Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau
Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Count of Mirabeau was a leader of the early stages of the French Revolution. A noble, he was involved in numerous scandals before the start of the Revolution in 1789 that had left his reputation in ruins. Nonetheless, he rose to the top of the French political hierarchy in the years 1789–1791 and acquired the reputation of a voice of the people. A successful orator, he was the leader of the moderate position among revolutionaries by favoring a constitutional monarchy built on the model of Great Britain; when he died he was a great national hero though support for his moderate position was slipping away. The discovery that he was in the pay of King Louis XVI and the Austrian enemies of France beginning in 1790 caused his posthumous disgrace. Historians are split on whether he was a great leader who saved the nation from the Terror, a venal demagogue lacking political or moral values, or a traitor in the pay of the enemy; the family of Riqueti, with distant origins in Italy, became wealthy through merchant trading in Marseilles.
In 1570, Jean Riqueti bought the château and seigniory of Mirabeau, which had belonged to the great Provençal family of Barras. In 1685, Honoré Riqueti obtained the title "marquis de Mirabeau", his son, Jean Antoine, grandfather of Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, served with distinction through all the campaigns of the reign of Louis XIV. At the Battle of Cassano, he suffered a neck wound so severe that he had to wear a silver stock after; because he tended to be blunt and tactless, he never rose above the rank of colonel. On retiring from the service, he married Françoise de Castellane with whom he had three sons: Victor, Jean Antoine and Louis Alexandre. Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, was the son of Victor. Honoré Mirabeau was born at Le Bignon, near Nemours, the eldest surviving son of the economist Victor de Riqueti, marquis de Mirabeau, his wife Marie-Geneviève de Vassan, he was the fifth child and second son of the couple. When he was three years old, a virulent attack of smallpox left.
This, combined with Mirabeau's resemblance to his maternal ancestors and his fondness for his mother, contributed to his father's dislike of him. At the age of five, he was sent by his father to a boarding school by the name of "Abbé Choquard." Destined for the army, at age eighteen, he entered the military school in Paris in the regiment of Berri-Cavaleria at Saints. Of this school, which had Joseph-Louis Lagrange for its professor of mathematics, there is an amusing account in the life of Gilbert Elliot, who met Mirabeau there. On leaving school in 1767, he received a commission in a cavalry regiment that his grandfather had commanded years before. Mirabeau's love affairs are well-known, owing to the celebrity of the letters to Marie Thérèse de Monnier, his "Sophie". In spite of his disfigurement, he won the heart of the lady to. On being released, the young nobleman obtained leave to accompany the French expedition to Corsica as a volunteer. During the Corsican expedition, Mirabeau contracted several more gambling debts and engaged in another scandalous love affair.
However, he proved his military genius in the Corsican expedition, conducted a thorough study of the island during his stay. The study was most factually incorrect, but his desire to learn of a country, unstudied emphasizes Mirabeau's endless curiosity and inquisitiveness into the traditions and customs of society. Mirabeau learned the value of hard work in the French army; this aspect of Mirabeau's personality contributed to his popular success in years, during the Revolution. After his return, he tried to keep on good terms with his father, in 1772 he married a rich heiress, Marie–Marquerite–Emilie de Covet, daughter of the marquis de Marignane. Emilie, 18 years old, was engaged to a much older nobleman, the Comte de Valbelle. Nonetheless, Mirabeau pursued her for several months, expecting that their marriage would benefit from the money that the couple would receive from their parents. After several months of failed attempts at being introduced to the heiress, Mirabeau bribed one of the young lady's maids to let him into her residence, where he pretended to have had a sexual encounter with Emilie.
To avoid losing face, her father saw. Mirabeau received a small allowance of 6,000 livres from his father, but never received the expected dowry from the marquis. Mirabeau, still facing financial trouble and increasing debt, could not keep up with the expensive lifestyle to which his wife was accustomed, their extravagances forced his father to send him into semi-exile in the country, where he wrote his earliest extant work, the Essai sur le despotisme; the couple had a son who died early due to the poor living conditions they were experiencing at that time. His wife asked for judicial separation in 1782, she was defended by Jean-Étienne-Marie Portalis, who became one of the editors of the Civil Code. Mirabeau lost, holding resentment against Portalis forever. Mirabeau's violent disposition led him to quarrel with a country gentleman who had insulted his sister, his exile was changed by lettre de cachet into imprisonment in the Château d'If in 1774. In 1775 he was transferred to the castle of Joux, where he was not confined, having full leave to enter the town of Pontarlier.
