Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. It is a colorless chalcogen hydride gas with the characteristic foul odor of rotten eggs, it is poisonous and flammable. Hydrogen sulfide is produced from the microbial breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen gas, such as in swamps and sewers. H2S occurs in volcanic gases, natural gas, in some sources of well water; the human body uses it as a signaling molecule. Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele is credited with having discovered hydrogen sulfide in 1777; the British English spelling of this compound is hydrogen sulphide, but this spelling is not recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry or the Royal Society of Chemistry. Hydrogen sulfide is denser than air. Hydrogen sulfide burns in oxygen with a blue flame to form sulfur water. In general, hydrogen sulfide acts as a reducing agent in the presence of base, which forms SH−. At high temperatures or in the presence of catalysts, sulfur dioxide reacts with hydrogen sulfide to form elemental sulfur and water.
This reaction is exploited in the Claus process, an important industrial method to dispose of hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide is soluble in water and acts as a weak acid, giving the hydrosulfide ion HS−. Hydrogen sulfide and its solutions are colorless; when exposed to air, it oxidizes to form elemental sulfur, not soluble in water. The sulfide anion S2− is not formed in aqueous solution. Hydrogen sulfide reacts with metal ions to form metal sulfides, which are insoluble dark colored solids. Lead acetate paper is used to detect hydrogen sulfide because it converts to lead sulfide, black. Treating metal sulfides with strong acid liberates hydrogen sulfide. At pressures above 90 GPa, hydrogen sulfide becomes a metallic conductor of electricity; when cooled below a critical temperature this high-pressure phase exhibits superconductivity. The critical temperature increases with pressure. If hydrogen sulfide is pressurized at higher temperatures cooled, the critical temperature reaches 203 K, the highest accepted superconducting critical temperature as of 2015.
By substituting a small part of sulfur with phosphorus and using higher pressures, it has been predicted that it may be possible to raise the critical temperature to above 0 °C and achieve room-temperature superconductivity. Hydrogen sulfide is most obtained by its separation from sour gas, natural gas with high content of H2S, it can be produced by treating hydrogen with molten elemental sulfur at about 450 °C. Hydrocarbons can serve as a source of hydrogen in this process. Sulfate-reducing bacteria generate usable energy under low-oxygen conditions by using sulfates to oxidize organic compounds or hydrogen. A standard lab preparation is to treat ferrous sulfide with a strong acid in a Kipp generator: FeS + 2 HCl → FeCl2 + H2SFor use in qualitative inorganic analysis, thioacetamide is used to generate H2S: CH3CNH2 + H2O → CH3CNH2 + H2SMany metal and nonmetal sulfides, e.g. aluminium sulfide, phosphorus pentasulfide, silicon disulfide liberate hydrogen sulfide upon exposure to water: 6 H2O + Al2S3 → 3 H2S + 2 Al3This gas is produced by heating sulfur with solid organic compounds and by reducing sulfurated organic compounds with hydrogen.
Water heaters can aid the conversion of sulfate in water to hydrogen sulfide gas. This is due to providing a warm environment sustainable for sulfur bacteria and maintaining the reaction which interacts between sulfate in the water and the water heater anode, made from magnesium metal. Hydrogen sulfide can be generated in cells via non enzymatic pathway. H2S in the body acts as a gaseous signaling molecule, known to inhibit Complex IV of the mitochondrial electron transport chain which reduces ATP generation and biochemical activity within cells. Three enzymes are known to synthesize H2S: cystathionine γ-lyase, cystathionine β-synthetase and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase; these enzymes have been identified in a breadth of biological cells and tissues, their activity has been observed to be induced by a number of disease states. It is becoming clear that H2S is an important mediator of a wide range of cell functions in health and in disease. CBS and CSE are the main proponents of H2S biogenesis.
