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Fred Hoyle

Sir Fred Hoyle FRS was an English astronomer who formulated the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis. He held controversial stances on other scientific matters—in particular his rejection of the "Big Bang" theory, a term coined by him on BBC radio, his promotion of panspermia as the origin of life on Earth, he wrote science fiction novels, short stories and radio plays, co-authored twelve books with his son, Geoffrey Hoyle. He spent most of his working life at the Institute of Astronomy at Cambridge and served as its director for six years. Hoyle was born near Bingley in West Riding of Yorkshire, England, his father, Ben Hoyle, a violinist and worked in the wool trade in Bradford, served as a machine gunner in the First World War. His mother, Mabel Pickard, had studied music at the Royal College of Music in London and worked as a cinema pianist. Hoyle was educated at read mathematics at Emmanuel College, Cambridge. In 1936 he won the Mayhew Prize. In late 1940, Hoyle left Cambridge to go to Portsmouth to work for the Admiralty on radar research, for example devising a method to get the altitude of the incoming aeroplanes.

He was put in charge of countermeasures against the radar guided guns found on the Graf Spee. Britain's radar project employed more personnel than the Manhattan project, was the inspiration for the large British project in The Black Cloud. Two key colleagues in this war work were Hermann Bondi and Thomas Gold, the three had many and deep discussions on cosmology; the radar work paid for a couple of trips to North America, where he took the opportunity to visit astronomers. On one trip to the US he learned about supernovae at Caltech and Mount Palomar and, in Canada, the nuclear physics of plutonium implosion and explosion, noticed some similarity between the two and started thinking about supernova nucleosynthesis, he had an intuition at the time "I will make a name for myself if this works out." His prescient and ground breaking paper came out. He formed a group at Cambridge exploring Stellar nucleosynthesis in ordinary stars and was bothered by the paucity of stellar carbon production in existing models.

He noticed that one of the existing processes would be made a billion times more productive if the carbon-12 nucleus had a resonance at 7.7 MeV, but the nuclear physicists did not list such a one. On another trip he visited the nuclear physics group at Caltech, spending a few months of sabbatical there and persuaded them against their considerable scepticism to look for and find the Hoyle state in carbon-12, from which developed a full theory of stellar nucleosynthesis, co-authored by Hoyle with some members of the Caltech group. After the war, in 1945, Hoyle returned to Cambridge University, starting as a lecturer at St John's College, Cambridge. Hoyle's Cambridge years, 1945–1973, saw him rise to the top of world astrophysics theory, on the basis of a startling originality of ideas covering a wide range of topics. In 1958, Hoyle was appointed to the illustrious Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy at Cambridge University. In 1967, he became the founding director of the Institute of Theoretical Astronomy (subsequently renamed the Institute of Astronomy, where Hoyle's innovative leadership led to this institution becoming one of the premier groups in the world for theoretical astrophysics.

In 1971 he was invited to deliver the MacMillan Memorial Lecture to the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland. He chose the subject "Astronomical Instruments and their Construction". Hoyle was knighted in 1972. Hoyle resigned his Plumian professor position in 1972 and his directorship of the institute in 1973, with this move cutting him off from most of his establishment power-base and steady salary. After his leaving Cambridge, Hoyle wrote many popular science and science fiction books, as well as presenting lectures around the world. Part of the motivation for this was to provide a means of support. Hoyle was still a member of the joint policy committee, during the planning stage for the 150-inch Anglo-Australian Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory in New South Wales, he became chairman of the Anglo-Australian Telescope board in 1973, presided at its inauguration in 1974 by Charles, Prince of Wales. After his resignation from Cambridge, Hoyle moved to the Lake District and occupied his time with a mix of treks across the moors, writing books, visiting research centres around the world, working on science ideas that have been nearly-universally rejected.