In a house of a friend he met Marie Thérès
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland and its population is estimated at 1.770 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.1 million residents, which makes Warsaw the 8th most-populous capital city in the European Union. The city limits cover 516.9 square kilometres, while the metropolitan area covers 6,100.43 square kilometres. Warsaw is an alpha global city, a major international tourist destination, a significant cultural and economic hub, its historical Old Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Once described as the'Paris of the North', Warsaw was believed to be one of the most beautiful cities in the world until World War II. Bombed at the start of the German invasion in 1939, the city withstood a siege for which it was awarded Poland's highest military decoration for heroism, the Virtuti Militari. Deportations of the Jewish population to concentration camps led to the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943 and the destruction of the Ghetto after a month of combat.
A general Warsaw Uprising between August and October 1944 led to greater devastation and systematic razing by the Germans in advance of the Vistula–Oder Offensive. Warsaw gained the new title of Phoenix City because of its extensive history and complete reconstruction after World War II, which had left over 85% of its buildings in ruins. Warsaw is one of Europe's most dynamic metropolitan cities. In 2012 the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Warsaw as the 32nd most liveable city in the world. In 2017 the city came 4th in the "Business-friendly" category and 8th in "Human capital and life style", it was ranked as one of the most liveable cities in Central and Eastern Europe. The city is a significant centre of research and development, Business process outsourcing, Information technology outsourcing, as well as of the Polish media industry; the Warsaw Stock Exchange is most important in Central and Eastern Europe. Frontex, the European Union agency for external border security as well as ODIHR, one of the principal institutions of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe have their headquarters in Warsaw.
Together with Frankfurt and Paris, Warsaw is one of the cities with the highest number of skyscrapers in the European Union. The city is the seat of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra, University of Warsaw, the Warsaw Polytechnic, the National Museum, the Great Theatre—National Opera, the largest of its kind in the world, the Zachęta National Gallery of Art; the picturesque Old Town of Warsaw, which represents examples of nearly every European architectural style and historical period, was listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980. Other main architectural attractions include the Castle Square with the Royal Castle and the iconic King Sigismund's Column, the Wilanów Palace, the Łazienki Palace, St. John's Cathedral, Main Market Square, palaces and mansions all displaying a richness of colour and detail. Warsaw is positioning itself as Central and Eastern Europe’s chic cultural capital with thriving art and club scenes and serious restaurants, with around a quarter of the city's area occupied by parks.
Warsaw's name in the Polish language is Warszawa. Other previous spellings of the name may have included Werszewa. According to some sources, the origin of the name is unknown. In Pre-Slavic toponomastic layer of Northern Mazovia: corrections and addenda, it is stated that the toponymy of northern Mazovia tends to have unclear etymology. Warszawa was the name of a fishing village. According to one theory Warszawa means "belonging to Warsz", Warsz being a shortened form of the masculine name of Slavic origin Warcisław; however the ending -awa is unusual for a big city. Folk etymology attributes the city name to a fisherman and his wife, Sawa. According to legend, Sawa was a mermaid living in the Vistula River. In actuality, Warsz was a 12th/13th-century nobleman who owned a village located at the modern-day site of the Mariensztat neighbourhood. See the Vršovci family which had escaped to Poland; the official city name in full is miasto stołeczne Warszawa. A native or resident of Warsaw is known as a Varsovian – in Polish warszawiak, warszawianka and warszawianie.
