Alfred Zinnemann was an Austrian-born American film director. He won four Academy Awards for directing films in various genres, including thrillers, film noir and play adaptations, he made 25 feature films during his 50-year career. He was among the first directors to insist on using authentic locations and for mixing stars with civilians to give his films more realism. Within the film industry, he was considered a maverick for taking risks and thereby creating unique films, with many of his stories being dramas about lone and principled individuals tested by tragic events. According to one historian, Zinnemann's style demonstrated his sense of "psychological realism and his apparent determination to make worthwhile pictures that are highly entertaining." Among his films were The Search, The Men, High Noon, From Here to Eternity, Oklahoma!, The Nun's Story, A Man For All Seasons, The Day of the Jackal, Julia. His films have received 65 Oscar nominations, winning 24. Zinnemann directed and introduced a number of stars in their U.
S. film debuts, including Marlon Brando, Rod Steiger, Pier Angeli, Julie Harris, Brandon deWilde, Montgomery Clift, Shirley Jones and Meryl Streep. He directed 19 actors to Oscar nominations, including Frank Sinatra, Montgomery Clift, Audrey Hepburn, Glynis Johns, Paul Scofield, Robert Shaw, Wendy Hiller, Jason Robards, Vanessa Redgrave, Jane Fonda, Gary Cooper and Maximilian Schell. Zinnemann was born in the son of Anna and Oskar Zinnemann, a doctor, his parents were Austrian Jews. He had one younger brother. While growing up in Austria, he wanted to become a musician, but went on to graduate with a law degree from the University of Vienna in 1927. While studying law, he became drawn to films and convinced his parents to let him study film production in Paris. After studying for a year at the Ecole Technique de Photographie et Cinématographie in Paris, he became a cameraman and found work on a number of films in Berlin, before immigrating to Hollywood. Both of his parents were killed during the Holocaust.
Zinnemann worked in Germany with several other beginners. His penchant for realism and authenticity is evident in his first feature The Wave, shot on location in Mexico with non-professional actors recruited among the locals, one of the earliest examples of social realism in narrative film. Earlier in the decade, in fact, Zinnemann had worked with documentarian Robert Flaherty, "probably the greatest single influence on my work as a filmmaker", he said. Although he was fascinated by the artistic culture of Germany, with its theater and films, he was aware that the country was in a deep economic crisis, he became disenchanted with Berlin after continually seeing decadent ostentation and luxury existing alongside desperate unemployment. The wealthy classes were moving more to the poor to the left. "Emotion had long since begun to displace reason," he said. As a result of the changing political climate, along with the fact that sound films had arrived in Europe, technically unprepared to produce their own, film production throughout Europe slowed dramatically.
Zinnemann only 21, got his parents' permission to go to America where he hoped filmmaking opportunities would be greater. He arrived in New York at the end of 1929, at the time of the stock market crash. Despite the financial panic beginning, he found New York to be a different cultural environment: New York was a terrific experience, full of excitement, with a vitality and pace totally lacking in Europe, it was as though I had just left a continent of zombies and entered a place humming with incredible energy and power. He took a Greyhound bus to Hollywood a few months following the completion of his first directorial effort for the Mexican cultural protest film, The Wave, in Alvarado, Mexico, he established residence in North Hollywood with Henwar Rodakiewicz, Gunther von Fritsch and Ned Scott, all fellow contributors to the Mexican project. One of Zinnemann's first jobs in Hollywood was as an extra in All Quiet on the Western Front, he said that many of the other extras were former Russian aristocrats and high-ranking officers who fled to America after the Russian revolution in 1917.
He was twenty-two but he said he felt older than the forty-year-olds in Hollywood. But he was jubilant because he was certain that "this was the place one could breathe free and belong." But after a few years he became disillusioned with the limited talents of Hollywood's elites. After some directing success with short films, he graduated to features in 1942, turning out two crisp B mysteries, Eyes in the Night and Kid Glove Killer before getting his big break with The Seventh Cross, starring Spencer Tracy, which became his first hit; the film was based on Anna Seghers' novel and, while filmed on the MGM backlot, made realistic use of refugee German actors in the smallest roles. The central character—an escaped prisoner played by Tracy—is seen as comparatively passive and fatalistic, he is, the subject of heroic assistance from anti-Nazi Germans. In a sense, the protagonist of the film is not the Tracy character but a humble German worker played by Hume Cronyn, who changes from Nazi sympathizer to active opponent of the regime as he aids Tracy.