On 24 November 1997, while hiking across moorlands in west Yorkshire, near his childhood home in Gilstead, Hoyle fell down into a steep ravine called Shipley Glen. Twelve hours Hoyle was found by a search dog, he was hospitalised for two months with pneumonia and kidney problems, as well as a broken shoulder from the fall. Thereafter he went into marked decline. In 2001, he died in Bournemouth on 20 August of that year. Hoyle authored the first two research papers published on the synthesis of the chemical elements heavier than helium by nuclear reactions in stars; the first of these in 1946 showed that the cores of stars will evolve to temperatures of billions of degrees, much hotter than temperatures considered for thermonuclear origin of stellar power in main sequence stars. Hoyle showed that at such high temperatures the element iron can become much more abundant than other heavy elements owing to thermal equilibrium among nuclear particles, explaining the high natural abundance of iron; this ide

Jim Osborne (wrestler)

James "Jim" Osborne known as Red Osborne, Double X and Dr. X is an American retired professional wrestler, active throughout the United States and Japan in the 1960s and'70s, he wrestled in the National Wrestling Alliance and the American Wrestling Association and is a former NWA World Junior Heavyweight Champion. Jim Osborne began wrestling in the early 1960s under the ring name Paddy Osborne for Gulas Wrestling Enterprises and the NWA Tri-State territory, he switched to his real name in 1963 and spent his rookie years competing for NWA Tri-State, "Wrestling Promotions, Inc." in Arizona, the Gulf Athletic Club in Houston. From there, he worked San Francisco and Los Angeles and Georgia Championship as "Red Osborne". On August 10, 1967, Osborne and Johnny Kostas captured the NWA Pacific Northwest Tag Team Championship in the Pacific Northwest territory. During this time, Osborne wrestled in Vince J. McMahon's World Wide Wrestling Federation. There, he competed against Pat Patterson in San Francisco on August 12, 1967 in Patterson’s first bout for the WWWF.

The following year, 1968, on July 17, Osborne defeated Mil Mascaras on July 17 for LA's NWA Hollywood territory before heading to the American Wrestling Association. Still competing under his real name, he had notable rivalries with Bob Mulligan and Billy Red Lyons before "leaving" the promotion. Osborne's absence from the AWA was pre-planned, he returned the same year in 1970 and teamed with Dr. X as "Double X", it was an open secret that Double X was indeed Red Osborne and the pair competed as a tag team, using their similar appearances and masked identities to their advantage during matches. On July 18 in St. Paul, Double X was "unmasked" by AWA's original masked wrestler. In 1972 Beyer left for a wrestling tour of Japan and Osborne left the Minnesota territory and went to work for Leroy McGuirk and Tri-State in Oklahoma using the ring name "Dr. X"; as Dr. X, Osborne was introduced in Tri-State as a masked man sitting ringside during a televised event who interfered in the aid of the heel wrestlers.

Osborne made the Dr. X persona his own and became the most successful masked heel the McGuirk territory had seen, he defeated Ramón Torres in December 1971 to win the NWA World Junior Heavyweight Championship and soon thereafter entered a programme with Danny Hodge, with the two engaging in a series of stiff matches. The rivalry culminated with Hodge capture the Junior Heavyweight title in Shreveport. In January 1973, Osborne travelled to Japan to compete for the Japan Pro Wrestling Alliance as Dr. X, he had competed in Japan in 1970, headlining bouts with Antonio Inoki under his real name. He would compete with Billy Red Lyons, he returned to the Oklahoma territory in 1977, having notable rivalries with Dick Murdoch and Bill Watts. During this tenure in the late 1970s, Osborne competed as a fan favourite and went on to win the NWA United States Tag Team Championship with Porkchop Cash, Ciclón Negro and The Brute respectively. National Wrestling Alliance NWA World Junior Heavyweight Championship Mississippi Heavyweight Championship NWA Pacific Northwest Tag Team Championship NWA United States Tag Team Championship


Palanpur is a city and a municipality of Banaskantha district in the Indian state of Gujarat. Palanpur is the administrative headquarters of the district. Palanpur in early times is said to have been called Prahladana Patan or Prahaladanapura after its founder Prahladana, mentioned in Jain texts, it was afterwards re-peopled by Palansi Chauhan from. Others say; the Jain texts mentions that Prahladana, brother of Paramara Dharavarsha of Abu, founded Prahladanapur in 1218 and built Prahladana-vihara dedicated to Pallaviya Parshwanatha. The town was re-peopled. At the start of the seventeenth century, the Palanpur State was taken over by Jhalori dynasty of Pashtun Lohani ribe, founded in 1373 and ruled from Jhalor; the dynasty came into historical prominence during the period of instability that followed the demise of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in the early 18th century. It was overrun soon afterwards by the Marathas. After independence of India in 1947, Palanpur State was dissolved in 1949 and merged with Union of India as a part of Bombay State.