Other names for Warsaw include Varsovia and Varsóvia, Varsavia, Warschau, װאַרשע /Varshe, Varšuva, Varsó and Varšava The first fortified settlements on the site of today's Warsaw were located in Bródno and Jazdów. After Jazdów was raided by nearby clans and dukes, a new similar settlement was established on the site of a small fishing village called Warszowa; the Prince of Płock, Bolesław II of Masovia, established this settlement, the modern-day Warsaw, in about 1300. In the beginning of the 14th century it became one of the seats of the Dukes of Masovia, becoming the official capital of the Masovian Duchy in 1413. 14th-century Warsaw's economy rested on crafts and trade. Upon the extinction of the local ducal line, the duchy was reincorporated into the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland in 1526. In 1529, Warsaw for the first time became the seat of th
Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Duchess Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was Queen of Prussia as the wife of King Frederick William III. The couple's happy, though short-lived, marriage produced nine children, including the future monarchs Frederick William IV of Prussia and German Emperor Wilhelm I, her legacy became cemented after her extraordinary 1807 meeting with French Emperor Napoleon I at Tilsit – she met with the emperor to plead unsuccessfully for favorable terms after Prussia's disastrous losses in the Napoleonic Wars. She was well loved by her subjects, but her meeting with Napoleon led Louise to become revered as "the soul of national virtue", her early death at the age of thirty-four "preserved her youth in the memory of posterity", caused Napoleon to remark that the king "has lost his best minister". The Order of Louise was founded by her grieving husband four years as a female counterpart to the Iron Cross. In the 1920s conservative German women founded the Queen Louise League, Louise herself would be used in Nazi propaganda as an example of the ideal German woman.
Duchess Luise Auguste Wilhelmine Amalie of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was born on 10 March 1776 in a one-storey villa, just outside the capital in Hanover. She was the fourth daughter and sixth child of Duke Charles of Mecklenburg and his wife Princess Friederike of Hesse-Darmstadt, her father Charles was a brother of Queen Charlotte and her mother Frederike was a granddaughter of Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. Her maternal grandmother, Landgravine Marie Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt, her paternal first-cousin Princess Augusta Sophia of the United Kingdom served as sponsors at her baptism. At the time of her birth, Louise's father was not yet the ruler of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, she was not born in a court, but rather in a less formal home. Charles was field marshal of the household brigade in Hanover, soon after Louise's birth he was made Governor-General of that territory by his brother-in-law George III, king of the United Kingdom and Hanover; the family subsequently moved to Leineschloss, the residence of Hanoverian kings, though during the summer they lived at Herrenhausen.
Louise was close to her sister Frederica, two years younger, as well as with their only brother George. Louise and her siblings were under the care of their governess Fraulein von Wolzogen, a friend of their mother's; when Louise was only six years old, her mother died in childbirth, leaving a permanent mark on the young duchess. After Duchess Friederike's death, the family left Leineschloss for Herrenhausen, sometimes called a "miniature Versailles". Duke Charles remarried two years to his first wife's younger sister Charlotte, producing a son, Charles. Louise and her new stepmother became close until Charlotte's early death the year after their marriage; the twice widowed and grieving duke went to Darmstadt, where he gave the children into the care of his mother-in-law and Louise's godmother, the widowed Landgravine Marie Louise. Their grandmother preferred to raise them and they made their own clothes. A new governess from Switzerland, Madame Gelieux, was appointed, giving the children lessons in French.
She received religious instruction from a clergyman of the Lutheran Church. Complementary to her lessons was an emphasis on charitable acts, Louise would accompany her governess when visiting the houses of the poor and needy. Louise was encouraged to give out as much as was in her means, although she got into trouble with her grandmother for donating too much for charity. From the age of ten until her marriage at 17, Louise spent most of her time in the presence of her grandmother and governess, both well-educated and refined; when only nine years old, Louise was present when the poet Friedrich Schiller read from the first act of "Don Carlos" for the entertainment of the assembled court, thus sparking her love for German as a literary language works of Schiller. Louise loved history and poetry, not only enjoyed reading Schiller, but came to like the works of Goethe, Paul and Shakespeare, as well as ancient Greek tragedies. In 1793, Marie Louise took the two youngest duchesses with her to Frankfurt, where she paid her respects to her nephew King Frederick William II.