These enzymes are characterized by the transfer of a sulfur atom from methionine to serine to form a cysteine molecule. 3-MST contributes to hydrogen sulfide production by way of the cysteine catabolic pathway. Dietary amino acids, such as methionine and cysteine serve as the primary substrates for the transulfuration pathways and in the production of hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide can be synthesized by non-enzymatic pathway, derived from proteins such as ferredoxins and Rieske proteins. H2S has been shown to be involved in physiological processes like vasoconstriction in animals, increasing seed germination and stress responses in plants. Hydrogen sulfide signaling is innately intertwined with physiological processes that are known to be moderated by reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. H2S has been shown to interact with NO resulting in severa
Père Lachaise Cemetery
Père Lachaise Cemetery is the largest cemetery in Paris, France. With more than 3.5 million visitors annually, it is the most visited necropolis in the world. Père Lachaise is located in the 20th arrondissement and notable for being the first garden cemetery, as well as the first municipal cemetery in Paris, it is the site of three World War I memorials. The cemetery is on Boulevard de Ménilmontant; the Paris Métro station Philippe Auguste on Line 2 is next to the main entrance, while the station named Père Lachaise, on both Line 2 and Line 3, is 500 metres away near a side entrance. Many tourists prefer the Gambetta station on Line 3, as it allows them to enter near the tomb of Oscar Wilde and walk downhill to visit the rest of the cemetery; the cemetery of Père Lachaise opened in 1804. The cemetery takes its name from the confessor to Louis XIV, Père François de la Chaise, who lived in the Jesuit house rebuilt during 1682 on the site of the chapel; the property, situated on the hillside from which the king watched skirmishing between the armies of the Condé and Turenne during the Fronde, was bought by the city during 1804.
Established by Napoleon during this year, the cemetery was laid out by Alexandre-Théodore Brongniart and extended. Napoleon, proclaimed Emperor by the Senate three days earlier, had declared during the Consulate that "Every citizen has the right to be buried regardless of race or religion”; as the city graveyards of Paris filled, several new, large cemeteries, outside the precincts of the capital, replaced them: Montmartre Cemetery in the north, Père Lachaise in the east, Montparnasse Cemetery in the south. Near the middle of the city is Passy Cemetery. At the time of its opening, the cemetery was considered to be situated too far from the city and attracted few funerals. Moreover, many Roman Catholics refused to have their graves in a place that had not been blessed by the Church. During 1804, the Père Lachaise contained only 13 graves; the administrators devised a marketing strategy and during 1804, with great fanfare, organized the transfer of the remains of Jean de La Fontaine and Molière.
The next year there were 44 burials, with 49 during 1806, 62 during 1807 and 833 during 1812. In another great spectacle of 1817, the purported remains of Pierre Abélard and Héloïse d'Argenteuil were transferred to the cemetery with their monument's canopy made from fragments of the abbey of Nogent-sur-Seine; this strategy achieved its desired effect: people began clamoring to be buried among the famous citizens. Records show that the Père Lachaise contained more than 33,000 graves during 1830. Père Lachaise was expanded five times: during 1824, 1829, 1832, 1842 and 1850. Presently there are more than 1 million bodies buried there, many more in the columbarium, which holds the remains of those who had requested cremation; the Communards' Wall, located within the cemetery, was the site where 147 Communards, the last defenders of the workers' district of Belleville, were shot on May 28, 1871. That day was the last of the "Bloody Week". Today, the site is a traditional rallying point for members of the French political Left.
Adolphe Thiers, the French president who directed "Bloody Week," is interred in the cemetery, where his tomb has been subject to vandalism. A funerary chapel was erected during 1823 by Étienne-Hippolyte Godde at the exact place of the ancient Jesuit house; this same Neoclassical architect created the monumental entrance a few years later. A columbarium and a crematorium of a Neo-Byzantine style were designed in 1894 by Jean-Camille Formigé. Père Lachaise is still an operating cemetery and accepting new burials. However, the rules to be buried in a Paris cemetery are rather strict: people may be buried in one of these cemeteries if they die in the French capital city or if they lived there. Being buried in Père Lachaise is more difficult nowadays as there is a waiting list: few plots are available; the grave sites at Père Lachaise range from a simple, unadorned headstone to towering monuments and elaborate mini chapels dedicated to the memory of a well-known person or family. Many of the tombs are about the size and shape of a telephone booth, with just enough space for a mourner to step inside, kneel to say a prayer, leave some flowers.