Subsequently Palanpur became the capital of Banaskantha district of Gujarat. Palanpur is located at 24.10°N 72.25°E / 24.10. It has an average elevation of 209 metres. In Summer, it is humid with an average temperature of 42 Degrees with hot sandy winds; the temperature of Palanpur sometimes reaches up to 46 Degrees. However just before monsoon it becomes swelteringly hot along with humidity. In Winter, it's 5 to 15 degrees, quite cold as compared to other cities in Gujarat and in Monsoon, the average rainfall is about 20 to 30 inches per season; as of 2011 India census, Palanpur had a population of 1,40,344. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Palanpur has an average literacy rate of 86%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 94%, female literacy is 78%. In Palanpur, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age. ♦ Source: ♦ Source: In 1750, Bahadur Khan built a brick and mortar city-wall, the Nagarkot of Palanpur. It was 3 miles round, 17 to 20 feet high and 6 feet broad with seven bastioned gateways, and, at the corners, round towers armed with guns.

The gateways of the city-walls were Delhi Darwaja, Gathaman Darwaja, Malan Darwaja, Mira Darwaja, Virbai Darwaja, Salempura Darwaja, Sadarpur Darwaja or Shimla Darwaja. Only Mira Darwaja survives today. Sher Muhammad Khan attended the coronation ceremony of King George V in Delhi in 1910 and built a club named after him in 1913. In 1918, his successor Tale Muhammad Khan constructed Kirti Stambh, a 22 metre tower near the railway station commemorating the gallantry of his father and the history of town and his dynasty, he built Balaram Palace between 1922 to 1936 and Jorawar Palace also. In 1939, he built Shashivan Jahanara Baug, a garden to commemorate his second marriage with a daughter of an Australian businessman; the old marketplaces are Moti Bazar and Dhalvas. Apart from Shahshivan, Chaman Bag is a major public garden in the town. Early Jhalori ruler Malik Mujahid Khan built Mansarovar, a lake dedicated to his queen Manbai Jadeja, in 1628. Mithi Vav, a stepwell is the oldest surviving monument of town.

It is situated in the eastern part of the town. The five storey stepwell can be entered from the west. Based on its architectural style, it is believed that it is constructed in late medieval period but the sculptures embedded in the walls may belong to earlier period; the sculptures include that of Ganesha, Apsaras, dancing figures, worshiping couples and floral or geometrical patterns. A worn out inscription found on one sculpture embedded in left wall can not read but the year Samvat 1320 can made out. Palanpur has several temples dedicated to Jainism. Hindu TemplesThe Chaulukya dynasty ruler Jayasimha Siddharaja of Anhilwad Patan is believed to be born in Palanpur, his mother Meenaldevi built Pataleshwar Temple dedicated to Shiva. Other Hindu temples are Mota Ramji Mandir, Ambaji Mata Mandir. Jain TemplesKirti Stambh: The 22m high Tower of Fame was built by a wealthy Jain merchant in the 12 century A. D. and is dedicated to the first of the Tirthankaras. The tower is decorated with Jain Pantheons.