Louise had grown up into a beautiful young woman, possessing "an exquisite complexion" and "large blue eyes," and was graceful. Louise's uncle, the Duke of Mecklenburg, hoped to strengthen ties between Prussia. On one evening planned by the Duke, seventeen-year-old Louise met the king's son and heir, Crown Prince Frederick William; the crown prince was twenty-three, serious-minded, religious. She made such a charming impression on Frederick William that he made his choice, desiring to marry her. Frederica caught the eye of his younger brother Prince Louis Charles, the two families began planning a double betrothal, celebrating a month on 24 April 1793 in Darmstadt. Frederick and Louise were subsequently married on 24 December that same year, with Louis and Frederica marrying two days later. In the events leading up to her marriage, Louise's arrival in Berlin, the Prussian capital, caused quite a sensation, she was greeted with a grand reception by the city's joyful citi
Bad Freienwalde is a spa town in the Märkisch-Oderland district in Brandenburg, Germany. The town is situated on the Alte Oder, an old branch of the Oder River at the northwestern rim of the Oderbruch basin and the steep rise of the Barnim Plateau, it is located 15 km east of Eberswalde, 50 km northeast of Berlin, near the border with Poland. Bad Freienwalde has an Evangelical and a Roman Catholic church as well as manufacturers of furniture and machinery; the neighbouring forests and its medicinal springs make it a favorite summer resort of Berlin inhabitants. A new tower commands a fine panoramic view over the Oder valley; the municipal area comprises the following villages: Altranft, Bralitz, Hohenwutzen and Schiffmühle. The settlement of Vrienwalde in the Margraviate of Brandenburg was first mentioned in a 1316 deed and appeared as a town in 1364. From 1618, the Freienwalde manor was directly held by the Brandenburg prince-electors. A mineral spring was discovered in 1683; the alchemist Johann Kunckel brought it to the attention of the "Great Elector" Frederick William of Brandenburg, gout-ridden, arrived in Freienwalde the next year.
Recorded by the physician Bernhardus Albinus in 1685, the Kurfürstenquelle became the foundation of Freienwalde's rise as a spa town. Frederick William's son King Frederick I of Prussia had a first maison de plaisance erected by the architect Andreas Schlüter; the development was further promoted, when in 1799 the small Neoclassical Freienwalde Castle was built according to plans by David Gilly as a summer residence of Princess Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt, the widow of King Frederick William II of Prussia. Its park was redesigned by Peter Joseph Lenné in 1822; the industrialist and politician Walther Rathenau acquired the palace in 1909, it was nationalised after his assassination in 1922. Freienwalde achieved the official status of spa town in 1925. Edith Andreae salonière and sister of Walter Rathenau. Alfred Blaschko, dermatologist Hans Keilson, Dutch psychotherapist, novelist Kurt Kretschmann nature conservationist Erwin Wickert, German diplomat Elisabeth Radziwill, beloved of Prince Wilhelm I of Prussia died at Freienwalde Volkmar Sigusch and physician Hildegard und Siegfried Schumacher, children's book authors Ferdinand Friedrich Zimmermann, journalist and Sturmbannführer Bad Freienwalde is twinned with: Bad Pyrmont, Germany Międzyrzecz, Poland Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Freienwalde". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Media related to Bad Freienwalde at Wikimedia Commons
William II, Elector of Hesse
William II was the penultimate Elector of Hesse. William was the eldest surviving son of William I, Elector of Hesse and Wilhelmina Caroline of Denmark and Norway. With the Hessian troops, he was involved in the War of the Sixth Coalition against Napoleon in 1813, he succeeded as Elector of Hesse on his father's death in 1821. On 13 February 1797 in Berlin, William married Princess Augusta of Prussia, fourth daughter of Frederick William II of Prussia, they had six children: Wilhelm Karoline Luise Friedrich Frederick William, Elector of Hesse Marie Fredericka, married Bernhard II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen Ferdinand William had eight children by his second wife, Emilie Ortlöpp, daughter of Johann Christian Ortlöpp and wife Agnese Luise Sophie Wiessenberg, created Countess of Reichenbach-Lessonitz. The children bore the title Count/Countess of Reichenbach-Lessonitz: Luise Wilhelmine Emilie, married Karl Count von Bose Julius Wilhelm Albrecht Gustav Karl, married Clementine Richter Amalie Wilhelmine Emilie, married Wilhelm Count von Lückner Karl Baron von Watzdorf Emilie, married Felix Count Zichy-Ferraris Friederike, married Wilhelm Baron von Dungern Wilhelm, married Helene Amelie Baroness Goeler von Ravensburg Helene, married Oswald Baron von Fabrice Several months after Augusta's death on 19 February 1841, William morganatically married his mistress and their children were legitimated.
