Batting average (cricket)
In cricket, a player's batting average is the total number of runs they have scored divided by the number of times they have been out. Since the number of runs a player scores and how they get out are measures of their own playing ability, independent of their teammates, batting average is a good metric for an individual player's skill as a batter; the number is simple to interpret intuitively. If all the batter's innings were completed, this is the average number of runs they score per innings. If they did not complete all their innings, this number is an estimate of the unknown average number of runs they score per innings; each player has several batting averages, with a different figure calculated for each type of match they play, a player's batting averages may be calculated for individual seasons or series, or at particular grounds, or against particular opponents, or across their whole career. Batting average has been used to gauge cricket players' relative skills since the 18th century.
Most players have career batting averages in the range of 20 to 40. This is the desirable range for wicket-keepers, though some fall short and make up for it with keeping skill; until a substantial increase in scores in the 21st century due to improved bats and smaller grounds among other factors, players who sustained an average above 50 through a career were considered exceptional, before the development of the heavy roller in the 1870s an average of 25 was considered good. All-rounders who are more prominent bowlers than batsmen average something between 20 and 30. 15 and under is typical for specialist bowlers. A small number of players have averaged less than 5 for a complete career, though a player with such an average is a liability unless an exceptional bowler as Alf Valentine, B. S. Chandrasekhar or Glenn McGrath were. Career records for batting average are subject to a minimum qualification of 20 innings played or completed, in order to exclude batsmen who have not played enough games for their skill to be reliably assessed.
Under this qualification, the highest Test batting average belongs to Australia's Sir Donald Bradman, with 99.94. Given that a career batting average over 50 is exceptional, that only five other players have averages over 60, this is an outstanding statistic; the fact that Bradman's average is so far above that of any other cricketer has led several statisticians to argue that, statistically at least, he was the greatest athlete in any sport. Disregarding this 20 innings qualification, the highest career test batting average is 112, by Andy Ganteaume, a Trinidadian Keeper-batsman, dismissed for 112 in his only test innings. Batting averages in One Day International cricket tend to be lower than in Test cricket, because of the need to score runs more and take riskier strokes and the lesser emphasis on building a large innings, it should be remembered in relation to the ODI histogram above, that there were no ODI competitions when Bradman played. If a batter has been dismissed in every single innings this statistic gives the average number of runs they score per innings.
However, for a batter with innings which finished not out, the true average number of runs they score per innings is unknown as it is not known how many runs they would have scored if they could have completed all their not out innings. This statistic is an estimate of the average number of runs. If their scores have a geometric distribution this statistic is the maximum likelihood estimate of their true unknown average. Batting averages can be affected by the number of not outs. For example, Phil Tufnell, noted for his poor batting, has an respectable ODI average of 15, despite a highest score of only 5 not out, as he scored an overall total of 15 runs from 10 innings, but was out only once. A batter who has not been dismissed in any of the innings over which their average is being calculated does not have a batting average, as dividing by zero does not give a result. Highest career batting averages in Test matches. Table shows players with at least 20 innings completed. * denotes not out. Last updated: 14 October 2018.
Highest career batting averages in First-class cricket as follows: Source: Cricinfo Statsguru. Table shows players with at least 50 innings batted, note this table has no requirement for minimum number of runs scored. * denotes not out. Last updated: 10 November 2018. Alternative measures of batting effectiveness have been developed, including: Strike rate measures a different concept to batting average – how the batter scores – so it does not supplant the role of batting average, it is used in limited overs matches, where the speed at which a batter scores is more important than it is in first-class cricket. A system of player rankings was developed to produce a better indication of players' current standings than is provided by comparing their averages. Cricket statistics Batting average Bowling average
George Harris, 4th Baron Harris
Colonel George Robert Canning Harris, 4th Baron Harris known as Lord Harris, was a British colonial administrator and Governor of Bombay. He was an English amateur cricketer active from 1870 to 1889, who played for Kent and England as captain of both teams, he had a political career from 1885 to 1900 and was for much of his life a influential figure in cricket administration through the offices he held with Marylebone Cricket Club. The Honourable George Harris was born in St Ann's, Trinidad on 3 February 1851 when his father, George Harris, 3rd Baron Harris, was serving as Governor of Trinidad. Harris knew his mother who died when he was two years old. In 1854, the family moved to Madras. Harris senior retired in March 1859 and returned to England where he became involved with Kent County Cricket Club as a committee member and, in 1870, club president. In 1864, at the age of 13, Harris was sent to Eton College to further his education, his first important cricket match was the 1868 Eton versus Harrow fixture at Lord's, when he was seventeen.