Motu Derasar: The Pallaviya Parshwanath Temple known as Mota Derasar, was built by King Prahaladan, dedicated to Parshwanath, 23rd tirthankar. Nanu Derasar Dairy, diamond polishing and marble are major industries of Palanpur. Banas Dairy is one of the largest dairy in the state; the diamond polishing and evaluation industry across India and abroad is dominated by Palanpuri Jain diaspora. Palanpuri Ittars are popular for their fragrance and earned the nickname'city of flowers' to the town. Surmandir, the first Multiplex of North Gujarat is in Palanpur and is now operated by Carnival Cinemas. During rule of Jhalori Nawabs, Palanpur became well known for poetry. Combination Samosas and Kari are popular snack in the town. Palanpur is an educational hub of Banaskantha. Major schools include Vividhlakshi Vidyamandir, Shri Ram Vidhyalaya, Aadarsh Vidhyasankool, M B Karnavat School, K K Gothi Highschool. Palanpur have various colleges: Banas Medical College, Palanpur Government Engineering College, G D Modi College of Arts, C. L. Parikh College of Commerce, R. R. Mehta College o

John Valentine Ellis

John Valentine Ellis was a Canadian journalist and parliamentarian. He was first as elected as to the House of Commons of Canada in the 1887 general election as a Liberal Member of Parliament representing the New Brunswick electoral district of City of St. John. Although defeated in 1891, he was re-elected in the 1896 election. On 3 September 1900, he was appointed to the Senate of Canada on the recommendation of Sir Wilfrid Laurier, he represented the senatorial division of New Brunswick until his death. "John Valentine Ellis". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. University of Toronto Press. 1979–2016. John Valentine Ellis – Parliament of Canada biography


Troedssonellidae is a family of orthoceroid cephalopods from the Ordovician, derived from rod-bearing Baltoceratidae, that have a continuous lining within the siphuncle that resembles thin and slender endocones. Shells are slender and orthoconic; the siphuncle is central or subcentral, composed of straight or expanded segments. Septal necks short and connecting rings are thin. Thin cameral deposits are known, which along with the position of the siphuncle and thin connecting rings distinguishes them from the endocerids in which they have been included. Troedsonnellids first appear high in Lower Ordovician strata, beginning with Tajaroceras and extend at least through the Whiterock Stage of the Middle Ordovician, they may have given rise to the Striatoceratidae and to the Narthecoceratidae of the Middle and Late Ordovician. Genera include Tajaroceras, Oxfordoceras, Ctenoceras and Glenisteroceras and Wolungoceras

Atira asteroid

Atira asteroids or Apohele asteroids known as interior-Earth objects, are asteroids whose orbits are confined within Earth's orbit. Atira asteroids are by far the smallest group of near-Earth objects, compared to the Aten and Amor asteroids; the first suspected Apohele was 1998 DK36, the first confirmed was 163693 Atira in 2003. As of January 2020, there are 21 known Apoheles, of which 18 have robust orbit determinations, of which six have been computed with sufficient precision to receive a permanent number. An additional 78 objects have aphelia smaller than Earth's aphelion; the Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite is intended to find more. On 4 January 2020, the Zwicky Transient Facility discovered 2020 AV2, whose aphelion distance is only 0.656 AU, within the orbit of Venus, which never gets less than 0.718 AU from the Sun. However, no asteroids have yet been discovered inside the orbit of Mercury; as of January 2020, the asteroid with the smallest known aphelion is 2020 AV2, with an aphelion of 0.656 AU, followed by 2019 AQ3 with Q = 0.774 AU and 2019 LF6 with Q = 0.794 AU.

There is no standard name for the class. The name Apohele was proposed by the discoverers of 1998 DK36, is the Hawaiian word for orbit. Other authors adopted the designation Inner Earth Objects. Still others, following the general practice to name a new class of asteroids for the first recognized member of that class, use the designation Atira asteroids. Apoheles do not cross Earth's orbit and are not immediate impact event threats, but their orbits may be perturbed outward by a close approach to either Mercury or Venus and become Earth-crossing asteroids in the future. Although the dynamics of many of these objects somehow resembles the one induced by the Kozai-Lidov mechanism, which contributes to enhanced long-term stability, there is no libration of the value of the argument of perihelion. Vatira asteroids are a subclass of Atiras that orbit interior to the orbit of Venus, they were theorized to exist at least since 2012, in early 2020, the first Vatira asteroid was discovered: 2020 AV2. All diameter estimates are based on an assumed albedo of 0.14 Binary asteroid List of minor planet groups List of minor planets List Of Aten Minor Planets, Minor Planet Center