The cemetery manages to squeeze an increasing number of bodies into a finite and crowded space. One way it does. At Père Lachaise, it is not uncommon to reopen a grave after a body has decomposed and inter another coffin; some family mausoleums or multi-family tombs contain dozens of bodies in several separate but contiguous graves. Shelves are installed to accommodate them. During recent times, the Père Lachaise has adopted a standard practice of issuing 30-year leases on grave sites, so that if a lease is not renewed by a family, the remains can be removed, space made for a new grave, the overall deterioration of the cemetery minimized. Abandoned remains are boxed and moved to Aux Morts ossuary, in Père Lachaise cemetery. Plots can be bought in perpetuity or for 50, 30 or 10 years, the last being the least expensive option. For the case of mausoleums and chapels, coffins are most of the time below ground. Although some sources incorrectly estimate the number of interred as 300,000 in Père Lachaise, according to the official website of
Philippe le Bon was a French engineer, born in Brachay, France. There is much confusion about his life and accomplishments, his main contributions were improvements to steam engines and industrializing the extraction of lighting gas from wood. He died assassinated in 1804, he designed, though did not build, a wood gas engine. Like other early engines, it had no compression in its main cylinder, it has three mechanically connected cylinders, each double acting, one to compress the air, one to compress the gas and one driven by the burned mixture. This engine resembles an internal combustion engine, but the combustion takes place in a combustion chamber separated by mechanically controlled valves from the cylinders; this makes it a steam engine running on combustion products instead of on steam, or the piston equivalent of a gas turbine. Hardenberg's analysis shows a theoretical efficiency and specific power much less than those of the earlier Street engine, but this assumes that the intake valve stays open during the whole power stroke.
Assuming that the inventor had more in his mind than what he wrote on paper and therefore allowing arbitrary valve timing, its idealized thermodynamic cycle is similar to that of a gas turbine, which can have a high compression ratio and high efficiency. This assumes, contrary to what Hardenberg seems to assume, that the combustion chamber would have been big enough to act as a pressure reservoir. Of course one's place in history depends on what one does and writes more than on what one can be assumed to have thought. All but Hardenberg, must have seen that it would give more room for optimization than the Street engine did; the reasons that it has never been used must be the obvious thermal and mechanical problems, such as heat loss from the combustion products to the containing structures. In 1801, Philippe Lebon invented an engine, it used coal gas ignited by an electric spark. This was the first internal combustion engine. Although inefficient it would be improved in the future. In current society the internal combustion is used in the exceptional modern car.
François Veillerette Philippe Lebon ou l'homme aux mains de Ed. Mourot, 1987. Horst O. Hardenberg, The Middle Ages of the Internal Combustion Engine, 1999, Society of Automotive Engineers. Lebon, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2006
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Gas Light and Coke Company
The Gas Light and Coke Company, was a company that made and supplied coal gas and coke. The headquarters of the company were located on Horseferry Road in London, it is identified as the original company. The company was founded by Frederick Albert Winsor, from Germany, incorporated by Royal Charter on 30 April 1812 under the seal of King George III, it was the first company set up to supply London with gas, operated the first gas works in the United Kingdom, the world's first public gas works. It was governed by a "Court of Directors", which met for the first time on 24 June 1812; the original capitalisation was £1 million, in 80,000 shares. Offices were established with a wharf at Cannon Row. In 1818 the company established a tar works in Poplar and expanded their works at Brick Lane and Westminster. Under the company's chief engineer, Samuel Clegg, a gas works was installed at the Royal Mint in 1817 and by 1819 nearly 290 miles of pipes had been laid in London, supplying 51,000 burners. Clegg developed a practical gas meter.