After World War II, Zinnemann learned. He was further frustrated by his studio contract, which dictated that he did not have a choice in directing films like My Brother Talks to Horses and Little Mister Jim despite his
Neuropsychopharmacology, an interdisciplinary science related to psychopharmacology and fundamental neuroscience, is the study of the neural mechanisms that drugs act upon to influence behavior. It entails research of mechanisms of neuropathology, psychiatric illness, states of consciousness; these studies are instigated at the detailed level involving neurotransmission/receptor activity, bio-chemical processes, neural circuitry. Neuropsychopharmacology supersedes psychopharmacology in the areas of "how" and "why", additionally addresses other issues of brain function. Accordingly, the clinical aspect of the field includes psychiatric as well as neurologic pharmacology-based treatments. Developments in neuropsychopharmacology may directly impact the studies of anxiety disorders, affective disorders, psychotic disorders, degenerative disorders, eating behavior, sleep behavior. Drugs such as opium and certain plants have been used for millennia by humans to ease suffering or change awareness, but until the modern scientific era knowledge of how the substances worked was quite limited, most pharmacological knowledge being more a series of observation than a coherent model.
The first half of the 20th century saw psychology and psychiatry as phenomenological, in that behaviors or themes which were observed in patients could be correlated to a limited variety of factors such as childhood experience, inherited tendencies, or injury to specific brain areas. Models of mental function and dysfunction were based on such observations. Indeed, the behavioral branch of psychology dispensed altogether with what happened inside the brain, regarding most mental dysfunction as what could be dubbed as "software" errors. In the same era, the nervous system was progressively being studied at the microscopic and chemical level, but there was no mutual benefit with clinical fields—until several developments after World War II began to bring them together. Neuropsychopharmacology may be regarded to have begun in the earlier 1950s with the discovery of drugs such as MAO inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants and lithium which showed some clinical specificity for mental illnesses such as depression and schizophrenia.
Until that time, treatments that targeted these complex illnesses were non-existent. The prominent methods which could directly affect brain circuitry and neurotransmitter levels were the prefrontal lobotomy, electroconvulsive therapy, the latter of, conducted without muscle relaxants and both of which caused the patient great physical and psychological injury; the field now known as neuropsychopharmacology has resulted from the growth and extension of many isolated fields which have met at the core of psychiatric medicine, engages a broad range of professionals from psychiatrists to researchers in genetics and chemistry. The use of the term has gained popularity since 1990 with the founding of several journals and institutions such as the Hungarian College of Neuropsychopharmacology; this maturing field shows some degree of flux, as research hypotheses are restructured based on new information. An implicit premise in neuropsychopharmacology with regard to the psychological aspects is that all states of mind, including both normal and drug-induced altered states, diseases involving mental or cognitive dysfunction, have a neurochemical basis at the fundamental level, certain circuit pathways in the central nervous system at a higher level.
Thus the understanding of nerve cells or neurons in the brain is central to understanding the mind. It is reasoned that the mechanisms involved can be elucidated through modern clinical and research methods such as genetic manipulation in animal subjects, imaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, in vitro studies using selective binding agents on live tissue cultures; these allow neural activity to be monitored and measured in response to a variety of test conditions. Other important observational tools include radiological imaging such as positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography; these imaging techniques are sensitive and can image tiny molecular concentrations on the order of 10−10 M such as found with extrastriatal D1 receptor for dopamine. One of the ultimate goals is to devise and develop prescriptions of treatment for a variety of neuropathological conditions and psychiatric disorders. More profoundly, the knowledge gained may provide insight into the nature of human thought, mental abilities like learning and memory, consciousness itself.
