERS 10 August 26 Jaguars 29, Buccaneers 18 August 31 Texans 16, Buccaneers 13 In the 2006 regular season, the Bucs’ non-divisional conference opponents were from the NFC East, although they played the Seattle Seahawks who headed the 2005 NFC West, the Chicago Bears who had headed the 2005 NFC North.
Their non-conference opponents were from the AFC North. Indicates the Thanksgiving Day game. Indicates game is Monday Night Football; the Buccaneers opened the regular season at home against the Baltimore Ravens on September 10 by being shut
St. Louis–San Francisco 1352 is an Alco built 2-8-2 Steam locomotive. Built in 1912 as a 2-8-0 Consolidation-type by the American Locomotive Company of Schenectady, New York, for the St. Louis–San Francisco Railway, the engine was rebuilt into a 2-8-2 Mikado-type to keep up with the traffic demands around World War II. Once retired the engine was stored in many locations under several owners until it ended up in a small engine house in rural Illinois; the locomotive was disassembled by a group with the intent to restore it. American Steam Railroad was started and in 2005 purchased the 1352 to restore the engine to operating condition. In 2014 the locomotive sits disassembled in Taylorville, Illinois as ASR raises the funds to move the 1352 to Cleveland Ohio to be restored; as of 2016, the locomotive remained in Taylorville. The locomotive was built in April 1912 as Frisco 1321, a 2-8-0 Consolidation type, by the American Locomotive Company at the Schenectady Locomotive Works. Due to the demands of World War II the Frisco railroad needed more heavy power to keep up with the demands in traffic.
The War Board at that time would not allow new locomotives to be built, so the Frisco took the task of rebuilding 6 Consolidations into Mikados. In June 1944 #1321 Consolidation was converted into Mikado #1352; the locomotive went through a major overhaul/modernization including adding of Nicholas Thermic Syphones, JR Coffin Superheaters and a JR Coffin Feed Water System. The engine continued in regular service until 1956 when 1352 was retired and donated to Swope Park in Kansas City, for display. Stored outside in the park, Frisco 1352 deteriorated during the years on display and vandalism took its toll on the locomotive; because of flooding and vandalism, the KC Park Board wanted the 1352 removed, in the late 1970s to early 1980s it was donated to Smoky Hill Railway and Historical Society provided that the group remove it from the park. The Missouri Pacific Railroad refused to allow its rail to be cut for a temporary turnout, so the movers constructed, for lack of a better description, a "vertical frog and vertical points" to lift the locomotive over the rails and onto the MoPac mainline.
After its removal from Swope Park, Smoky Hill Railway and Historical Society kept the 1352 in an industrial park in Riverside, where it suffered flooding on at least one occasion. Cash-strapped Smoky Hill Railway and Historical Society sold the locomotive to Ted Leman, he moved it to Illinois for restoration and operation. Www.frisco.org American Steam Railroad official website Project 1352