The Company absorbed numerous smaller companies, including the Wellclose undertaking, the City of London Gas Light and Coke Company, the Great Central Gas Consumer's Company, the Equitable Gas Light Company, the Victoria Docks Gas Company, Western Gas Light Company, Imperial Gas Light and Coke Company, the Cricklewood undertaking, the Independent Gas Light and Coke Company, the London Gas Light Company, the West Ham Gas Company, the Barking Gas Company, the Chigwell and Woodford Gas Company, the Ilford Gas Company, the Richmond Gas Company, the Brentford Gas Company, the Grays and Tilbury Gas Company, the Pinner Gas Company, the Brentwood Gas Company and the Southend-on-Sea and District Gas Company. The GLCC's constituent companies had themselves absorbed smaller companies, including the Aldgate Gas Light and Coke Company by the City of London Company, the Billericay undertaking by the Grays Company, Caslon's undertaking by the Imperial Company, the Great Stanmore Gas Company by the Harrow Company, the Harrow and Stanmore Company by the Brentford Company, the Ingatestone and Fryerning Gas Company by the Brentwood Company, the Laindon Gas Company by the Grays Company, the Leigh-on-Sea undertaking by the Southend Company, Mackintosh's undertaking by the Imperial Company, the North Woolwich undertaking by the Victoria Docks Gas Company, the Norwood undertaking by the Brentford Company, the Rayleigh undertaking by the Grays Company, the Richmond Gas Company by the Brentford Company, the Rochford undertaking by the Southend Company, the Staines and Egham District Gas and Coke Company by the Brentford Company, the Stanford-le-Hope Gas Company by the Grays Company, the Sunbury Gas Consumers' Company by the Brentford Company, the Whitechapel Road Gas Light and Coke Company by the Imperial Company.
With the advent of electricity the company expanded into domestic services, with "Lady Demonstrators" employed to promote gas cooking. This home service developed into a full advisory service on domestic gas use. In 1948 the GLCC supplied an area of 547 square miles from Egham in Surrey, Pinner in North West London to Southend-on-Sea in Essex, it supplied a population of 4.5 million, in 1948 had 21,250 employees and sold 276.7 million Therms of gas. On 1 May 1949 the GLCC was nationalised under the Gas Act 1948 and became the major part of the new North Thames Gas Board, one of Britain's twelve regional area gas boards; the following thirteen gasworks were in operation when the GLCC was dissolved in 1949. Beckton Gas Works were built in 1868 on East Ham Levels east of London; the site was named "Beckton" after Simon Adams Beck. The vast 550 acres not only gave the GLCC room for much more gas production than at Nine Elms, but was downriver of the Pool of London and so could be served by larger colliers.
In 1872 five men were gaoled for 12 months following a strike at the Beckton works in support of two workers sacked for requesting a pay rise. The sentence was subsequently reduced to four months. In 1889 men were laid off from Beckton, prompting the founding of the National Union of Gasworkers and General Labourers, which subsequently became part of the General, Municipal and Allied Trades Union. Engineer to the St Pancras works in 1903, the Shoreditch works in 1905, in 1906 he was appointed Resident Engineer of the Beckton works of the Gas Light and Coke Co; the Resident Engineer from 1906 was Joseph Newell Reeson who went on to undertake world first experiments with welded gas holder construction. Productive capacity: 119.12 million cubic feet per day in 1948. Bow Common gasworks was built by the Great Central Gas Consumers' Company in 1850 the works was remote from its supply area in the City and the East End. By the late 1850s the works had fallen into “ruinous disrepair”; the Great Central was absorbed by the GLCC in 1870.
The Bow Common works was rebuilt by the GLCC in the early 1930s. Productive capacity was 10.5 million cubic feet per day in 1948. The Brentford Gas Company was established in 1820, its gasworks at Brentford was therefore one of the oldest in the country, he company grew to supply Acton, Hanwell, Heston
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Kensal Green Cemetery
Kensal Green Cemetery is a cemetery in the Kensal Green area of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in London, England. Inspired by Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris, it was founded by the barrister George Frederick Carden; the cemetery opened in 1833 and comprises 72 acres of grounds, including two conservation areas, adjoining a canal. The cemetery is home to at least 33 species of bird and other wildlife; this distinctive cemetery has memorials ranging from large mausoleums housing the rich and famous to many distinctive smaller graves and includes special areas dedicated to the young. It has three chapels, serves all faiths; the cemetery was immortalised in the lines of G. K. Chesterton's poem "The Rolling English Road" from his book The Flying Inn: "For there is good news yet to hear and fine things to be seen. Due to this atmosphere, the cemetery was the chosen location of several scenes in movies, notably in Theatre of Blood; the cemetery is listed Grade I on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens.