In the same fixture the following year, when Cuthbert Ottaway scored 108 to seal victory for Eton by an innings and nineteen runs, Harris was out for 0. In 1870, his last year at Eton, he scored 7 against Harrow, his father died in November 1872, whereupon Harris junior succeeded to the barony as 4th Baron Harris. He was a first-class cricketer by and was henceforward universally known in the sport as Lord Harris. Harris made his first-class debut for Kent in 1870. Owing to his position in society, he was elected to the club committee and was associated with Kent cricket for the rest of his life, he went up to Christ Church, Oxford in September 1870 and played for the Oxford University team from 1871 to 1874. He was available to play for Kent in the latter half of each of these seasons and became county captain in succession to South Norton in 1871, although his appointment was not made official until after he left Oxford. Harris held the Kent captaincy until 1889, he led the English cricket team in Australia and New Zealand in 1878–79 and was a central figure in the events of 8 February 1879 when a crowd riot erupted at a match in Sydney.
The team had played a match against an All-Australia XI at the Melbourne Cricket Ground and this was designated Test status as the third-ever Test match. Harris was therefore the second England Test captain after James Lillywhite. Australia, led by Dave Gregory, won the match by 10 wickets. Harris captained England against Australia on three further occasions. In 1880 at The Oval, in what was recognised as the inaugural Test match in England, England won by 5 wickets. Harris captained England in two of the Tests played in 1884, his team winning by an innings and 5 runs at Lord's and drawing the final match in the series at The Oval; the full span of Harris' first-class cricket career was from 1870 to 1911, at 42 seasons one of the longest on record, though he made only seven appearances after 1889 when he relinquished the Kent captaincy so his essential playing career was from 1870 to 1889. He appeared in 224 first-class matches, including four Test matches, as a righthanded batsman who bowled right arm fast with a roundarm action.
He scored 9,990 runs in first-class cricket with a highest score of 176 among eleven centuries and held 190 catches. He took 75 wickets with a best analysis of five for 57. In the early 1880s there were a number of bowlers who were considered to have unfair actions, with the Lancashire pair of Jack Crossland and George Nash coming in for particular criticism. After playing for Kent against Lancashire in 1885, when he faced the bowling of Crossland and Nash, Harris decided to take action, he persuaded the Kent committee to cancel the return fixture. That season, Crossland was found to have broken his residential qualification for Lancashire by living in Nottinghamshire, Nash dropped out of the side; the two counties resumed playing each other the following season. Harris's Wisden obituarist wrote: "...there can be no doubt the action of Lord Harris if it did not remove the throwing evil, had a healthy effect on the game." Harris had a long association with Lord's and MCC as both administrator. In 1862, aged eleven, he was practising at Lord's.
It was not till 1929, at the age of 78, that he played there for the last time, representing MCC v Indian Gymkhana. He was president of MCC in 1895, a trustee from 1906 to 1916 and treasurer from 1916 to 1932. Additionally, he was at various times chairman of both the MCC cricket sub-committees. Through these offices, Harris wielded considerable power in the world of cricket and it was written of him: "No man has exercised so strong an influence on the cricket world so long..."In July 1909, Harris chaired a meeting of representatives of England and South Africa which launched the Imperial Cricket Conference and agreed rules to control Test cricket between the three nations. In 1926, he presided at a meeting at The Oval, when it was agreed that "governing bodies of cricket in countries within the Empire to which cricket teams are sent, or which send teams to England" should be eligible for ICC membership; the meeting had the effect of creating three new Test-playing nations: West Indies, New Zealand and India.