A direct product of neuropsychopharmacological research is the knowledge base required to develop drugs which act on specific receptors within a neurotransmitter system. These "hyperselective-action" drugs would allow the direct targeting of specific sites of relevant neural activity, thereby maximizing the efficacy of the drug within the clinical target and minimizing adverse effects. However, there are some cases when some degree of pharmacological promiscuity is tolerable and desirable, producing more desirable results than a more selective agent would. An example of this is Vortioxetine, a drug, not selective as a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, having a significant degree of serotonin modulatory activity, but which has demonstrated reduced discontinuation symptoms and reduced incidence of sexual dysfunction, without loss in antidepressant efficacy; the groundwork is being paved for the next generation of pharmacolog
Shadow of the Beast is an action-adventure game developed by Heavy Spectrum Entertainment Labs and published by Sony Interactive Entertainment for the PlayStation 4 in 2016. It is a re-imagining of the 1989 game of the same name. Gameplay of Shadow of the Beast combines platform and action elements, with the introduction of combos. Players have to defeat enemies; this can be achieved by counter-attacking to strike them down. It features a traditional health bar, combos through quick-time events, traps inside dungeons; the game features the parallax scrolling from the original title, now in 3D. The original Shadow of the Beast is included in the remake as an unlockable extra. An "infinite lives" mode was added to make the original game easier to play; the game follows the story of its original predecessor. Players control Aarbron, kidnapped as a child and corrupted through magic into a monstrous warrior-servant. Shadow of the Beast was announced during gamescom 2013 for the PlayStation 4; the first trailer was revealed, among with the announcement of Heavy Spectrum Entertainment Labs as developer.
Sony showed the first gameplay video during Electronic Entertainment Expo 2015. The release date was set as 2 March 2016, but was delayed to 17 May 2016; the game uses the Unreal Engine 4 as its underlying engine technology, Audiokinetic Wwise for audio. Shadow of the Beast has earned a score of 66% at Metacritic. IGN awarded it a score of 7.6 out of 10, stating: "Bloody, elegant combat and an otherworldly vibe make Shadow of the Beast a successful reboot of the Amiga classic." David Jenkins, writing for Metro's GameCentral, described the game as taking the inspiration from the art and concept of the somewhat flawed original and marrying this with influences from modern action games, such as Bayonetta, to create something greater than its own legacy. GameSpot awarded it a more negative review of 5.0 out of 10, saying "For a remake, it's not a good sign that the best part about the modern Shadow of the Beast is revisiting the game that inspired it." Official website Shadow of the Beast at MobyGames
Seven Stars Tavern is located in Woodstown, Salem County, New Jersey, United States. The building was built in 1762 and was added to the National Register of Historic Places on May 17, 1976, it is said to be haunted. In the early 20th century, the Stephens family lived there and experienced multiple sightings of paranormal activities, including: figures on horseback riding up to the tavern window - which once served as one of the nation's first "drive through" windows during the Revolutionary War times. On one occasion, an infant was in a crib in a bedroom when a figure in a white gown bent down over her and appeared to be intent on picking her up; the child's sister, returning from a night out with friends, saw the figure as she checked on the child and, when she called out, the figure disappeared. In the 1980's, a Philadelphia-based news team performed a live seance in the attic. National Register of Historic Places listings in Salem County, New Jersey
Sa Đéc Base is a former U. S. Navy and Republic of Vietnam Navy base near Sa Đéc in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam; the base was located in Sa Đéc on the upper Mỹ Tho River in the Mekong Delta. The base was established by the US Navy in 1966 as a base for Patrol Boat, River s taking part in Operation Game Warden. Ten PBRs of River Division 52 moved to the base in mid-1966; the original facilities at Sa Đéc were primitive with the sailors living in tents on a soccer field until Seabees constructed more permanent accommodation. In 1967 a Naval Support Activity detachment was established at the base. In March 1970, the headquarters of Swift Boat Coastal Division 13 was moved from Cat Lo Naval Base to Sa Đéc; the base was transferred to the RVNN in April 1971. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Naval History and Heritage Command
The Saticoy Oil Field is an oil and gas field in Ventura County, California, in the United States. The field is a long narrow band paralleling the Santa Clara River near the town of Saticoy. Discovered in 1955, it is one of the smaller but productive fields found in the region after most of the large fields had been operational for decades. At the beginning of 2009 it still contained an estimated 387,000 barrels of recoverable oil out of its original 23.5 million, had 15 wells remaining in operation. Vintage Production, a subsidiary of Occidental Petroleum, was the primary operator on the field as of 2009; the field is long and narrow following the Oak Ridge Fault which defines the alignment of the Santa Clara River, running from northeast to southwest. The field is four miles long by one-quarter mile across, amounting to 640 productive acres total on the northwest side of the Santa Clara River. California State Route 126 parallels the field for its entire length, about one-half mile to the northwest.