It remains in use. The cemetery is in London's Royal Borough of Chelsea, its main entrance is on Harrow Road. Its other entrance, Alma Place is on the north side. Alma Place leads to the West London Crematorium and St. Mary's Roman Catholic Cemetery, which are in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham; the cemetery lies between Harrow Road and the Paddington Arm of the Grand Union Canal to the south which has long been separated by a wall. A set of defunct gates is set in the southern wall which adjoins the canal where barges took a proportion of earth from excavating graves and coffins carried by barge were unloaded. George Frederick Carden had failed with an earlier attempt to establish a British equivalent to Paris's Père Lachaise Cemetery in 1825, but a new committee established in February 1830, including Andrew Spottiswoode, MP for Saltash, sculptor Robert William Sievier, banker Sir John Dean Paul, Charles Broughton Bowman, architects Thomas Willson and Augustus Charles Pugin, gained more financial and public support to fund the "General Cemetery Company".
Public meetings were held in June and July 1830 at the Freemasons' Tavern, Carden was elected treasurer. Paul, a partner in the London banking firm of Strahan, Paul and Bates, found and conditionally purchased the 54 acres of land at Kensal Green for £9,500; however and Carden were embroiled in a dispute regarding the design of the cemetery, where Paul favoured the Grecian style and Carden the Gothic style. A succession of architects were contemplated, including Benjamin Wyatt, Charles Fowler, Francis Goodwin, a Mr Lidell, a pupil of John Nash, before an architectural competition was launched in November 1831; this attracted 46 entrants, in March 1832 the premium was awarded, despite some opposition, for a Gothic Revival design by Henry Edward Kendall. On 11 July 1832, the Act of Parliament establishing a "General Cemetery Company for the interment of the Dead in the Neighbourhood of the Metropolis" gained Royal Assent; the Act authorised it to raise up to £45,000 in shares, buy up to 80 acres of land and build a cemetery and a Church of England chapel.
Company directors appointed after the Bill received Royal Assent asserted their control and preference for a different style. One of the competition judges and a company shareholder, John William Griffith, who had produced working drawings for a boundary wall designed the cemetery's two chapels and the main gateway and 15,000 trees were supplied and planted by Hugh Ronalds from his nursery in Brentford. Founded as the General Cemetery of All Souls, Kensal Green, the cemetery was the first of the "Magnificent Seven" garden-style cemeteries in London, it was consecrated on 24 January 1833 by Charles James Blomfield, the Bishop of London, receiving its first funeral the same month. In the early 1850s, after a series of cholera epidemics in London caused an examination of London's burial facilities, health commissioner Edwin Chadwick proposed the closure of all existing burial grounds in the vicinity of London other than the owned Kensal Green Cemetery, northwest of the city, to be nationalised and enlarged to provide a single burial ground for west London.
The Treasury was sceptical that Chadwick's scheme would be financially viable, it was unpopular. Although the Metropolitan Interments Act 1850 authorised the scheme, it was abandoned in 1852; the overall layout is on an east-west axes, with a central path leading to a raised chapel towards the west. The entrance is to the largest monuments line the central path to the chapel; the Church of England was allotted 39 acres and the remaining 15 separated, acres were given over to Dissenters, a distinction deemed crucial at the time. There was a division between the Dissenters’ part of the cemetery and the Anglican section; this took the form of a "sunk fence" from the canal to the gate piers on the path. There were decorative iron gates; the small area designated for non-Anglican burials is oval in shape and was made prominent by a wide