Harris was a controversial figure in the world of cricket, revered by cricket's MCC-based establishment and criticised elsewhere. Not all thought. Alan Gibson once wrote that he was "an antediluvian old tyrant", though he retracted this, saying that Harris was a more complex figure than that. But
Sydney Grammar School
Sydney Grammar School is an independent, fee-paying, non-denominational, day school for boys, located in Darlinghurst, Edgecliff and St Ives, which are all suburbs of Sydney, Australia. Incorporated in 1854 by Act of Parliament and opened in 1857, the school claims to offer a "classical" or "grammar" school education thought of as liberal, pre-vocational pedagogy. Sydney Grammar School has an enrolment of 1,841 students from kindergarten to Year 12, over three campuses; the two preparatory schools, are located at Edgecliff in Sydney's Eastern Suburbs, St Ives, on the Upper North Shore. The historic College Street campus caters for students from Forms I to VI, is in Darlinghurst, close to the Sydney central business district; the school is affiliated with the Association of Heads of independent schools of Australia, the Junior School Heads Association of Australia, the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference, is a founding member of the Athletic Association of the Great Public Schools of New South Wales.
Sydney Grammar School is regarded for its'liberal, pre-vocational pedagogy' and is regarded as'Australia's best private school' in other aspects: including academic results, co-curricular activities, alumni. Of all Australian schools, Sydney Grammar School has educated the country's highest number of Prime Ministers, Rhodes Scholars, Justices of the High Court; as of 2018, it ranked the 5th most expensive school in Australia with an average annual school fee of $35,241 per student. The Sydney Public Free Grammar School opened in 1825 with Laurence Hynes Halloran, born County Meath, Ireland as Head Master. Halloran had operated a private school in Exeter, but fled England in 1796 due to debts and after being accused of immorality, it subsequently emerged. He returned to Britain but was arrested for forgery and transported to the penal colony of New South Wales, arriving there in 1819, he was granted a ticket-of-leave. In 1830, Sydney College was founded. Sir Francis Forbes, Chief Justice of New South Wales, became President of the College and laid the foundation stone of the present building in College Street on 26 January 1830.
In 1835, Sydney College opened in this building with W. T. Cape as Head Master. In 1842 he resigned and was succeeded by T. H. Braim. In 1850 Sydney College was closed. In 1854, Sydney Grammar School was incorporated by an Act of Parliament and acquired the land and building in College Street, temporarily occupied by the newly founded University of Sydney in 1852, it was opened on 3 August 1857 as a feeder school for the University. The preamble of the Sydney Grammar School Act 1854 states that: It is deemed expedient for the better advancement of religion and morality and the promotion of useful knowledge to establish in Sydney a public school for conferring on all classes and denominations of Her Majesty’s subjects resident in the Colony of New South Wales without any distinction whatsoever the advantages of a regular and liberal course of education; the Act provides that the Trustees of the School shall consist of twelve persons, of whom six shall be persons holding the following offices respectively: The Honourable the Attorney-General of New South Wales The Honourable the President of the New South Wales Legislative Council The Honourable the Speaker of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly The Chancellor of the University of Sydney The Principal Professor of Classics of the University of Sydney The Senior Professor of Mathematics of the University of SydneyThe Act provides that the Governor of New South Wales shall be the official Visitor of the School.
Sydney Grammar School is the oldest school still in use in the City of Sydney, is historically significant as the site on which the University of Sydney began. The School holds scientific significance as containing examples of early building materials and techniques in pre-Federation Australia; the site was founded as The Sydney College in 1830, the following year began operations in a new building in Hyde Park designed by Edward Hallen. It consisted of a single large room with basement rooms beneath. Sydney College continued despite financial difficulties until 1853, when it was taken over by the fledgling University of Sydney until such time as the present Grose Farm site was ready for occupation; the site was sold in 1856 to the Trustees of the newly incorporated Sydney Grammar School, established and endowed with a building fund by Act of Parliament. Edmund Blacket was commissioned to design extensions to the south and north of the Hallen building, which were completed in 1856 and 1857 respectively.