The large South Mountain Oil Field is adjacent on the northeast, the Santa Clara Avenue and Oxnard oil fields are south of the river, on the north and south sides of U. S. Highway 101 respectively. Land use in the vicinity of the field is predominantly agricultural, with oil wells and associated production infrastructure interspersed between working agricultural fields and orchards. Climate in the region is Mediterranean, with cool, rainy winters and warm, rainless summers, in which the heat is moderated by frequent morning coastal low clouds and fog. Annual precipitation is around 15 inches all in the winter, all in the form of rain; the mean annual temperature is 56 °F to 60 °F. Elevations on the field range from about 140 to 220 feet above sea level; as it is in the Santa Clara River floodplain it is flat, with runoff going directly into the adjacent Santa Clara River which flows west toward its outlet into the Pacific Ocean between Oxnard and Ventura. The Saticoy field is within the Ventura Basin Province of southern California.
Geologically, this area is part of a structural downwarp. Within the Ventura Basin are some of the richest agricultural fields in California, made possible by the thick alluvial topsoil left by tens of thousands of years of floods from the area's river systems; the basin is filled with sedimentary layers, cut through from northeast to southwest by the Oak Ridge Fault. In the Saticoy field, oil is trapped both in pinchouts of updipping permeable sedimentary units within units of lesser permeability, in sedimentary units which end abruptly at the Oak Ridge Thrust Fault. Horizontally, the fault defines the course of the Santa Clara River and the northern base of the hills south of the river, is part of the fault complex responsible for the 1994 Northridge earthquake; the fault bounds the field on the southeast. The sedimentary units are predominantly turbidites, are of Pleistocene and Pliocene age. From the top down, the units are the Pleistocene Santa Barbara Formation, which contains the producing horizon labeled the "Upper F Zone".
Most of the oil is between 9,000 feet below ground surface. Oil is of medium gravity and low sulfur content throughout, varying little between the different producing horizons. API gravity varies from 30 to 36; the shallowest producing formation, the Upper F Zone, has an average depth of 6,350 feet below ground surface, the deepest, the K, has an average depth of 9,035 feet. Shell Oil Co. drilled the discovery well for the field in May 1955. Development of the Saticoy field was unusual in that the deepest producing horizons, the J and K, were the first to be discovered. All of the rest – F, G, H, I – had been found by Shell by August 1956, development of the field was quick after that; the field reached peak production in 1958 at 2.8 million barrels of oil per year. As production began its inevitable decline, Shell commenced waterflooding operations to increase reservoir pressure and dispose of produced water. Waterflooding ran from 1963 to 1968 in the G, H, I, J zones. Shell held most of the field until 1984.
This was a period during which many of the major oil companies were divesting their operations in the onshore coastal portions of California, selling them to smaller independent operators, in order to focus on more profitable opportunities overseas. Sage held the field until 1990. Crimson ran the field until 2002, at which time they sold their 41 remaining wells to Bentley-Simonson, who held it until April 2005, selling to Plains Exploration & Production, who operated the declining field for more than a year, selling the 14 remaining active wells to their present operator, Vintage Production, in October 2006; as of 2010, there were 15 wells remaining on 14 active and operated by Vintage. The one other, owned by Ibsen Resource Management, Inc. had been idled. The 14 Vintage wells were each producing oil at an average rate of 8.1 barrels per day. California Oil and Gas Fields, Volumes I, II and III