Emilie Ortlöpp died less than two years after the marriage in 1843. Again, months after his second wife's death, William married Caroline, Baroness of Berlepsch, daughter of Ludwig Hermann, Baron of Berlepsch and wife Melusine Jul. Chr. von Kruse, created Countess of Bergen in 1846. This marriage was childless, she married on 28 October 1851 Karl Adolf Graf von Hohenthal, by whom she had two sons: Karl Adolf and Karl Ludwig. Princess Tatiana of Greece and Denmark, the wife of Prince Nikolaos of Greece and Denmark, son of King Constantine II of Greece is a descendant of William II of Hesse. 28 July 1777 - 31 October 1785 His Serene Highness Prince Wilhelm of Hesse-Kassel 31 October 1785 - 15 May 1803 His Serene Highness The Hereditary Prince of Hesse-Kassel 15 May 1803 - 27 February 1821 His Serene Highness The Electoral Prince of Hesse 27 February 1821 - 20 November 1847 His Royal and Serene Highness The Elector and Sovereign Landgrave of Hesse Marek, Miroslav. "Genealogy of the Hesse-Kassel line".
Genealogy. EU. Media related to William II, Elector of Hesse at Wikimedia Commons
Prince Wilhelm of Prussia (1783–1851)
Prince Wilhelm of Prussia was the son of Frederick William II of Prussia and Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt. Prince William was the fourth and youngest son of King Frederick William II of Prussia and Princess Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt, he served in the Guards from 1799 and fought in 1806 at the head of a cavalry brigade at Battle of Jena and Auerstedt. In December 1807, he traveled to Paris, to try to reduce the war burdens imposed on Prussia by Napoléon Bonaparte. In 1808, he represented Prussia at the Congress of Erfurt. At the end of 1808, he accompanied King Frederick William III to St. Petersburg, he had a prominent role in the transformation of Prussia and its army. During the War of the Sixth Coalition of 1813, he was stationed in Blücher's headquarters. In the Battle of Lützen on 2 May, he commanded the reserve cavalry in the left wing of the army and during the Battle of Leipzig, he negotiated the union of the Northern army with Blucher's, he led the 8th Brigade of the Yorck's army corps on the Rhine and distinguished himself by bravery and military skills at the battles of Château-Thierry and outside Paris.
After the Treaty of Paris, the Prince accompanied the king to London and attended the negotiations of the Congress of Vienna. In 1815 during the Waterloo Campaign he commanded the reserve cavalry of the Prussian IV Corps. After the second Treaty of Paris, he lived in Paris and sometimes at his Fischbach Castle in Kowary in the Riesengebirge mountains. From 1824 to 1829 he was governor of the Confederate Fortress at Mainz. In this capacity, on 20 September 1831 he opened the first rail line on German soil from Hinsbeck via the Deilbach valley to Nierenhof; until the line had been called Deilthaler Eisenbahn. In March 1834 he was appointed general of cavalry and re-appointed as governor of the federal fortress at Mainz, he should not be confused with his nephew of the same name, the future emperor William I, governor of the same fortress in 1854. After the death of his wife, Marie Anna, on 14 April 1846, he withdrew from public life at his Fischbach castle, he married his first cousin Landgravine Marie Anna of Hesse-Homburg, daughter of Frederick V, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg and Caroline of Hesse-Darmstadt, together they had seven children: HRH Princess Amalie Friederike Luise Karoline Wilhelmine of Prussia.
HRH Princess Irene of Prussia. Unnamed son. HRH Prince Friedrich Tassilo Wilhelm of Prussia. HRH Prince Heinrich Wilhelm Adalbert of Prussia. HRH Prince Friedrich Wilhelm Tassilo of Prussia. HRH Princess Marie Elisabeth Karoline Viktoria of Prussia. HRH Prince Friedrich Wilhelm Waldemar of Prussia HRH Princess Marie Friederike Franziska Hedwig of Prussia. Herman von Petersdorff, "Wilhelm, Prinz von Preußen", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 43, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 171–177 Franz Joseph Adolph Schneidawind, Prinz Wilhelm von Preußen in den Kriegen seiner Zeit, Verlag der Deckerschen Geheimen Ober-Hofbuchdruckerei, Complete text at Google Books
William I of the Netherlands
William I was a Prince of Orange and the first King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg. He was the ruler of the Principality of Nassau-Orange-Fulda from 1803 until 1806 and of the Principality of Orange-Nassau in the year 1806 and from 1813 until 1815. In 1813 he proclaimed himself Sovereign Prince of the United Netherlands, he proclaimed himself King of the Netherlands and Duke of Luxembourg on 16 March 1815. In the same year on 9 June William I became the Grand Duke of Luxembourg and after 1839 he was furthermore the Duke of Limburg. After his abdication in 1840 he styled himself Count of Nassau. King William I's parents were the last stadtholder William V, Prince of Orange of the Dutch Republic, his wife Wilhelmina of Prussia; until 1806, William was formally known as William VI, Prince of Orange-Nassau, between 1806 and 1813 as Prince of Orange. In Berlin on 1 October 1791, William married his first cousin Wilhelmina of Prussia, born in Potsdam, she was the daughter of King Frederick William II of Prussia.