The "Big School" building became central to the Colonial Architect, James Barnet's vision for the cultural focus of Sydney Town. The War Memorial wing, named for its position behind Big School's monument to the Great War, was built at the northern end of Big School in 1953 by the Scott brothers, at the cost of its double staircase. In 1876, the main building was extended to the east by Mansfield Brothers, this extension was itself extended to the north and south in 1899 by John W Manson; the Science classrooms on Stanley Street were built in 1889–90. Other early buildings on the site, now demolished, included the Sergeant's Lodge, an ablutions block on Stanley Street, a former postal sorting office on Yurong Street. Sydney Grammar is a private school; each year up to 26 full scholarships are offered to boys who show academic promise and who perform well in the sc
Yorkshire County Cricket Club
Yorkshire County Cricket Club is one of eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales. It represents the historic county of Yorkshire; the club's limited overs team is called the Yorkshire Vikings. Yorkshire teams formed by earlier organisations the old Sheffield Cricket Club, played top-class cricket from the 18th century and the county club has always held first-class status. Yorkshire have competed in the County Championship since the official start of the competition in 1890 and have played in every top-level domestic cricket competition in England. Yorkshire are the most successful team in English cricketing history with 33 County Championship titles, including one shared; the team's most recent Championship title was in 2015, following on from that achieved in 2014. The club's limited-overs kit colours are Cambridge blue, Oxford blue, yellow with Mazars as the main sponsor. Yorkshire play most of their home games at the Headingley Cricket Ground in Leeds.
Another significant venue is at North Marine Road Ground, which houses the annual Scarborough Festival. Yorkshire has used other locations including Bramall Lane, the club's original home; the team drew an average attendance of 8,417 to seven home games in 2015. Champion County – 1867, 1870. Sheffield Cricket Club was formed about this time and there are references to Sheffield matches in Derbyshire in 1757 and at Leeds in 1761. A club was formed in York in 1784. Bedale in North Yorkshire was a noted centre in the early 19th century, but cricket in most rural areas was slow to develop. Yorkshire cricket became centred around Sheffield, where it was more organised than in the rest of the county. From 1771, Sheffield played. Nottingham was the better side and Sheffield sometimes played with more players to give them a greater chance of victory; the Sheffield player Tom Marsden was regarded as one of the leading players in the country in the 1820s. Cricket increased in popularity after one of the 1827 roundarm trial matches was played at the purpose-built Darnall New Ground in Sheffield to evaluate the new style of roundarm bowling.
After this match, many new cricket clubs were formed in the county. In 1833, "Yorkshire" was first used as a team name, although it contained 11 Sheffield players, for a game against Norfolk at the Hyde Park Ground in Sheffield; the name may have arisen from a need to match the status of Norfolk as a county rather than a city. There were some differences in the organisation of the Yorkshire team vis-à-vis those called Sheffield as it included three amateurs while Sheffield teams were professional. Yorkshire, as such, played intermittently over the next thirty years but was not organised in any formal way; some of their opponents were Sussex in 1835. In 1849, Yorkshire played against a "Lancashire" team for the first time, though it was a Sheffield v Manchester match. By 1855, Sheffield and Yorkshire were playing at Bramall Lane. On 7 March 1861, during a meeting at the Adelphi Hotel in Sheffield, a Match Fund Committee was established to run Yorkshire county matches; the committee was made up from the management committee of the Bramall Lane ground and representatives from clubs willing to pay £1 to the fund.
But the committee was unable to persuade other clubs that it was not seeking to promote Sheffield cricket and a lack of funds prevented some matches being played in 1862. By this time, there were several cricketers with good reputations and the county team was one of the strongest in England. On 8 January 1863, Yorkshire County Cricket Club was formed. Membership cost a minimum of 10s and 6d. Like most first-class cricket clubs of the time, Yorkshire relied on private patronage with administrators "paying to serve" and "moneyed enthusiasts" acting as ready match sponsors; the majority of players were freelance professionals who were paid a usual match fee of £5, from which all travel and accommodation had to be paid. Travel could be arduous, living away from home could be "rough" and sometimes the match fee was not enough to cover expenses if, as was a problem with early Yorkshire cricketers, "the ale-house was a temptation"; the first club President was former player Thomas Barker, who had become Mayor of Sheffield, although he never attended any meetings.
Michael Ellison was the first club Treasurer and at some point early in Yorkshire's hi
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
Victoria cricket team
The Victoria cricket team, who were named Victorian Bushrangers between 1995 and 2018, is an Australian first-class cricket team based in Melbourne, Victoria. The Victoria cricket team, which first played in 1851, represents the state of Victoria in the Sheffield Shield first-class competition and the JLT One Day Cup competition; the team shares home matches between the Junction Oval. The team is administered by Cricket Victoria and draws its players from Victoria's Premier Cricket competition and throughout the country. Victoria played in the now-defunct Twenty20 competition, the KFC Twenty20 Big Bash, replaced by the franchise-based Big Bash League. Victoria is the second-most successful state team in Australian first-class cricket, having won 32 Sheffield Shield titles, the most recent of, in the 2018–19 season; the Victorians have claimed six One-Day Cups and four KFC Twenty20 Big Bash tiles. The team's origins date back to the start of Australian cricket when the Melbourne Cricket Club was formed in 1838, in that same year an MCC team played its first match against the Victorian Military.
However, the first official inter-colonial game was contested between Port Phillip and Van Diemen's Land in 1851, in Launceston. Victoria was the dominant force in the early days of Australian first-class cricket, winning two of the first three Sheffield Shield tournaments, most of its early domestic friendly games against the other states; the first game between the great rivals Victoria and New South Wales was played at the Melbourne Cricket Ground in 1856. The annual Sheffield Shield tournament first began in the 1892/93 season, contested by Victoria, New South Wales and South Australia. Victoria won that tournament by defeating both opponents twice each. During the history of the Shield, Victoria has won the competition 30 times, most in the 2015/16 season; the Victorian Cricket Association, now Cricket Victoria, was founded in 1895 and since March 2018 has been based at its headquarters, the Junction Oval in St Kilda. Victoria has featured a significant number of cricketing greats, such as Warwick Armstrong, Bill Woodfull, Bill Ponsford, Neil Harvey, Hugh Trumble, Lindsay Hassett, Dean Jones, Jack Blackham, Jack Ryder, Bill Lawry, Bob Cowper, Shane Warne, Keith Miller and Ian Redpath..
Victoria has been a powerful force in Australian cricket and the Australian cricket team has, at least until recent decades, never been short of Victorians in the line up. The tradition of starting a cricket match at the MCG on Boxing Day featured Victoria when they played New South Wales in 1965. Victoria is the only first-class cricket team to have scored over 1,000 in an innings, which it achieved twice in the 1920s – 1,023 against Tasmania in 1922–23, 1,107 against New South Wales in 1926–27. Throughout its history, Victoria's dominant colour has been navy blue, either in full when playing One-Day or Twenty20 competitions or on predominantly white kits in first-class cricket; the team logo replicates that of Cricket Victoria and has done so since the organisation chose to cease referring to the Bushrangers nickname when describing the men's team. The current major sponsor of the team is the CitiPower. Squad for the 2018/19 domestic season. Players with international caps are listed in bold.
Source: Sheffield Shield Titles –: 1882/83, 1894/95, 1897/98, 1898/99, 1900/01, 1907/08, 1914/15, 1921/22, 1923/24, 1924/25, 1927/28, 1929/30, 1930/31, 1933/34, 1934/35, 1936/37, 1946/47, 1950/51, 1962/63, 1966/67, 1969/70, 1973/74, 1978/79, 1979/80, 1990/91, 2003/04, 2008/09, 2009/10, 2014/15, 2015/16, 2016/17, 2018/19. National One Day Cup Titles –: 1971/72, 1979/80, 1994/95, 1998/99, 2010/11, 2018/19, KFC Twenty20 Big Bash Titles –: 2005/06, 2006/07, 2007/08, 2009/10 First Class Batting Records for Victoria First Class Bowling Records for Victoria Cricket Victoria Cricket Australia List of Victoria first-class cricketers List of international cricketers from Victoria Official Website of the Victorian cricket team Official Website of Cricket Australia
Bank of New South Wales
The Bank of New South Wales known as The Wales, was the first bank in Australia, being established in Sydney in 1817 and situated on Broadway. During the 19th and early 20th century, the Bank opened branches first throughout Australia and Oceania, it merged with many other financial institutions merging with the Commercial Bank of Australia in 1982 to form the Westpac Banking Corporation. Established in 1817 in Macquarie Place, Sydney premises leased from Mary Reibey, the Bank of New South Wales was the first bank in Australia, it was established under the economic regime of Governor Lachlan Macquarie. At the time, the colony of Sydney had not been supplied with currency, instead barter and promissory notes was the payment method of choice. Governor Macquarie himself used cattle and rum as payment for the construction of Sydney Hospital and the road from Sydney to Liverpool; the suggestion of establishing a bank was raised in March 1810. In February 1817 seven directors of the bank were elected: D'Arcy Wentworth, John Harris, Robert Jenkins, Thomas Wylde, Alexander Riley, William Redfern and John Thomas Campbell.