After Wilhelmina died in 1837, William married Countess Henriette d'Oultremont de Wégimont, created Countess of Nassau, on 17 February 1841 in Berlin. As eldest son of the Prince of Orange William was informally referred to as Erfprins by contemporaries in the period between his majority in 1790 and the death of his father in 1806 to distinguish him from William V. Like his younger brother Prince Frederick of Orange-Nassau he was tutored by the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler and the Dutch historian Herman Tollius, they were both tutored in the military arts by general Prince Frederick Stamford. After the Patriot revolt had been suppressed in 1787, he in 1788-89 attended the military academy in Brunswick, considered an excellent military school, together with his brother. In 1790 he visited a number of foreign courts like the one in Nassau and the Prussian capital Berlin, where he first met his future wife. William subsequently studied at the University of Leiden. In 1790 he was appointed a general of infantry in the States Army of which his father was Captain general, he was made a member of the Council of State of the Netherlands.
In November 1791 he took his new bride to The Hague. After the National Convention of the French First Republic had declared war on the stadtholder of the Dutch Republic in February 1793, William was appointed commander-in-chief of the veldleger of the States Army; as such he commanded the troops that took part in the Flanders Campaign of 1793-95. He took part in the battles of Veurne and Wervik in 1793, the siege of Landrecies, which fortress surrendered to him, the Battle of Fleurus, to name the most important. In May 1794 he had replaced general Kaunitz as commander of the combined Austro-Dutch forces on the instigation of Emperor Francis II who had a high opinion of him, but the French armies proved too strong, the allied leadership too inept, the allies were defeated. The French first entered Dutch Brabant; when in the winter of 1794-95 the rivers in the Rhine delta froze over, the French breached the southern Hollandic Water Line and the situation became militarily untenable. In many places Dutch revolutionaries took over the local government.
After the Batavian Revolution in Amsterdam on 18 January 1795 the stadtholder decided to flee to Britain, his sons accompanied him.. The next day the Batavian Republic was proclaimed. Soon after his departure to Britain the Hereditary Prince went back to the Continent, where his brother was assembling former members of the States Army in Osnabrück for a planned foray into the Batavian Republic in the Summer of 1795. However, the neutral Prussian government forbade this. In 1799, William landed in the current North Holland as part of an Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland; the Hereditary Prince was instrumental in fomenting a mutiny on the Batavian naval squadron in the Vlieter, resulting in the surrender of the ships without a fight to the Royal Navy, which accepted the surrender in the name of the stadtholder. The local Dutch population, was not pleased with the arrival of the prince. One local Orangist was executed; the hoped-for popular uprising failed to materialise. After several minor battles the Hereditary Prince was forced to leave the country again after the Convention of Alkmaar.
The mutineers of the Batavian fleet, with their ships,and a number of deserters from the Batavian army accompanied the retreating British troops to Britain. There William formed the King's Dutch Brigade with these troops, a military unit in British service, that swore oaths of allegiance to the British King, but to the States General, defunct since 1795, "whenever those would be reconstituted." This brigade trained on the Isle of Wight in 1800 and was used by the British in Ireland. When peace was concluded between Great Britain and the French Republic under First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte the Orange exiles were at their nadir; the Dutch Brigade was dissolved on 12 July 1802. Many members of the brigade went home to the Batavian Republic, thanks to an amnesty; the surrendered ships of the Batavian navy were not returned, due to an agreement between the stadtholder and the British government of 11 March 1800. Instead the stadtholder was allowed to sell them to the Royal Navy for an appreciabl