Campbell was elected the bank's first president and Edward Smith Hall as its first cashier and secretary. During the 19th and early 20th century, the Bank opened branches throughout Oceania; this included at Moreton Bay in 1850 in Victoria, New Zealand, South Australia, Western Australia, Fiji and Tasmania. Besides expanding its branch network, the bank expanded by acquiring other banks: 1927: BNSW acquired the Western Australian Bank, established in 1841 or 1842. 1931: BNSW acquired the Australian Bank of Commerce, which had branches in both New South Wales and Queensland. 1942: BNSW suspended operations in Papua after the Japanese Army captured many of the towns in which it had branches and agencies, bombed Port Moresby. It resumed operations in 1946. 1957: BNSW buys 40% of finance company Australian Guarantee Corporation and over the years progressively increased its interest to a majority stake of 76% and acquired all remaining shares in 1988. 1968: BNSW joins Databank Systems Limited consortium in New Zealand to provide joint data processing services.
Around this time the bank started going'on line' with the use of their computer nicknamed'Fabicus' the letters standing for First Australian Banking Institution Computer Used in Sydney. Fabicus had been in use since 1958 in the processing of some records. With advanced programming, The use of this computer changed the whole concept of banking as it had been done in years with its combination of hand-written and machined records. Branches became attached to the data processing centre and other banks joined the ranks of computer generated reports and expansion. 1970: BNSW established a branch on Tarawa in Kiribati, which took over the government savings bank. The company first became listed on 18 July 1970. 1971: Branch established in the New Hebrides. 1973: BNSW became the corporate sponsor of the Rescue Helicopter service started by Surf Life Saving Australia. The service is known today as the Westpac Life Saver Rescue Helicopter Service 1974: it participated in a joint venture to establish the Bank of Tonga.
1975: BNSW incorporated its local business in Papua New Guinea as Bank of New South Wales. 1977: BNSW formed Pacific Commercial Bank in Samoa as a joint venture with Bank of Hawaii, buying into Pacific Savings and Loan Company, in which Bank of Hawaii had had an ownership interest since 1971. 1982: BNSW merged with the Commercial Bank of Australia to form Westpac Banking Corporation ending the use of the Bank of New South Wales name. The Parliament of New South Wales passed the Bank of New South Wales Act 1982 on 4 May 1982, completing the name change; the new Westpac brand-name incorporated the "W", the logo of the Bank of New South Wales. The name Westpac is a portmanteau of Western Pacific. Sir Alfred Davidson, General Manager, 1929–1945 Bob White, Chief General Manager, 1977–1982 In 1931 the bank was granted a coat of arms from the College of Arms, symbolised the bank's 1927 acquisition of the Western Australian Bank; the arms featured an Emu and a Black swan rampant supporting a shield surmounted by a kangaroo and the emblem of the rising sun.
On the shield are shown a ship, two sheaves of wheat, a sheep, a cow, a crossed pick and spade, representing the principal industries of Australia at the time: pastoral, agricultural and shipping. The motto included was "Sic fortis Etruria crevit", variously translated as "Thus strong Etruria prospered", a line taken from Virgil's Second Georgic and an early motto of the Colony of New South Wales; these arms replaced the original arms known as the "Advance Australia Arms", similar to the first Coat of arms of Australia used until 1910, using the same kangaroo and emu supporters and the motto "Advance Australia". The shield in these arms was retained in the 1931 arms; the Bank of New South Wales built many bank buildings in Australia, some of which survive and some are heritage-listed. However few are still used as banks. Surviving buildings with heritage listing include: 341 George Street, former Sydney Head Office. 107-109 Bathurst Street, Sydney. 306 Pacific Highway, Crows Nest. 264 Church Street, Sydney Bank of New South Wal